Wednesday, March 10, 2010


Eka Yuli Andriani
Semester 5 B


English is one of the main subjects in the school. The students are expected to master language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The primary goal of learning English for this level as the expectation of the Competency Based Curriculum for students is to make students have knowledge and capability to use English in four language skills. The students hope to be able to change singular noun to be plural form. There are two kinds of noun if we see form the form of the noun; they are singular and plural nouns. Singular nouns which refer to one in number, for example: book, car, lamp, etc. plural noun is noun which refers to more than one in number which usually signed by adding “s” or “es” at the end of the word, for example: books, cars, lamps, etc.
Then, Plural noun is divided into two kinds; they are regular and irregular plural noun.
In English, nouns heading noun phrases are typically either countable or uncountable (also called count and mass). Knowledge of countability is important when translating from a source language without obligatory countability distinctions to a target language that does make number distinctions. Nouns is a word that refers to thing, place or people. First, according to Elaine and Darcy Jack (1985: 64) nouns is a kind of class word which refers to living or unloving thing and person, for example cat, book, John, etc. they classify nouns into singular nouns, plural nounsm countable nouns, uncountable nouns, masculine nouns, feminime nouns and neuter nouns. Second, Patricia K. Werner and Mary Mitchel Church (1951: 48) say that nouns is a word which refers to thing, idea, quantity and emotion, for example home, love, students, etc. they classify nouns into two main categories, they are abstract and concrete nouns.
Nouns is a word that refers to thing, place or thing. According to Betty (1985: 23) noun can be classified based on the way we see it. If we see from the way see it, noun can classify into two; they are concrete and abstract noun. Then, if we see from the form, noun can be classified into two they are singular and plural noun. If we see from the way to count, we can classify into two; they are countable and uncountable noun.

A noun can be countable or uncountable. Countable nouns can be "counted", they have a singular and plural form. A Countable Noun is a noun that has both a singular and a plural form. The plural is normally made by the addition of '-s'.
eg: A horse Two horses
Nouns that do not have plural forms are called uncountable nouns or mass nouns.
For example:
• A book, two books, three books .....
• An apple, two apples, three apples ....
Uncountable nouns (also called mass nouns or non count nouns) cannot be counted, they are not separate objects. This means you cannot make them plural by adding -s, because they only have a singular form. It also means that they do not take a/an or a number in front of them.
For example:
• Water
• Work
• Information
• Coffee
• Sand
(use a/an or a number in front of countable nouns) Uncountable
(there is no a/an or number with uncountable nouns)
An Apple / 1 Apple Rice
I eat an apple every day. I eat rice every day. (not I eat a rice every day.)

Add (s) to make a countable noun plural There is no plural form for an uncountable noun
apples rice
I eat an apple every day. Apples are good for you. I eat rice every day. Rice is good for you.
A computer= Computers are fun. To make uncountable nouns countable add a counting word, such as a unit of measurement, or the general word piece. We use the form "a ....... of ......."
An elephant=Elephants are large. Rice=a grain of rice
Water=a glass of water
Rain=a drop of rain
Music=a piece of music
You can use some and any with countable nouns.

Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at work. You can use some and any with uncountable nouns.

I usually drink some wine with my meal.
I don't usually drink any water with my wine.
You only use many and few with plural countable nouns

So many elephants have been hunted that they are an endangered species.
There are few elephants in England.

You only use much and little with uncountable nouns.

I don't usually drink much coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable though.

You can use a lot of and no with plural countable nouns.

No computers were bought last week.
A lot of computers were reported broken the week before. You can use a lot of and no with uncountable nouns.

A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.

Making uncountable nouns countable
You can make most uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression in front of the noun.
For example:
• A piece of information.
• 2 glasses of water.
• 10 litres of coffee.
• Three grains of sand.
• A pane of glass.

Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns
The notion of countable and uncountable can be confusing. Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on their meaning. Usually a noun is uncountable when used in a general, abstract meaning (when you don't think of it as a separate object) and countable when used in a particular meaning (when you can think of it as a separate object).
For example:
- glass : A glass of water. (Countable) | A window made of glass. (Uncountable)
Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like countable nouns if we think of them as being in containers, or one of several types.
This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted.
Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:-
Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day. (Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee) You could write; "Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two cups of coffee a day."
The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian. (Here coffees refers to different types of coffee)
You could write; "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian."

Rules For Using Singular
Countable Nouns Rules For Using Plural
Countable Nouns
1. A determiner must be used before noun(or adverb if adjectives are used, such as a, the, this, one, ours, his etc. 1.A determiner is optional before noun(or adverb if adjectives are used.
2. The article "a" or :an" can be used. 2. The articles "a" or "an" can't be used.
3.Only the number one can be used to state the amount. 3. Any number bigger then two can be used to state an amount.
4. Possessive adjectives my be used such as my, his, our etc. 4.Possessive adjectives my be used such as his, our, etc.
5. Quantifiers can't be used.
5. Quantifiers can be used, such as some, any, many, a lot etc.

6. A demonstrative adjectives can be used such as this, those etc. 6. A demonstrative adjectives can be used such as this, those etc.
Examples of Countable Nouns:
Nouns Nouns In The Singular Form Nouns In The Plural Form Nouns Represented By A Number
dog The dog is big. The dogs are big. There are six dogs in the room.
boy The boy is tall. The boys are tall. There are three tall boys in my class.
car Our car is green. All the cars at work are white. There are six cars parked on my street.
window The window is big. The windows are clean. The room has three window.


When we speak of nouns as being countable or uncountable, it is mean that some things can be counted while others cannot. Countable nouns name individual items that can add up, there can be one or more of them. Other things can not be counted, they are considered collective rather than individual items. In many cases this distinction is easy to understand. We all recognize that we can count items like books, tables, eggs, or mountains. We can easily imagine one or more of such items. And most of us recognize that it is not impossible to count other things like water, dust, air, or ice cream. These things can not easily be separated into individual items.
But many nouns are uncountable for less obvious like peace, happiness, wealth and knowledge are countable. So are many activities such as swimming, eating, and debauchery, and some conditions such as confusion, frustration, satisfaction, and certainly. These nouns are considered uncountable because they are not easily identified as single things, the idea of happiness can consist of many different things and can be different for different people or because they refer to general activities rather than specific instances, eating refers to the activity in general, not any particular example.
The name of most disciplines are also uncountable, for example, sociology, medicine, anthropology. Nouns ending in –ism are also usually uncountable, for example feminism, optimism and patriotism. Some uncountable nouns like money, homework, work and gossip very confusing for learners. Of English because they seem to refer to particular items, yet they are treated as general.
Noun can be classified basically into two categories, they are singular and plural noun. Singular noun is noun which refers to one in number, for example: book, car, lamp, etc. plural noun is noun which refers to more than one in number which usually signed by adding “s” or “es” at the end of the word, for example: book, cars, lamps, etc. then, Plural noun is divided into two kinds; they are regular and irregular plural noun.
Regular plural noun is noun which denotes more than one that has rules, for example: book --- books, car ---- cars, lamp --- lamps, etc. singular with end “y” and there is a consonant before it, so “y” is changed into “I” and added by “es”. Singular with end “y” and there is a vowel before it, so “y” is not changed but only added “s”. Irregular plural noun is noun which denotes more than one that has special rules, for example: child --- children, mouse --- mice, fish --- fish, etc. so we should know the in forming regular plural noun there are some rules whether by adding “s” or “es” at the end of the singular noun.
Then, in forming irregular nouns, there are several rules that different from regular noun such as noun that have vowels’ changes, the noun that end in – f or – fe only added with –s to form their plural, the noun that end in – f or – fe must be changed to –ves, etc. The students also using plural nouns in their writing, plural nouns is one aspects of the sentence, so the students must mastering how to form plural nouns with correct grammar in their writing.
The plural nouns are taught for increasing ability of the students in forming plural nouns, differentiating plural nouns, and using plural nouns in the sentence.
Senior high school students have already studied about nouns; like using singular noun and plural nouns but sometimes most of them still make mistakes in form plural nouns. This happened because the students might not be able to form what the regular plural nouns and irregular plural nouns. When the writer did teaching practice before, the teacher said that the students do not know all the rules to form plural noun. Then, while doing teaching practice the writer found some students made mistakes in using plural noun.

