IMPROVING CONVERSATION SKILL THROUGH DISTANCE LEARNING BY USING WEB CAMERA
Submitted to the English Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
Bogor Ibn Khaldun University
In Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the final assignment of subject Writing for Academic Purpose in semester six grades.
ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING & EDUCATION
BOGOR IBN KHALDUN UNIVERSITY
English an international language is used almost in every country. The growing of English an as international language is difficult to be denied. English is used in every sector such industry, trade, education and so on. Considering the important role of English in human resources development, the government includes English in the educational curriculum as an obligatory school subject.
The educational development has been improving side by side the technology development. The educational world has been trying to use some benefits of the technology especially in computer field.
Although computers have been with us since the 1940s when they were used in commerce and government administration (in America), the computers were not used for educational purposes until 1960s. Some sources say that the computers can play in the teaching and learning process in general and in learning languages in particular.
The uses of computer facilities like internet can a solution to help the teacher to be a media to convey their material. The Internet is interactive media. Although students in the degree to try to do browsing on the Internet, but without realizing they have been thinking and trying to use certain terms in English. In addition, almost every website offers e-mail address, so that students can ask questions or send comments.
By using it, facilities (webcam) the teaching learning process will be easier.
Today information and communication technology develops very rapidly in many parts of the world, including Indonesia. One of the technologies of information and communication is growing rapidly as the Internet. In the world of education, the Internet is also used as a medium of learning. One of the methods which use the Internet such as web cameras facility. Education is an important necessity for humans because the humans can acquire educational knowledge to solve various problems in his life. Educational process should take place since the birth until the end of the physiological or more often known by the lifelong education.
According to Lodge in Tafseer (Yunus,2008:91),”Pendidikan menyangkut pengalaman hidup. Kehidupan adalah pendidikan dan pendidikan adalah kehidupan” In a narrow sense, Lodge believes that “education is meant by education in schools.” Meanwhile, in the broad sense “Education is not confined to education in the schools alone but includes all kinds of businesses related to the transformation of values and skills that takes place in interaction between individuals in social systems.”
Education is not just transmitting knowledge; it is far more than that. The involvement of computer in education especially in teaching-learning process cannot be denied. The computer is use to enhance the learning situation. The use of the computer does not mean to eliminate the role of the teacher, but to help the teacher develops the learning situation to be in the direction of greater interaction with the students.
Looking at the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process, teachers should select the materials they prepare to fit the students’ knowledge level and circumstances so that they can support the effectiveness of teaching-learning process.
By the development of the technology, the teaching aid expanded. Now there are some teaching aids and some schools or educational institutions which have one or more teaching aids such as slide projector, film projector, tape recorder, television, video recorder, computer and internet. From those all teaching aids above internet can be an effective teaching aid that can overcome the problems that can not be solved by any others.
