Tuesday, February 15, 2011


Name : Ida Farida
Class : 5 Evening
Npm : 08211210010
Task : Writing
My name is Ida Farida, usually my friends call me with Ida. I was born on June 5th 1985. and I live in Salabenda with my family. I have one brother and two young brother. And my hobby are cooking, make a cake, watching television, and browsing.I am studied in Ibn Khaldun university on Bogor. In my University I am The student and outside as the Teacher in MI NURUDDA’WAH Bogor, so I have so many schedule that make me tired Every times. Beside that, I get new knowledge and experience those benefits for me. I wake up at 05.00 am in the Morning and take a bath, then prayer Subuh, and helping my mother to do home works. After that I have breakfast then go to teach with my Uncle. After finishing teach directly go to campus to study. I have unforgettable moment is ,when I was go to Yogyakarta for study tour with SDN KAYU MANIS 1. it was happen when I saw Prambanan Temple, Borobudur Temple, New City, batik of factory, Parangtritis Beach, and Pangandaran Beach. That all of my profession. I live in a very simple country, my country is a lot of its residents, and also view of nature which so respect in eye approach, that is there are green rice field carpet, river water which is so clear. In this country the third my brother’s and I was born also enlarged by my parent’s, with affection and also attention which so big . In my family is very simple and also so heat, I am its member more is demure. To fulfill everyday requirement both my parent’s teaching a teacher, and from result of salary a teacher,
my parent’s defray education its child’s. My parent’s that way so candid and experience its obligation for the shake its child’s, so that in a moment wait to become success and successful child’s. And to this time I can try to learning better and I help work my mother at home, and also work to become good child. And hopefully my brother’s and I become child which reciprocate their services is parent’s. This countryside also I live neighbor upon and good friendly of audience people who, good, and also will help each other fellow being.
Name: Susilawati
NPM: 08211210668
Class: 5 semester Evening

Hafifah Yuningsih

Name : Hafifah Yuningsih
NPM : 08211210073
Class : 5 evening
Story about me
I am hafifah yuningsih, the second child in my family. I have one man elder brother and two younger sisters. When my age was five year ago, I was school at kindergarten school. Afterwards continue at elementary school negri 2. after graduate from elementary school, I continue at madrasah tsanawiyah. there I begin to follow activity exist in school, like osis, boy scout, etc. after graduate from junior high school, i continue to second high school at madrasah aliyah country 1. there i follow activity exist in also school, but not osis and or boy scout. At that time I am interested with paskibra. paskibra flag hoister troop. So, me want to impersonate mobile in every moment to involved in the case of that. Besides uniform at use in paskibra enough interesting my interest to joints paskibra during unite at paskibra, we always practice each week, after go home school until afternoon around five. In paskibra matter at teach quite a lot, including line practice marches, how to fly the flag, and still many again. in paskibra every year at perform candidate selection paskibraka at follow by class student one representative from the school each every years, paskibra at man 1 always send the representation to follow selection and praise be to god every year it certain there chosen is paskibraka. and by accident at the (time) of my exponent
is man 1 send the representation as much as three person, one man student, two woman students and i belong in it. Selection goes on during three-day. Terms that must at fulfill including health certificate, tall size, heavy body and photo copy report value semester one. Selection in begin start from seven o’clock in the morning until five o'clock afternoon. But at the lasts day it’s until eight evening o clock. And use uniform from the school each. On the first I and my friends escapes in stage furthermore, then in second selection there my friend is doesn't escape. So that enter in third selection or latest only live two representations from man1. And use uniform from the school each. At that time I am very disappointed, because my willing is to is paskibraka not reached. Although many times and energy at sacrifice but that is all doesn't be in vain. There I also glad because still there representation from man 1 chosen. Although many times and energy at sacrifice but that is all doesn't be in vain. Many sciences who I can from those experiences. beginning enter my lecture takes class morning during two-semester, but at semester three I move to class afternoon because I am there chance to teach at kindergarten. Now I am four semesters . I genuinely want to dominate to study English me must learn hard for my success.
Coment : Ida farida
Npm : 08211210010
Task Writing