Here are some rules we came across:
1. Countability comes with a determiner such as, a or an.
What quickly became clear to us was that most uncountable nouns can easily be made into countable ones with a few adjustments.
Let's take milk; this can become a glass of milk. Coffee can become a cup of coffee, some would argue that a coffee is also correct. Is it therefore correct to say "I'd like a water"? Probably, yes. Sand can become a grain of sand, luggage becomes a piece of luggage, and so can courage become an example of courage? Impatience, a moment of impatience? It would seem so. What about chicken? We can say a chicken or some chicken. So some nouns can be both, depending on your meaning. Wood, can be for making a table or a wood can be a forest.
Let's get back to chicken, if we can take a piece of chicken and say I have some chicken, can we also take a chair, detach the leg from it, hold it up and proudly declare you have some chair? It seems not. And can we not saw away at a table, take a chunk of wood from it, walk into work and say, "Look, I have some table?" It seems not. Why? Well, the reason seems to lie in boundaries. When you have a table leg, it is no longer recognizable as a table, the definition of "table" has been lost, the boundary has been broken. However, getting back to chickens, when you rip a leg off a chicken (preferably a dead one), it is still recognizable as chicken, its boundary hasn't been broken. Similarly if I take a cup of sugar and pour some on the table it is still sugar, uncountable. So a rule is formed;
2. When a noun is separated and the boundary isn't broken it is uncountable.
This rule was nicely backed up by Woody Allen running around in one of his films, seemingly at last a proud landowner, dirt scooped up into his hands declaring, "I have some land!"
Or is it?
What became clear to us, as we began drawing on our instinct as native speakers and English teachers, is that there were often no right or wrong sentences. It's just a case of different sentences can conjure up different images in the mind of the listener. We also quickly drew the conclusion that some of this could well confuse a learner. And it was just there that Scott Thornbury came to the rescue. Scott, by the way, is the author of "How to Teach Grammar" (Longman), a recommended book from this session. He says that different level learners need to know different things, especially about grammar. One of the mistakes of some teachers is to tell students the wrong information about a grammatical point, information they may not yet need to know.
Take a simple example. When you teach beginners the use of "some" and "any", you would tell them that "some" is for positive sentences and "any" for negatives or questions. You would not need to tell them that you can use "some" in questions if you expect the other person to say yes, and "any" if you want them to say no. As in, "do you want some more wine?" or "do you want any more wine?" This is knowledge overload and the same is true for countable nouns. For a beginner you may teach that a person is countable and the plural is people. You may not want to say at this stage that people can also be countable if you are talking about a race, as in China has 56 peoples. At this point in our session we looked at handout 2 COMMON QUESTIONS. This is a list of common questions that students ask about this topic. If you open that now then the comments below will make more sense.
1. "Fish" is the singular and plural form. In more formal and old English you may have seen "fishes" for the plural, this is however, rare nowadays. Whilst some of us felt fishes was correct to describe different species, others felt saying 2 types/species of fish was the correct usage. Referring back to boundaries, if a fish farmer were to say to you "Would you like some fish?", is he offering to sell you a batch of trout, or is he inviting you to taste his dinner?
2. One people, two peoples. How many peoples are there in China, by the way?
3. A would be the normal answer. D is correct if you are referring to a specific fire.
4. B. is more common.
5. 1. ia A, 2. should be "The science".
6. 1. Fruit. 2. Fruits or fruit.
7. Knowledge is uncountable.
8. "Do" can be used as a noun, as in "the do's and the don'ts". While we say that's a don't, we wouldn't say that's a do, we'd say that's a must or a must-do. However, if we say a do, we could be referring to a party (as in "what a dry do!"...a party with little alcohol). Alternatively, it could refer to a hair do!
9. Time is countable. One time, two times. How many times? However, when we say how much time do you need? it is uncountable, the units of time (minutes, seconds or hours etc...) could be countable. This was a tricky one for the philosophers of the group who insisted that time doesn't exist, therefore how can you count it? If time is just an abstract concept and the only moment is now, how can you measure time?
10. Sheep and deer are like fish, in the sense they are both singular and plural countable nouns. Cattle, though is uncountable. You could say a head of cattle, to refer to one. There are many unusual collective nouns in English, such as a herd of cows, a school of fish, a flock of seagulls, an army of ants, does anybody know what a group of starlings are called?
12. Countable and more colloquially uncountable.
13. A. a paper is often used to refer to a thesis or a newspaper.
14. Experience can be either countable or uncountable, and the meaning doesn't change. I have a lot of experience, or many experiences. Character, can be either but the meaning changes. He has a lot of character, means he has a strong personality, however, many characters in a play refers to the people of the play.
15. "in good condition" is for inanimate objects, "in good health" for people.
16. Consult a good grammar book for the correct usage! Good ways of teaching it maybe through using collocations (e.g. there's plenty of time), set phrases (e.g. there's little time to waste), humor (e.g. "there are little people in the class today." "Really and where is Snow White?") or physical realia (e.g. use glasses or bowls with a lot or a little water).
17. See first handout on UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS. We also agreed that, "the" is specifying or identifying, and "a" is classifying.
Also, consider the phrase "Save the Whale!" Why is it "the" whale? It's not one particular one we have seen, is it? Apparently not. This is an example of a culturally identified stereotype. We are referring to all whales. If we said, "Save whales!" it may only refer to some whales, somewhere, in a vague kind of way. However, why do we say, "we must save time" not "we must save the time"? And as some people argued, can we save time anyway? Can you put it in a box and keep for when you are older? Doesn't everyone get the same amount of time? And before philosophy takes over, as it certainly did with us in this session, this seems a good moment to stop.


Azhar, Betty Scramper. 1985. Fundamental of English Grammar. New Jersey: Pretice Hall Regent Englewood Clifts.
Azhar, Betty Scramper. 1989. Understanding and using English
Laycock, Henry, 2005 'Mass nouns, Count nouns and Non-count nouns

Teaching Simple Present Tense through Conversation

Siti Hairani
Semester 5C


The important of conversation in speaking skill
English is an international language that domain the improvement of technology and science. At the moment it includes many aspects of daily activities such as, education, politic, economic, medic, and law. Then it is not be avoided that English has been consumed by the people who wrestle with their own field. There are four kinds of language skill which very important for us in learning English, such as speaking, reading, listening and writing. On the other hand there is one of skills that is usually demands us to master it. That is speaking skill and grammar, because commonly the people who can speak English fluency they will easy to get a job. At least they can understand about English article. The key of mastering speaking skill is practicing more and more and never be forgot its process needs learner self confidence. Speaking without knowing the structural of language also is nothing. Therefore as an English learner we also have to pay attention on grammatical language. It can be easy listener to understand the purpose of our conversation. it is also can increase our confidence in speaking. One of important in grammatical is tenses. Because when we are making conversation with the other one, we are included in a time where the tenses are used and in English there 16 tenses but that usually use in daily activity is four tenses are present tense, past tense, future tense. For this opportunity, in this paper I will tell about simple present tense because this tense more easier to be learned than the other else. And students are going to understand easily because it just uses the verb one. We can relate the uses of simple present by using conversation because the application is very important beside some theories.

Theoretical Background

A. English Teaching Learning Process
Teaching is an activity that is needed in educational world. Teaching consist of contact between two individuals are teacher and students. This process will be effective if the teacher use the appropriate method for different material. The main point in teaching English is communication, especially good communication between students and teacher. Because the problem that commonly happen in teaching learning is lacking of communication.
“One of the greatest student’s problem of acquiring English is the lack of communicative ( N.Domba Benda, 1978: 87)
As student’s interest plays a communication role in their teaching process, by using English communication. Actually English is interesting language if we can make it as an interesting thing. Of course the process of learning English will be going as soon as well if the learners love it very much. The teacher as the facilitator in improving their English learning skill also should have the best strategy of teaching it to help the student success. However, the most effort must be done by the student them selves. Commonly in the case of teaching learning also the teacher should have the role as student’s friend. That purpose only for making the situation of class is more attractive. This thing can improve the student’s motivation in English learning. Especially this chance will give the time for student to speak and give their opinion between the other students. So, appear their encouragement to communicate with the teacher in the classroom.