Belisle (1996) argues, "By using computers, students become more capable of solving problems and become better communicators. Through computer networks, students have the opportunity to collaborate and work together with friends from other classes, groups, and teachers. The network can help learners to create, analyze, and produce information and ideas more easily and efficiently. In addition, through electronic access, can increase students' awareness to the world around them." Furthermore, the current can be used internet technology where we can connect with others by using computer network technology. Nowadays, computer network technology plays a major role in education. Can we know the benefits of computer networking technology are felt there, with our computer networks can save energy and costs? Computer network is a group of computers that are connected to each other. Therefore, with the computer network, the connected computer can communicate with each other therein for example, sharing of data, hardware, share resources, and others. To build each network, we need tools that can be used to connect one computer to another computer. Necessary equipment such as servers, workstations, network cards, concentrator, and the cable network. Many argued that stated by various authors about the benefits of the Internet for teaching languages,
especially English. The following will explain the importance reasons Internet for teaching English: 1. Learning to use a computer by itself can motivate to learn English. Based on the experience of Muehleisen (1997) that there are still many students who have not able to using a computer, but when they are taught how to understand the importance of computers, the average student would be interested and want to master it. 2. Internet places English as an international language. Students can understand that the majority of information circulating on the Internet is in English. They also find that they can use English as the medium for learning to communicate with other people around the world, and not just limited to English-speaking countries only. Of course, the students wanted to communicate with native speakers, but many of the more students want to communicate with people from other countries. 3. The Internet is interactive media. Although students in the degree to try to do browsing on the Internet, but without realizing they have been thinking and trying to use certain terms in English. In addition, almost every website offers e-mail address, so that students can ask questions or send comments. 4. Facilities to use the Internet is relatively easy to obtain. In some developed countries, Internet facilities were available in computer labor. However, the same conditions are not fully exist in developing countries, like Indonesia. There are only a few schools in particular. However, with current ICT developments, in almost every school has a computer labor, but not yet connected to the Internet. However, the facility is easily applied by connecting a computer via telephone or wireless network. Components Needed
1. Integration The most important in English education programs should be integrated, not an additional program. Teachers must be involved directly with the program, for example giving homework and interaction / 2. Computer Capability Students do not always have expertise in using computers. But the most important thing is to teach simple steps how to use computers and the Internet. 3. Teacher liveliness Teachers should motivate students to actively use the Internet. If necessary, teachers should make handouts or instructions to use computers and the Internet, especially how to use a web browser or send e-mail. B. Webcam
Webcams (short for web cameras) is the designation for real-time camera (meaning the state at this very moment), whose image can be accessed or viewed via the World Wide Web, instant messaging program, or a video call applications. The term refers webcam technology in general, so that said web is sometimes replaced with other words that describe the scene shown on camera, for example Street Cam showing street scene. There is also Metro cam showing panoramic city and countryside, Traffic cam used to monitor road conditions, weather with Weather Cam, even a state with Volcano Cam volcano. Webcam or web camera is a small digital video camera connected to a computer via (usually) a USB port or COM port. In today's technological sophistication makes the increasingly unlimited access for people to obtain a wide range of educational information. This method is one of continuous self-learning methods that provide access for students
who are separated by time and distance learning resources. Distance Learning (Distance Learning) has several definitions, among others, set forth in Searchio as follows: "Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication. Because distance learning is less expensive to support and is not constrained by geographic considerations, it Offers opportunities in situations nowhere traditional education has difficulty operating. Students with scheduling or distance problems benefit cans, cans as employees, Because distance education Can be more flexible in terms of time and cans be delivered virtually anywhere.”
As people known Internet is a modern convenience provided by the medium of education because they have the right services to support the educational process. The Internet can be used as a medium in the education process. Education system that uses Internet as one medium of learning is known by the term e-Learning. The use of webcam to learn and doing conversation can make the student bravely and confident to speak up and practice their skill.
Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication.
The internet is a net work of networks connecting computers all over the world, allowing them to share information using various languages. Any modern computer can be connected to the internet using existing communication system. Schools and universities normally access the internet via their educational networks, but private individuals usually have to take out a subscription with an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
When website is accessed, the user will typically see portions of text that are highlighted or underlined. These known as Hyperlinks, or links, they contain coded text that transfer the user to other websites or different parts of the same website. These links can also perform an operation, such as printing document or displaying a picture.
The impressive developments in video and computer-mediated communication programs have given teachers many possibilities to construct and conduct the activities
around watching related videos, doing conversation in real-time, repeating or imitating how to pronounce the words said by native speakers, and many other activities. Communication activities on the internet can be categorized as receptive or interactive.
According to (Lafford and Lafford 1977). Interactive communication activities on the internet can be synchronous communication. Synchronous activities allow two or more users to interact simultaneously from different computers, such as live chat and instant massaging. These interactive communication activities are undertaken by groups of users, with each user stationed at different computer, and the task involve speaking and listening.
Other activities which use of synchronous programs, computer-mediated audio communication programs, are live chat, conferencing, and instant messenger.