B. Teaching Tense Trough Communication Approach
“Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information “ (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997)
Communicative and whole language instructional approach promote integration of speaking, listening, reading, and writing in ways that reflect natural language use. But opportunities for speaking and listening require structure and planning to support language development. Structure is a part of grammar which explains about the uses of tenses and parts of speech in the sentences. It can be a guide in making a good arrangement of sentences either in verbal or non verbal activity. Tenses in English grammar is different from time because time is only expression the action for now, last, and next. Talking about tenses sometimes makes students confused because they only think many patterns which ready comes to be remembered by them. Actually learning tenses is interesting if the teacher know how the way to make it feel simple. One of the ways that can be done is making conversation in the form of asking and answering question using certain tense.
“Conversation is talking between two or more people in which thoughts, feelings and ideas are expressed, question are asked and answered or news and information are exchanged”
So the main point of that definition, conversation is talking to each other. In this context the students are demanded to ask and answer question about how the uses of tense even in affirmative, negative, and interrogative sentence. This direct conversation is done to make students easy in understanding and remembering the uses tenses and exercise student to repeat again their remember skill by oral activity. As we know because the reality learning theory is useless without practicing it soon.

Finding Data

Tense means time. However, it should be pointed out that time in relation to action is a concept that exist in the mind of the speaker, reader or listener. Tense in actual usage refers consistently only to grammatical forms. (America Book Company by George E.Wishon ) Often tense and time do not correspond at all. Based on Linda C.stanley “ways to writing” ( 427) Tense is verb tense indicates the relationships between an action or state of being and the passage of time. The present tense indicates that something is talking place now.
“In general, the simple present express events or situations that exist always, usually, habitually, they exist now, have existed in the pass, and probably will exist in the future”
“ Tense is one of forms which a verb takes by inflection or by adding auxiliary words, so as to indicate the time of the action or even signified; the modification which verbs undergo for the indication of time”
“Tense is a grammatical category of verbs used to express distinctions of time”
W. Stannard Allen explained in his book ( Living English structure for schools) Present tense (simple) this tense is the same as the infinitive ( root form) of the verb. Unlike the continuous form, the simple present tense does not really describe acts that are habitual or usual.
In Robert Khorn of English sentence structure
A. Simple present tense with verbs other than be
Statement: He works
Question with Do, Does: Does he work?
Short answer: yes he does
B. Single-word adverb of frequency: always, usually, often, etc.
“Simple present tense designates action occurring at the time of speaking or writing”
“Simple present tense is tense denoting an action happening in this time “
“The simple present tense is talking something happens all the time or repeatedly or something is true in general “
The Simple Present Tense (also called the Present Simple Tense) is usually the first verb tense ESL students are taught. Perhaps the most difficult thing for ESL learners to remember is that the Third Person (he/she/it) of a regular verb takes an “s.”
Present Simple Function (when to use the Present Simple)
The Present Simple verb tense has two primary functions:
1. To talk about “general truths,” that is, to talk about something that was true in the past, is true now, and will be true in the future (e.g., The sun rises in the East. Nurses work hard. Water boils at 100 °C.)
2. To talk about habits or rituals (e.g., I pay income taxes every year. She drinks coffee. We watch T.V. all the time. The Giants always lose.)
There is more to teach about the Simple Present verb tense (such as the use of the “helping” or auxiliary verb “do,” irregular verb conjugation, and the use of words such as always, never, often, etc.), but the above are the basics that must be taught.
Speaking skill analysis is a comprehensive look at both the public speaker and the delivery. Our analysis will cover three areas of the speech. Use these to grade your self or be graded to attain constant and never ending improvement.
A conversation is communication between multiple people. It is a social skill that is not difficult for most individuals. Conversations are the ideal form of communication in some respects, since they allow people with different views on a topic to learn from each other. A speech, on the other hand, is an oral presentation by one person directed at a group.
Conversation is indispensable for the successful accomplishment of almost all activities between people, especially the coordination of work, the formation of friendship and for learning.
Classification of conversation
The majority of conversations can be divided into four categories according to their major subject content:
• Conversations about subjective ideas, which often serve to extend understanding and awareness.
• Conversations about objective facts, which may serve to consolidate a widely-held view.
• Conversations about other people (usually absent), which may be critical, competitive, or supportive. This includes gossip
• Conversations about oneself, which sometimes indicate attention-seeking behavior.
In the real world, few conversations fall exclusively into one category. Nevertheless, the proportional distribution of any given conversation between the categories can offer useful psychological insights into the mind set of the participants.
Each type of conversation has its own cluster of purposes and expectations attached.
• Functional conversation is designed to convey information in order to help achieve an individual or group goal.
• Small talk is a type of conversation where the topic is less important than the social purpose of achieving bonding between people or managing personal distance
• Banter is non-serious conversation, usually between friends, which may rely on humor in-jokes at the expense of those taking part. The purpose of banter may at first appear to be an offensive affront to the other person's face. However, people engaging in such a conversation are often signaling that they are comfortable enough in each others' company to be able to say such things without causing offense. Banter is particularly difficult for those on the autism spectrum, or those with semantic pragmatic distorter (
“Conversation is general course of conduct; behavior “
“Conversation is the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information etc:”
“Conversation is expression and exchange of individual ideas; talking with other people”

Analyzing Data
A conversation is communication between two people or more. It is a social skill that is not difficult for most individuals. Conversations are the ideal form of communication in some respects; it is used by the people to exchange their idea and information. By conversation they can know and learn from the individual character each other. We live in this world as a social community therefore conversation between other is needed. A speech, on the other hand, is an oral presentation by one person directed at a group. “Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information”. Its relation to my chapter this is the point that I will explain more is tense, definition of tense
“Tense is a grammatical dictionary of verbs used to express distinctions of time.”
Grammar is a category off the verb or verbal inflections, such as present, past, future. That expresses the temporal relation between what is reported and the time of its utterance. In English there are three types’ differences of using verb based on the time. Whenever speaker talk at that time of speaking, they are use present continuous and also use simple present tense for daily conversation and then, if talking about the event that happen at the last it is used simple past tense, moreover for future it is used future tense. Making easy in learning tenses the best choice it begins from the basic simple part of tense. Simple present is usually given in beginning of teaching tenses because the pattern of this tense is quite easy to be remembered by students.
Simple present tense
Simple present tense is tense denoting an action happening in this time. This tense is used to talk about things in general. We are not only thinking about now, but it is used to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking.
For example: We usually go away at weekends (Habitual action)
The pattern is S+V1+O
For the third person singular ( He, She, It) we should notice the verb by adding “S” in the last. She drinks the water everyday. If the verb ending by SS,SH,CH, X,O, are ending by “es” in the last of verb. He catches that ball as soon as possible. If the verb ending by “y” preceded by consonant “y” is changed by “i” and added with “es”. She studies English at the moment. There is also the verbs ending in “y” preceded by vowel, only “s” is added. He plays badminton every morning. For making questions and negative sentences in present simple uses the verb “DO and Does”. Here is the example;
Introgative: Do ( I/we/they/you) work ?
Does ( he/she/it) come ?
Negative: ( I/we/you/they) do not work
( He/she/it) does not come

The uses of simple present tense
1. Simple present tense is used to denote the habitual action; as we know the habitual action is the acts that we always do repeatly. For example :
- We go to school everyday
- They usually get up at four o’clock
The adverbs of time commonly used to express the habitual action, are : usually, generally, often, never, seldom, sometimes, always, everyday ( every week, every month, etc) On Saturday ( Monday, Wednesday and etc) twice a week.
2. Simple present is used to denote the general truth; here the things can not be changed by us because those are have been definite happen. For example ;
- The plane flies in the sky
- Do the fish live in the water?
3. Simple present is used to denote the character of someone or his ability; usually this tense is used to show someone skill or character. For example
- The students study hard
- That girl does not sing beautifully
4. Simple present is used to emphasize the action; to make someone trust us, we can emphasize our action using Do or Does before the ordinary verb. So, simple present tense can be named with “ The present emphatic tense”
- I do speak English everyday
- We do prepare our lesson before examination

The relation between conversation and teaching simple present tense
Teaching tenses can bored even for the teacher or especially for student, because in grammar many rules or patterns that we should not forget it all. To make it interesting and simple in order the student feel enjoy and then material can be reminded easily by them. Practice is the best choice in this case. The practicing way is through direct conversation between students ( a fairs) after the teacher told clearly about simple present tense and its uses in reality.
“Conversation is talking between two or more people in which thoughts, feelings, and ideas are expressed questions are asked and answered or news and information are exchanged “
Based on that definition, with conversation the students can share their feeling or thought each other. With this change the teacher can take the pathway to include the teaching material in their activity. Because as usual when the teacher have finished their explanation about tenses, they exactly ask the student to do some exercises at that time and his activity that makes student feel bored. Relation between direct conversation and teaching tense is very close because that have the big feedback in English learning. Should be known teaching needs the role of teacher and students. Then using this method is suitable in English teaching grammar. It can keen the student memorizing and also can fluency English speaking of students. As the explanation before, teaching tenses is felt bored and learning it is quite difficult. But that all will be felt different if the teacher can socialize with something that makes student is challenged with it. Student will feel bored in a teaching because of many factors such as the method of teaching, the material of teaching, the situation of teaching, even the teacher character in teaching. In this case, actually cooperation between student and teacher becomes the main point to apply the material that has been taught. Simple present tense is tense that is used to indicate the action which often happen repeatedly or habitual action. This point makes easy the student to practice it directly through conversation. The content of conversation is talking about daily activity that student always do before going to the school. Using conversation makes teaching learning is more effective. As usual learning tense has related with memorizing of its patterns and the situation of using it. So, by practicing it in the real situation after learning will help learner to memorize the pattern fast. The conversation may be done at that time is talking about learner habitual action before they are going to study in the classroom. Here is the example of small conversation about habitual action of learner.
For example; Student A is Hanna
Student B is David
David : Hi,, good morning ,,Hanna?
Hanna : Good morning,, Dav
David : How are you today ?
Hanna : I am fine and how about you ?
David : I am fine too,, thank you. But you look so tired Hanna. Can you tell me about your daily activity before going to this class?
Hanna : No,,I do not think so. But I will tell u about that. I usually get up at 4.15 am o’clock to pray shubuh. So, I take bath and wash my dress at 05.15 am after that I help my mother to prepare a breakfast for my family. Finally we take a breakfast together, and my father always accompanies me come to this school. Just at all.
David : Oh,,,I see,,but can you give me the solution for getting early ? because I always late for praying subuh..
Hanna : Yes, of course, that is the simple one, you just change your daily time to sleep. Before it what time do you always sleep at night?
David : All right,,it is around 11.00 pm o’clock. Because I always watch my favorite program on television before going to bed.
Hanna : Oh no,,,you have to change your bad habitual activity. That is important for your health beside you can pray subuh on time. Because normally we need the time for sleeping is around eight hours. As the poem said early to bed and early to get up makes people healthy, wealthy, and wise. Do you want it ?
David : Yes,,of course I want it,,I am going to try it.
Thanks you Hanna..
Hanna : You’re welcome,,,Wish you Luck Dav,,


English skill and English component is a unit that can not be separated. Those are having relation each other. That relation seems clear when the English it self is used by native speaker or English learner. Speaking without knowing the structure is laming and structure without practicing is nothing.
Simple present tense is used for habitual action or general truth and making conversation between students in teaching grammar can keen the memorizing pattern and influence their English speaking

Allen, W. stannard.1993.Living English structure for schools. Newyork:Frentice-Hall.
Rost, Michel.1998. Basics in speaking. Hongkong:Longman Asia ELT.
Scharmpfer Azar, Betty.1989.Understanding and using English grammar.New Jersey:Prentice-Hall.
Brown, H.D.1994.Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

Monday, January 25, 2010

submitted to assignment for writing in professional context 2
Lecture: Cunong Suraja



By learning more about grammar, we begin to understand how words combine to form sentences. The rules and mechanics of grammar are also essential to ensuring that we are prepaying the intended meaning, as we explore the sense and contexts of literature. In these books, you'll find introductions that should start you on your way to understanding the rules and mechanics of grammar.
We unconsciously use grammar all the time when we use language for speaking, listening, reading and writing. If we want to improve our English language abilities, there is no escape from addressing grammar issues. White Smoke’s all-in-one grammar software helps you take care of your grammar needs as you write your texts so you actually learn from your own ongoing practice. Featuring an advanced grammar checker, an innovative contextual spell checker, and patented text enrichment, you can be sure that your writing is grammatically correct. Grammar explains how the language should be structured, using various categories
Grammar topics are usually sorted in books into word grammar and sentence grammar. Word grammar sections are further divided according to the different parts of speech - content words, containing verbs, nouns, adjective and adverbs; and structure words, containing determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Sentence grammar relates to the construction of phrases, clauses and full sentences, all the way up to paragraphs and full texts.

Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs. Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express. Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages.
Uses of Do, Does and Did
In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense.
• I don't study at night.
• She doesn't work here anymore.
• Do you attend this school?
• Does he work here?
These verbs also work as "short answers," with the main verb omitted.
• Does she work here? No, she doesn't work here.
With "yes-no" questions, the form of do goes in front of the subject and the main verb comes after the subject:
Forms of do are useful in expressing similarity and differences in conjunction with so and neither.
• My wife hates spinach and so does my son.
• My wife doesn't like spinach; neither do I.
Do is also helpful because it means you don't have to repeat the verb:
• Larry excelled in language studies; so did his brother.
• Raoul studies as hard as his sister does.
The so-called emphatic do has many uses in English.
a. To add emphasis to an entire sentence: "He does like spinach. He really does!"
b. To add emphasis to an imperative: "Do come in." (actually softens the command)
c. To add emphasis to a frequency adverb: "She always does manage to hurt her mother's feelings."
Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense
To make a negative sentence in English we normally use do not or does not with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (Can, might, should etc.).
Affirmative: You speak French.

Negative: You do not speak French.
You will see that we add do not between the subject and the verb. We use Do not when the subject is I, you, we or they.
Affirmative: He speaks German.

Negative: He doesn't speak German.
When the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below.
Negative Contractions
Don't = Do not

Doesn't = Does not
I don't like meat = I do not like meat.
There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spoken English.
Word Order of Negative Sentences
The following is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the Present Tense using Do not or Does not.
Subject don't/doesn't Verb* The Rest of the sentence
I / you / we / they don't have / buy
eat / like etc. cereal for breakfast
he / she / it doesn't
*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = the infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive to have it is just the have part.
Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.
Examples of Negative Sentences with Do not and Does not:
You do not speak Arabic.
John does not speak Italian.
We do not have time for a rest. It does not move.
They do not want to go to the party.
She does not like fish.
Questions in the Simple Present Tense
To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Affirmative: You speak English.

Question: Do you speak English?
You will see that we add DO at the beginning of the affirmative sentence to make it a question. We use Do when the subject is I, you, we or they.
Affirmative: He speaks French
.Question: Does he speak French?
When the subject is he, she or it, we add DOES at the beginning to make the affirmative sentence a question. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the question. We will see the reason why below.
We DON'T use Do or does in question that have the verb To Be or Modal Verbs (can, must, might, should etc.)

Word Order of Questions with Do and Does
The following is the word order to construct a basic question in English using Do or Does.
Do/Does Subject Verb* The Rest of the sentence
Do I / you / we / they have / need
want etc. a new bike?
Does he / she / it
*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = the infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive to have it is just the have part. Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.
Examples of Questions with Do and Does:
Do you need a dictionary?
Does Mary need a dictionary?
Do we have a meeting now?
Does it rain a lot in winter?
Do they want to go to the party?
Does he like pizza?
Short Answers with Do and Does
In questions that use do/does it is possible to give short answers to direct questions as follows:

Sample Questions Short Answer
(Affirmative) Short Answer
Do you like chocolate? Yes, I do. No, I don't.
Do I need a pencil? Yes, you do. No, you don't.
Do you both like chocolate? Yes, we do. No, we don't.
Do they like chocolate? Yes, they do. No, they don't.
Does he like chocolate? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
Does she like chocolate? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
Does it have four wheels? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.