Live chat offers the possibility to chat in-real time with other users from around the world. Communication can take place via text, where users type their messages onto screen, or by voice, where users wear headsets complete with earphones and microphones. Two options for accessing live chat are Internet Relay Chat (IRC) programs and chat rooms (Sperling 1998) both options allow users to select from thousands of channels on various topics, which are specified by the chat room’s name. Users can also create their own private rooms, where they can mediate the discussion and control access. A chat room is typically a more permanent gathering of up to 50 individuals, a conference on the internet is a temporary gathering of three or more individuals, typically fewer than10. Another difference is the lack of text-messaging capabilities of conference programs. They give users the ability to conference with video. By connecting a web camera, or webcam, to the computer, user can allow others in the conference to see and hear them live.
Conferencing with audio, video, and chatting is also possible using many instant messenger (IM) programs. Webopedia defines instant messaging as “a type of communications service that enables you to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the internet analogous to a telephone conversation. Users can communicate with each another with text messaging and frequently with audio and video. They can also access or create topic specific chat rooms. Several instant messenger programs are available as free downloads, contingent upon user registration.
Students often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a crucial part of the language learning process. Effective instructors teach students speaking strategies -- using minimal responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about language -- that they can use to help themselves expand their knowledge of the language and their confidence in using it. These instructors help students learn to speak so that the students can use speaking to learn.
1. Using minimal responses
Language learners who lack confidence in their ability to participate successfully in oral interaction often listen in silence while others do the talking. One way to encourage such learners to begin to participate is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges. Such responses can be especially useful for beginners.
Minimal responses are predictable, often idiomatic phrases that conversation participants use to indicate understanding, agreement, doubt, and other responses to what another speaker is saying. Having a stock of such responses enables a learner to focus on what the other participant is saying, without having to simultaneously plan a response.
2. Recognizing scripts
Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges -- a script. Greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations, and other functions that are influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts. So do the transactional exchanges involved in activities such as obtaining information and making a purchase. In these scripts, the relationship between a speaker's turn and the one that follows it can often be anticipated.
Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response. Through interactive activities, instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different scripts contain.
3. Using language to talk about language
Language learners are often too embarrassed or shy to say anything when they do not understand another speaker or when they realize that a conversation partner has not understood them. Instructors can help students overcome this reticence by assuring them that misunderstanding and the need for clarification can occur in any type of interaction, whatever the participants' language skill levels. Instructors can also give students strategies and phrases to use for clarification and comprehension check.
Traditional classroom speaking practice often takes the form of drills in which one person asks a question and another gives an answer. The question and the answer are structured and predictable, and often there is only one correct, predetermined answer. The purpose of asking and answering the question is to demonstrate the ability to ask and answer the question.
To create classroom speaking activities that will develop communicative competence, instructors need to incorporate a purpose and an information gap and allow for multiple forms of expression. However, quantity alone will not necessarily produce competent speakers. Instructors need to combine structured output activities, which allow for error correction and increased accuracy, with communicative output activities that give students opportunities to practice language use more freely.
Computer as a medium is used for the sake of facilitating people in learning, such as learning a language, and it is only a part of the entire learning process, but lately the use of computers in the foreign language classrooms has greatly influenced how teachers teach and students learn the language, and continuing advances in Internet technology will most likely continue to affect the profession. CMC can create so many opportunities for real-time English interactions, and makes it valuable tool that teachers can use to enhance the practice of speaking and listening skills. Students have great opportunities to interact in the target language with authentic audience and materials, and are also involved in authentic tasks. Besides that, students have enough time to practice and get feedback from others. In doing the activities, learners are guided to attend mindfully to the learning process. Moreover, learners work in the atmosphere with ideal stress or anxiety level. Due to its sophistication, this technology is also costly, and needs special skills to operate it successfully. However, based on the explanation above, it has been proved that the benefits that users get are more dominant than those of the disadvantages or limitations of this technology.
For the teachers, if they are cognizant of this condition and apply them to Internet speaking and listening communication activities , the new technologies will become optimal tools for enhancing students’ second language learning acquisition.
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