Analysis is used to know the error about the best. The writer will know the fails to account the data or how far the writers do the research. How practice can damage your English? There are 5 steps:
1. Practice
To be well in speaking English we must study hard more and more, to improve our skill. And remember that we must practice and practice in daily and every time because it is the key to success in speaking English.
2. Stop making mistakes
We have said that you need practice to learn English. We have also said that when you practice, you reinforce your mistakes. You can speak and write with almost no mistakes, too.
3. practice make perfect
If you make mistakes, that means you don’t know how to say things in English. You need to learn and you must read and listen to correct English sentences.
4. Get better by practicing
We must make that practice in speaking English is our habit in our daily activities because it make our English be better in every day.
5. Do not afraid to make mistakes
You must try to be more careful by using the rules and if you still make mistake more than one you must study hard and more practice. Instead, try study more by reading and listening in English.
English is the international language in the world. With speaking English we can easily communicate with another people, but there is process to be fluent in speaking English well, there are we must know how to speak English well with the way we must study hard about pronunciation and practice it, vocabulary, reading, especially in grammar because grammar is very important in English like how to make sentence and speaking English well. Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality how to express the time at, during, or over a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.
Tense is one of another quality, along with mood, voice aspect, and person, to express verb forms. Tense also can not always or usually be translated from one language to another language. To make a negative sentence in English we usually use do not or does not with all verbs except To be and Model verbs like can, might , should, and so on.
We must use do not when the subject is I, you, we or they than you will know or see that we add do not between the subject and the verb. But if the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the letter s at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence because it is the third person disappears in the negative sentence.
For example: Affirmative: He speaks German
Negative : He does not speak German
Word order of negative sentence is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the present tense by using Do not and Does not. We must remember that infinitive is the verb before it is changed and it begins with To. For example, to eat, to sleep, to go, to play and so on. There is also the example of negative sentence with do not and does not:
They do not want to go to the party.
She does not study to get a good result.
To make a question in English we usually use do and does in simple present tense. It is normally put in the beginning of the question. We must add do in the question, when the subject I, you, we or they.
For example: Affirmative: You speak English
Question: Do you speak English?

And we must add does in question when the subject is he, she, or it.
For example: Affirmative: He speaks French
Question : Does he speak French?

Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express. Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense.
To make a negative sentence in English we normally use do not or does not with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (Can, might, should etc.).
Affirmative: You speak French.
Negative: You do not speak French.
We use Do not when the subject is I, you, we or they.
When the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below
Affirmative: He speaks German.
Negative: He doesn't speak German
To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Affirmative: You speak English.
Question: Do you speak English?

• Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University. Great Britain: 1985.
• Krohn, Robert. English sentence structure. The University of Michigan Press. The United State of America: 1971.
• Seidl, Jennifer. Grammas in Practice. Oxford University Press. Great Britain: 1981.
• com



Esa Koriyana
Npm : 07211210050


Technique enhanced reads in English lesson
Axis one of the know-how aspect speaks, read has important character in helps student studies foreign language. Read to make student gets assorted text kind likes newspaper, magazine, advertisement, brochure and others. Read also make student knows to how actually that English is used in print or article. Like known author during several months has taught, found that is ability reads low student. Their is comprehension ability is insufficient. They are acres in general read phlegmatically and do reduplication in text read. The cause possibility them only dominate limited vocabulary, and they also don't have technique or strategy reads effective. Aim from this is watchfulness finds to how: (1) technique read fast can increase student ability in read literal; (2) technique read fast can increase student ability in read conclusion. This is watchfulness class action watchfulness (PTK). Watchfulness procedure in this is case consist of four play steps that is planning, execution, observation, and reflection. this is watchfulness consists of two cycles. Each cycle consists of 3 meetings for process learns to teach and 1 meeting for quiz (test). Dates related to speed read and student comprehension is gathered by using watchfulness instrument likes test (beginning test and test end cycle). Data that gutter to pass test analyzed by using program SPSS 11.5, then at explain consider achievement criteria that appointed. Watchfulness result shows that are technique reads fast effectively increase speed read student and accomplishment read comprehension. This is matter is showed with enhanced percentage success in each cycle that is 43 % (pre-test), 61 % (cycle 1), 72 % (cycle 2). Score fulfils success criteria in technique applications has read fast that is appointed that is the increasing of ability has read student. Matter this is means that is technique applications aim has read fast to increase speed has read student has been achieved.


Esa Koriyana, gives at Bogor on 06 Octobers 1988 from father Salim and mother Eulis, he is child to first (1) from two brothers. Elementary school education is finished at school SDN Cimanggu 1 regency Bogor. Junior high school is finished at SMPN 2 Cibungbngbulang regency Bogor, furthermore finish senior high school at sman 1 Cibungbulang regency Bogor.

Praise thanks god author climb to Allah the almighty and most worthy of praise, because with the permission, so this task is finished. Although during finish this task writing, author many get obstacle. But in the end all obstacles can authors overcome.

Author realizes, that is with science limitedness and author ability in composed this task, so feeler this thesis stills not yet far from perfect, for that author gets all criticism and suggestion constructive by this task writing repair is henceforth.

In chance good this, author wants to say maximum thank for that read it. Author hope well this be of benefit to all.

To answer question, does ability read and realize reading with technique tri focus Steve Snyder that mentioned above can to increase student ability in read and realize reading which is on the turn later can to increase academic accomplishment in learns to speak.

Follow study treatment before and after technique use tri focus Steve Snyder:

First meeting

In first meeting, student ability reads and realizes reading text is measures with conventional study model. Study is done in a few stages, that is:

- Foreword, covers; prepare reading ingredient, prepare evaluation tool.

- Kernel activity, cover: student reads word without give technique read effective the time and student (in latest stage) answer exercise related to word (exercise shaped double helix 5-10 exercise).

- Casing, student with teacher counts time that used to read word and accuracy from answer that given by student about questions.

Second meeting

In second meeting, author holds study innovation by using technique tri focus Steve Snyder. Study is done with a few stages, that is:

stage pre study

In this stage is author holds preparation among others: make study plan, prepare implementation tools tide belong technique reads effective, and prepare reading with evaluation tool.

study stage

- foreword

Student is given time to read and realize reading by using technique tri focusing Steve Snyder that meant.

Motivation that given to student among others:

i am aware reads that is easy.

I can to read fast and lancer

Furthermore student is asked to read sentences or expressions in meaning bundle in heart and full comprehension, and then make sentences as beginning confidence before read as a whole. This activity is author mentions with study suggestive. Then submitted several things related to preparations before read. This preparation is more has external technique, but this condition is very physical not pleasant and environment full of disturbance undoubtedly student ability in read not maximal. Therefore student is asked to do preparation before read as follows:

minimize disturbance

take a seat with upright attitude

glance at entire words.

Kernel activity

a. student is given illustration short about reading

b. student is introduced and trained development peripheral that be kernel from technique reads tri focus Steve Snyder. This practice is shaped test simple, that is:

look at directly a object

look at your eye sight scope when see straight forwards (when read word)

look at meaning every sentence or every expression carefully.

c. student has been given directive to use concept to read actually reading that appointed. After finished read student tries to register information that got from reading, also count time that used to read reading. As end student study answers question that reading without see reading text. Exercise that done to number between 5-10 double helix exercise and or responsive question from that teacher with reading text (exercise essay). Furthermore student has corrected result test that done, good time that used or accuracy from the answer.

Watchfulness result and discussion

a. watchfulness result

First meeting

first meeting activity result is known that:

- appear student recurrent in follow study reads.

- because recurrent to experience activity reads with appear student conventional technique less enthusiastic.

- from evaluation result be known that is student average not yet can read swiftly and even less get detail information and accurate.

Second meeting

in second meeting happens change among others:

- appear student begins has motivation better from previous

- student enthusiastic in read reading with technique reads effective.

- happen student ability enhanced in read and realize reading with relative time use short from previous.

b. discussion

before apply it study by using technique tri focus Steve Snyder with approach aid from teacher introduces reading, student many experience difficulty in realize reading, caused by the weak interest reads they have. Also inexistence stimulant to do activity reads swiftly and effective, even they felt heavy load existence when is aimed practice reads fast. The study result even also doesn't experience enhanced.

after done technique change tri factor Steve Snyder that meant, student felt helped to be able to do repair and enhanced in acquisition speaks gradually and certain, self-confidence that them can read and realize reading swiftly and accurate can grow and bloom. Proved this matter also academic accomplishment at area speaks to increase. But realized that result achievement by using technique reads effective that meant not yet come up with ideal number.

Watchfulness hypothesis
Data analysis technique
Data analysis technique is done with correlation Pearson, and technique test for significance test coefficient correlation.

Watchfulness hypothesis

Verbal hypothesis:

H1 = found positive connection between mastery reads English-speaking and English vocabulary ability.

Statistics hypothesis
H1 = p xy > 0

Watchfulness paradigm

α= 0,05

1. Rules test
Analysis rules test that test normality by using test Kolmogorov - Smirnov. Rules test counting result declare that normal distribution population.
2. Hypothesis testing
Hypothesis at raise in this watchfulness what’s found positive connection between English vocabulary mastery ably reads to speak.
H1 = p xy > 0

3. Testing result
After done calculation, got rxy as big as 0,467. Testing significant test to t to rxy got counted as big as 3, 0793 and t table in alpha 0, 05 with n as big as 36 as big as 1,684. Thereby inferential that correlation coefficient rxy significant because value count bigger than table.

Watchfulness result discussion
Based on result research that elaborated, can at explain that ability read very tall and wanted. Because actually, what read somebody vocabulary that represented by word, phrase, sentence and paragraph is a reading or word. So, if somebody reads, particularly if that read it reading speaks foreign so has erudition and vast vocabulary mastery, certain of vital importance for study speaks. Every what read although in a flash certain useful as beginning somebody that wants has ability reads actually

Read very both for education world to stabilize activity in endure good activity insides also outside. Process very difficult for one who never read. Technique that used to be able to read by way of reading discipline speaks. Because without ad attitude like that difficult be done.

Based on invention pickings, be concluded that (1) technique applications read fast in teach to read comprehension makes student not only increase comprehension ability read, but also ability read quicker with can realize vocabulary well, (2) technique applications read fast in teach to read comprehension can increase student ability in read literal, (3) technique applications read fast in teach to read comprehension can increase student ability in read conclusion.

Suggested to English teacher especially in teach reading to use technique read fast because this technique can increase ability read student comprehension. Also suggested to that researcher to applies or canvass technique of a kind with interest careful and effective.

The word book encyclopedia Vol. 16-17.
Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa.(1990).
Webster’s third new international dictionary Vol II. (1981). Chicago, London,Toronto,Geneva,Sydney,Tokyo,Manila: G 7 C merriam Co.



A.Analisycal work of speaking ………………………………………………………….…..……2
1. English speaking test…………………………………….……………………….……2
2. Basic of theory test……………………………………..……………………………...3
B.Toefl Test Speaking…………………………………………………………………………….4
1.Speaking Test……………………………………………………………………….….4
2. Toefl Text Books for Preparation………………………………………………………5
3. The Toefl Speaking Section……….………………………….………………………..5
4. Fun Activities for the Toefl Speaking………………………………………………….6
C. English to speak and speaking to learn………………………………......................................7

It is known that English is a tool of international communication in the world. As the first foreign language. Since many scientific books are written in English. Therefore, teacher and student should pay more attention to it in order to be able to master it easily. In English language we know is English language is very important for education and all activity, especially in our life. The time that is given at school is very limited, the student should get a good technique for studying English and teachers should get many various way for transferring it in teaching. Test in front of class is vey use full because language is tool of communication, everybody in the world needs to communicate to each other in order to do or get what they want or need in their life. In this case everybody must be able to express their felling and though by using a tool of communication that language.

A. Analysical work of speaking test

1. English speaking test
As has been mention before, speaking test is a prosedur which a student is asked to speak and is assessed on the basis of what he say. At a primary level, speaking might involve pronounciation, intonation, and stress. At a functional level, however speaking is not just a correct pronounciation speech pattern and intonation at this stage speaking also requires the correct use and the idiomatic use of target language.
When speaking skill is developed in English foreign language classes there must be a testing program to measure the learners achievement.
The second, to measure a specific aspect element of speaking skill such as:
Structure, Vocabulary, pronunciation, intonation, and stress. A speaking test for functional purpose refders to an integrative pragmatic test, while the letter refers to a discrete point test. The following classification chart shows the possible types of a speaking test.
2. The approach of assessing speaking skills.
Basically speaking test can be classified into two broad approaches the direct and indirect test. A direct speking test refers to procedures learning’s speaking ability by asking the learner to speak.
3. The scoring procedures of speaking assessment
Assessing speaking skills in English as a foreign language classes in one of the many language skills, especially in term of scoring procedures. That is due also to the fact that speking ability involves.
4. The scoring proceduresof speakind test
The scoring of a discrate point is different foim if a functional speaking test daveloving a scoring procedure in a discrete point speaking test is much sample than that of the integrative pragmatic test for functional purpose. This is because in a discrete point test, their rather only focused on a single element of language.
A.Problem of speaking learning
We all know that the success class will depend on the method or technique that the teachers carry out. Based on the above statement, the writer try to find the technique for the test on speaking ability effectively in accordance with curriculum.
B. Limitation of speaking learning
In this case the writer would like to present the test of speaking ability. It will discusses by presenting the theory of some books.
C. The purposes of speking learning
In this research, the writer would like to write the purpose of the study as follows
1. to give descriptions about use and the advantages of the test of speaking ability
2. to give some descriptions about the procedure of the test speaking ability
3. to give some contribute ideas to English teaching process

2. Basic of theory test
A speaking test is one way that learner is asked to speak and is assessment on the basic of what he say. The test requires the examiner to demonstrate their spoken English proficiency by respond.

B. Toefl Test Speaking Practice Ideas
A.Speaking Tasks to help ESL Students Prepare for the Toefl Exam
Preparing for the Toefl is a daunting task. Finding fun ways to practice the test format in a more relaxed way helps students feel less pressured.

Part of preparing students for a Toefl test, is ensuring that they understand the format, question configuration, and section breakdown of the test. This process usually includes use of a worthy textbook, software for practice, if possible, and as much repetition and training that students can undertake.
B.Toefl Text Books for Preparation
There are many Toefl textbooks, such as Deborah Phillips Longman’s Preparation Course for the Toefl Test ( Pearson ESL, 2005 ) to name one. Online, students can also find many resources to guide them into the test preparation. The ETS website offers students opportunities to practice tests.
The teacher, however, can suggest some activities that will help the students understand the structure of the test, through lighter, more enjoyable tasks. These activities will help all students improve their speaking skills, whether they are undertaking the Toefl test or not. This kind of practice would not replace regular exercises, but does enable students to comprehend the meaning of a limited time cut-off point given to the testers, in which to prove their knowledge.
C.The Toefl Speaking Section
Most answers that students have to give verbally, after reading or listening, demand a 45 second to one minute answer. Therefore, an interesting way of rehearsing for this section is to include talking tasks in the classroom that call for an answer limited to this time allotted.

D.Fun Activities for the Toefl Speaking Practice Section
Below are some ideas that the teacher can implement into the warm up, ending, or middle part of a lesson, to help students relax, smile and reduce tension.

Most students graduate from college having had no instruction or practice in public speaking, and, indeed, harboring a deep dread of having to speak to an audience. When asked, five or ten years after graduation, what they wished they had learned in college, to speak effectively and without fear is generally near the top of the list.
The use of speaking assignments across the curriculum not only develops the ability to speak coherently and persuasively, but also helps students learn a course’s subject matter. It is for these reasons that Pomona College’s general education program requires all students to take at least one speaking-intensive course. My experience in teaching such courses has been overwhelmingly positive. Students learn the material better and they learn to speak more effectively. They are well aware of these benefits and thankful for the opportunity to take speaking-intensive courses.
As students taking multiple-choice tests, we could guess at some answers and be rewarded if we got more than 90 percent right. As professors, we are not shown a list of possible answers, should not be satisfied with guesses, and should not be pleased if 5 or 10 percent of what we tell students is wrong. To give an effective and accurate lecture, we need to know the material.
The second reason why we understand a subject better after we lecture on it is that we learn by doing. The virtues of active-learning strategies are widely acknowledged. We understand concepts better and retain them longer when we express these concepts in our own words. Writing assignments are one way to do this, speaking assignments are another.
We have all had moments of insight when we try to explain a subtle or complex point to our students. As our mind works hard to formulate a persuasive explanation, we suddenly recognize a new analogy, a different argument, a fresh interconnection. There is an intimate relationship between logical reasoning and effective speaking. Good logic not only underlies clear speaking, but can be shaped by it.
What To fulfill their general education requirements, each Pomona College student must pass at least one course that has been approved as “speaking-intensive.” There are no traditional public-speaking courses at Pomona. Just as writing need not be confined to English courses, so we encourage speaking across the curriculum. The college’s curriculum committee recommends that several principles be followed in designing speaking-intensive courses to help students develop the ability to speak clearly, logically, and persuasively.
1. Students should receive some instruction on the principles and practice of effective speaking. This instruction might consist of a few general guidelines, or it might be a detailed list of dos and don’ts. One of the things I tell students is that we are all prone to nervous habits (fiddling with a button, putting a hand in a pocket, saying “um”) that distract listeners and signal the speaker’s nervousness. Speakers are usually unaware of these habits and one of our jobs as a supportive classroom audience is to alert them to these problems. I also tell students that audiences have more confidence in speakers who don’t rely much on notes: someone who reads a speech may be just reciting what someone else wrote. A memorized speech can have the same effect. The goal is to give an extemporaneous speech that tells the audience that the speaker knows the material and is expressing it in his or her own words. I also advise students to have lots of eye contact with individual members of the audience, instead of looking at notes, the floor, or the back of the room. There is disagreement too. Some experts say that a speaker should stand in one place and move about as little as possible; others believe that the energy conveyed by movement has a positive effect on an audience.
2. Students should be given sufficient advance notice so that they can prepare for their speaking assignments beforehand. While memorization is strongly discouraged, students should be encouraged to learn the material and to practice before a friend or a mirror.
3. Students should express their own thoughts, not simply read or recite speeches, poems, plays, or songs. Speaking-intensive courses are intended to help students learn substantive material--not memorize lines--and to state ideas and arguments in their own words.
4. The student must be in the spotlight. Student participation in classroom discussion is not sufficient to qualify a course as speaking-intensive. Each student should be a primary speaker--for example, by giving a classroom presentation or leading a focused discussion. If a student can sit passively and merely interject an occasional comment, then the energizing fear of embarrassment is absent and so is the chance to develop effective public-speaking skills.
5. The student should receive specific suggestions shortly afterward (through written comments, conferences with the instructor, or peer evaluations) on how they can present their arguments more effectively. Just as the development of good writing skills requires useful feedback, so does the development of good speaking skills. At the conclusion of each presentation, I give the class a few minutes to write down constructive suggestions. I then collect these and give them to the speaker at the end of class. If everyone says “slow down” or “speak up,” the speaker will know this is a serious problem. This exercise also encourages everyone to think about what works and what doesn’t. I make written suggestions too. One enlightening practice is to write especially popular phrases (such as “um” and “basically”) at the top of the page and tabulate how many times these are used by the student.
6. Students should have opportunities to improve their speaking abilities after receiving this feedback. Obviously, you cannot become an effective speaker by giving one speech. On the other hand, just as one writing-intensive course is not sufficient to make a good writer, so one speaking-intensive course is not enough to make a good speaker. Instead, these courses should be viewed as opportunities to nurture and develop skills that will be honed over a lifetime. In practice, the curriculum committee has approved courses with as few as two speaking opportunities per student.
7. A speaking-intensive course normally should not have more than 20 students; otherwise, there may not be enough time for all students to have multiple speaking opportunities. I have taught speaking-intensive classes with more than 30 students, but there was adequate time because of an emphasis on work outside the classroom rather than lectures.
8. Courses in languages other than English may be approved as speaking-intensive. The use of a foreign language does not preclude students learning by speaking and learning to speak persuasively and without fear.
Why In addition to these guiding principles, I have learned much from my experience with two quite different courses that are both writing-intensive and speaking-intensive: an interdisciplinary statistics class and a finance class for economics majors. In each class, I divide the students into three-person teams. If the enrollment is not divisible by three, I make one or two four-person teams.
In the statistics course, each team is given nine projects (twelve if the team has four members) to do over the course of the semester, each with a specific due date. The team members work together to collect and analyze the data, with one student writing an essay and one giving an oral presentation. Normally, the student who writes the essay also makes the oral presentation, but this is not required. During the semester, each student makes three project presentations. In addition, each student writes a statistics term paper and gives an oral presentation of this paper.
In the finance class, the teams manage competing financial intermediaries and prepare weekly memos justifying their decisions. The results are determined by a computer simulation program I wrote that is based on a secret historical period in an unnamed country, with each week in the course corresponding to three months of real time. The country and time period are revealed and discussed at the end of the course (and must consequently be changed each time the course is taught). The teams use spreadsheets or write their own computer programs to assist their decisions.

The weekly memos not only explain the teams’ decisions, but also answer a set of questions intended to focus the students’ attention on relevant information. These questions are assigned a week in advance and depend on the historical period and the performance of the teams.
The team members work together outside class to make the weekly decisions and answer my questions, with one student writing that week’s memo. Half the teams have one student give an oral presentation of the team’s answers to my questions. Each student makes at least two oral presentations during the semester and, in addition, each team makes a group presentation at the end of the semester that recaps their performance.
One challenge in designing a speaking-intensive course is to keep the entire class actively engaged in the weekly activities outside the classroom, even though only a small number will be giving oral presentations. The use of teams seems an effective strategy and also develops team-working skills and builds considerable camaraderie.
One issue I have wrestled with is whether each week’s oral presentations should be on the same topic. The first time that I taught my statistics class as speaking intensive, I assigned all teams the same topic each week so that the students might benefit from comparing their approaches and results. I soon found that if more than two or three people speak on the same subject, the presentations become repetitive and the class becomes bored; after a few weeks, I began assigning each team a different topic. In my finance class, I now ask half the teams one set of questions and half another set, and have only half of each group make oral presentations.
Because thinking on one’s feet is an important objective, I tell students to ask each speaker challenging questions. If the questions lag, I fire away. Even “dumb” questions can be useful, as they force the speaker to explain things differently and perhaps more clearly. Students find spirited exchanges among the speaker and various audience members to be not only beneficial, but a great deal of fun. I have also noticed that students tend to ask tougher questions of the more accomplished or arrogant speakers and to take it easy on those who are struggling.

In each of these courses, the oral presentations take up a lot of class time (from 30 to 60 minutes each week), and much of the traditional course work is consequently done outside the classroom--in the statistics course, reading the textbook and gathering and analyzing data; in the finance course, analyzing the weekly results and making decisions. This has been a dramatic change from my accustomed role of giving lectures and answering scattered questions. What I have come to realize is that the focus of the course should not be on me, but on helping students learn the subject matter and develop intellectual skills that will serve them well throughout their lives. For both of these goals, I am now convinced that students can learn more by speaking than by listening.

A paper
Submitted to the lecture I partial
fulfillment of the recruitment for UAS.

Siti marwati



A. Background of the Study
Every body known that language is the tools of communication to convey the information, thought, idea, feeling, and to distinguish a country with other countries.
Usually we used international language to make a communication with foreign people and English is international language, almost the whole countries in the world use it for communication in regional and international form. A few years ago although the goals of English subject in Indonesia was to get reading and to increase knowledge from the reading matter and speaking was not the important skill. But, remember that “Language is speech and written form is merely secondary”. So, if we study of a foreign language, we will not be satisfied without use it for communication.
Through language people can communicate many things, for instance, to clarify our think and expression our feeling.
The teaching English of Indonesian is provided from junior and senior high school to colleges or university. English expected to be a means of transferring and expending the knowledge, technology, culture and many others, with the final aims is to support national development.
Know the mastering English demand student to learn it thoroughly and seriously to become a user competence good student needs to learn communication skill, such as: listening, writing, speaking and reading. Such enabling skills cannot be studied individually, they must be learnt integrated.
Jack.C.R. (1985) gives an interesting view about this phenomenon:
Interestingly English is becoming the major International language of printed information. A great deal of the world scientific, commercial, economic and technological knowledge is written and published in English though the writer maybe Chinese, Swedes or Italians. Publication in English ensures the widest possible readership for new finding and ideas.(Language And Language Teaching, 1985 p.3)

B. Statement of the Problems
There are many problems and difficulties faces by English teachers that demand solution considering the limited time and scope, this small-scale study will focus on the one aspect of teaching countable and uncountable nouns through pictures matching and its practical application with real visualization.
The study will attempt to find the key how to teach the countable and uncountable nouns using pictures matching. The study is not only restricted to know how teaching nouns using pictures and its relationship with curriculum, but will also attempt to predict learning English structure, especially in countable and uncountable nouns.

C. Limitation of the Study
To limit the study, the writer would like to discuss in teaching English countable and uncountable nouns with Junior High School specially at MTs Al- Arqam first grade.
Beside I concerned to make student more active in the class and show them how to solve and find the solution to their learning problems, also intend to help student to know and understand the strategy to learn noun classily and improve their idea about countable and uncountable nouns. The teacher should give their student an equal chance to practice and use English in the class. Although most of them will make mistakes, teacher should be able to create good situation and productive method of teaching.
When the student makes mistakes due to their lack understanding, teacher should be patient and give conductively atmosphere and treat them wisely. We should emphasize that making mistakes is process learning.
One of mistakes has made by students of MTs Al-Arqom is to use countable and uncountable of English in this case. I would like to investigate problem of using countable and uncountable of English.

D. The purpose of the Study
Based on the statement of the problems above the purposes of study are:
1. Exploring suitable technique in teaching countable and uncountable nouns
2. Finding the best technique in increasing teaching abilities.
3. Giving student a conductively situation in studying English.
4. Finding out the advantages of teaching countable and uncountable nouns.

F. Methodology of the study
a. Method
The method in this research is the experiment and uses different analysis to study. The writer also collects the data taken from the field research and the library by using some books to support this paper.
b. Time and place
The research will be carried out at Al – Arqam Junior high Islamic school at black bridge street Rt. 03/10 Cijujung village Sukaraja – Bogor . I have this case when I teach in this school, I got two week from December 04’09 until December 11’09. In the class, but sometime I learn in the out side.


1. Scope of teaching English
The element of language and how it is conducted cannot be separated if we are to achieve the teaching goals. Language element and how they should be carried out will carried out will be outlined in the following.
a) Language elements
 Vocabulary
Vocabulary enrichment can be conducted through a series of a pictures, particularly those connected with countable and uncountable nouns.
For example: 1. Water, milk, alcohol, etc (uncountable)
2. Bird – birds, key – keys, rose – roses, etc.(countable)
 Pronunciation
Teaching pronunciation can be done in many manners. One simple way is by giving the student s set of pictures contain of countable and uncountable nouns. First the teacher pronounces the words and then the student followed again and again.
 Structure
Acceptable sentences and phrase are taught right from the beginning to the end. Provide the excellent context and usages. For example, the teacher gives countable and uncountable nouns to the student, and they made some meaningful sentences on the basis of the pictures.
For example:
- Food : this store sells health foods and baby foods
- Water: this is an excellent mineral water from Belgium.
b) Language ability
1. Reading
Reading strategy can be given by providing a variety of the text. A the end of the passage some exercises and questions are given to measure the students ability to comprehend and fully understand the situation, context and usages (grammar, pattern, idiom and vocabulary)
2. Dialogue
Teaching dialogue means teaching speaking ability. Giving more practice and familiarization of the whole words, sentences and structures can do this. After the student have already know how the words are pronounced and use them, they should be able practice it with their friends.
3. Writing
Teacher are hoped to teach the ability of writing simple sentences well, short stories and composing a letter. For example by using the simple continuous tense or giving them some reading materials that have been selected to be given to the student as exercises

2. Teaching of Noun
Nouns are the words used name of person, place, or thing. It is can be real object or idea and action, the following is the table of noun:
No Persons Places Thing Idea
5. Henry
Student Town
Bandung Bridge
Door Romance

Here are some examples of using nouns:
1. I go to Bandung ( bandung is a noun in sentences. It is name of place)
2. Mr. Henry comes here.( henry is name a noun. It is a name of human)
3. This my book ( book is a noun in this sentence. It is name of something)
Type of noun
There are three types of nouns, that is:
 Common noun refers to class of person, place, thing, such as woman, teacher, state, lake, bridge, building, belief, etc.
 Proper noun gives the name of title of a particular person, place. Like: Jane Adam, Mr. Chips, Toba lake, Galuh Montain, Golden Gate Bridge.
 Collective noun is noun that name group or a selection of person or thing. Some frequently used collective noun are:
Army class flock herd
Audience committee troop jury
Band crowd group team
(modern English a participial references guide, 1972 p.69)

3. The Use of Teaching Aids
As we know, there are some kinds of teaching aids, which can be used in teaching activities such as the language laboratory, teaching machine, tape recorder, and other visual aids. Many teachers usually use the teaching aids to help the students understand the lesson more easily.
By using pictures the student are expected to gain large knowledge and will more be active and creative in English learning process. The main concern of using pictures is not to claim originality for the strategies suggested. By doing so students are given the best chance practicing English through a through use of pictures. Below are four aspects of activity that should be bared in mind.
1. Material of pictures is used to carry out the activities in the class. They can be taken from the magazine or news papers and should be attractive and interesting to capture the student attention.
2. Procedure: In most case the student have make a small group, in some case teacher should give the student clue words to help them to initiate conversation.
3. Language item: grammatical features can be presented or practical features through the activities. However the final objective is not to teach grammatical but to give student an opportunity to practice English thoroughly.
4. Follow up: this part contains ideas for reinforcement and further practice and should be given two or more exercises as follow up, the individual teacher, of course, is free to select the most appropriate to the situation.
According to those aspects the teacher should be able to attempt the best technique that is picture matching through which students are hoped to think widely about how to memorize and use the vocabulary to get the good mark.


A. Teaching countable and uncountable nouns using pictures
Before starting to teach countable and uncountable nouns in the class, the teacher supposed to design lesson planning for the teaching using pictures matching.
Lesson plan
Class : I (one)
Quarter : I (one)
Topic : Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Book : “Active English for Junior High School “Author by: Rudi
Hartono, S.S., M.Pd
Time : 2 x 45 minute
Teacher objective: To help students understand about countable and
Uncountable nouns.
Student target :
- Student should be able to differentiate between countable
and uncountable nouns.
- Students should be able to make sentences contains
Uncountable nouns.

Preparation : set of the pictures

The picture of countable nouns The picture of uncountable nouns








Procedure :
no stages Teacher activity Student respons


- greeting
- cheking attendant

generalization - good morning
- how are you?
- Introducing the activities connected to the topic
- Explain the countable and uncountable noun using the pictures.
- Good morning mum
Fine mum’s

Student give the attention

The material of countable and uncountable nouns
Countable noun is characterized by singular and plural form. Plural form can be add by ‘s’ or ‘Es’ to the noun as can be seen in the table below.
Countable nouns
Singular Plural
lamp Books
Uncountable nouns
Singular Plural
soap Cheese

B. Analyzing data
In doing observation when I taken as sample were I given countable and uncountable before and after I used the picture. To gain the data, the researcher carried out one way, it was post test. In this case, post test was conveyed to know the differenced of students in countable and uncountable which was taught using picture was applied of 10 students and five students which was taught without using pictures. Finally, the result of post test of them is the students who were taught using pictures was better than those who were not taught using pictures. So, I also have asked to the students about teaching English in countable and uncountable using pictures, what is it can made them interesting? They said, yes teaching through with pictures is help us become active, it is very easy to remember because there so many color are, brave to speak English and pictures is one of the ways to avoid the boring situation to the students.

Language is the tools of communication to convey the information, thought, idea, feeling, and to distinguish a country with other countries or other areas. Teaching English in Indonesia is not an easy activity because it is a foreign language and it is not the second language through it is one of the compulsory subjects at school. Therefore the English teacher should help the student to improve their knowledge and ability of English. One of the goals in teaching English for the students is to communicate in spoken or written from. There are three countable and uncountable nouns that they must remember. They have different function in using them. To make countable and uncountable nouns easy to study, it is important for the teacher to find the technique or ways in teaching. So, the students are easy to understand the lesson. Pictures are used to master the four language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking and its use to create the students active. To make student easy for remember what the differentiation between countable and uncountable noun. Furthermore pictures can be used to teach language function, structure, conversation and vocabulary.