Giri Ginanjar Harsyah

Name : Giri Ginanjar Harsyah
NPM : 05211210079
Subject : Writing in professional context II
The explicit teaching of learning strategies can aid language teachers in helping students attain the goals of improving their mastery of the target language and of learning about the target culture. Learning strategies are the thoughts and actions we engage in, consciously or not, to learn new information. The goal of teaching learning strategies is to help students to consciously control how they learn so that they can be efficient, motivated, and independent language learners. The intent of learning strategies instruction is to help all students become better language learners. When students begin to understand their own learning processes and can exert some control over these processes, they tend to take more responsibility for their own learning. This self-knowledge and skill in regulating one's own learning is a characteristic of successful learners, including successful language learners. Research with both first and second language learners is revealing some of the ways of thinking that guide and assist an individual's attempts to learn more effectively. Students who think and work strategically are more motivated to learn and have a higher sense of self-efficacy or confidence in their own learning ability. That is, strategic students perceive themselves as more able to succeed academically than students who do not know how to use strategies effectively. Students who expect to be successful at learning task generally are successful, and each successful learning experience increases motivation. In order to continue to be successful with learning tasks, students need to be aware of the strategies that led to their success. The value of this type of self-knowledge is that it leads to reflection, to planning how to proceed with a learning task, to monitoring one's own performance on an ongoing basis, and to self-evaluation upon task completion. In other words, it leads to self-regulation of one's learning. Students with greater metacognitive awareness understand the similarity between the current learning task and previous ones, know the strategies required for successful learning, and anticipate success as a result of knowing "how to learn." One study that investigated differences between more and less effective language learners focused on listening comprehension.


Name : Nur Azizah
Class : 5 evening
NPM : 08211210824
Studies recent in years, about 732 children, concluded that conflict with parents, fighting with fellow children, and youth crime were closely connected with the number of hours watching television. Then the children who since his early years watching of mystical, someday he will grow into a man who always fears and later as an adult he would take a decision only rely on emotions alone. Watching television also reduce its ability to entertain oneself and cripple its ability to express ideas logically and sensitively. However, how much influence of television whether good or bad for mental development of children it’s determined by the amount of guidance and supervision of children who watch television. The best people who do this are their own parents.
As we know that the children enjoyed watching the television. They did not hesitate to sit in front of the magic box for hours. In a study, children pre-school age showed greater interest in television than school age. It is effect the toddler playmate tends to be limited and more stay at home. But this is more quite dangerous for the development of the child if we do not control their characters. They will be easier to
record things that are fun and takes place in continuously. This happens because they do not have the experience and in their minds there is no filter.
In addition, to the content of television shows that we must be aware of is the advertising itself. Because the ads will build a culture of consumerism in the child and be wasteful.
So what should be done at the time of guiding our children watch TV? Connect the television program which was witnessed by the experiences of your child or your own. Select the video games or movies that contain elements of education and promote social values as an example of an Islamic film. Explain also about the intentions of the ads aired and in ways that used to sell these products. One thing that should be remembered, that the task here is to guide parents not prohibit develop proximity to familiarize children with good dialogue and communication so the child will eventually understand and even ask for consideration and advice from parents.
Corrector : Rustika Wati
NPM : 08211210818

Minimize the influence of game online to the achievement of children

Name : Rustika Wati
NPM : 08211210818
Class : 5 evening
Minimize the influence of game online to the achievement of children
The rise development of the Internet , brings a great influence for students. One of them with his presence and the existence of online gaming. As a result, there is the influence of online game on a child's learning achievement. So this issue is in fact not be a problem that can be taken lightly by us.
Online game addiction can interfere with this online learning achievement. This is because the game online game has addictive properties or take opium. As a result people who are familiar with the online game will likely be affected, either directly or indirectly. The student is one of the groups affected by the influence of online game. This is due, game online play is often time-consuming a child. One was the time that should be used for rest or play, but kids tend to use it to sit at the computer and immersed in the game online play. As a result, when lessons, a child was physically drained from playing games online. Although seemingly just sitting, but this game drain your energy because it requires concentration and stimulates the tension. As a result, the nerve becomes more rigid and not relaxed quickly.
Prevent Impact online Game to necessarily prevent a child playing games online is not an easy job. Internet facilities are widely available everywhere, internet cafe, makes
the child can access the Internet from anywhere. Do not always have to play at home, children can steal time after school with game online area or visit Internet cafes around their school.
For that, there are some things parents should do. Among them In collaboration with teachers in schools to take part in monitoring the development of student learning. Achievement for children in the schools is declining due to game online addiction.
Establish informal communication for a child can open to parents, so parents can provide education to a child without the child feel judged. Because parents are the people who should be the first thing to know if the child has problems and should be a parent is a person who must always give a feeling of comfortable and reliable. As parents we also need to learn about game online. So you can discuss with your child about the game. If this can happen, the child will not need to seek refuge with his friends to just talk about game online play. So that children can be more comfortable at home because it can get a friend to chat who understand their world.
Online games is actually not a bad thing, online games can provide positive impact for children. Children also need a refresher so that they do not feel bored through a solid routine therefore so give special time to play games online, and affirm your child not to play beyond the agreed time. This shows that you do not just forbid, but make allowances. On the other hand you teach your child to be responsible at the time of its.
Corrector : Nur Azizah
NPM : 08211210824

Mobile Phone

Name : Hilia Ratna Puri
Clss : 5-evening
NPM : 08211210701
Mobile Phone
In the past, mobile phone just could have by a rich man. Because, people that use mobile phone for help they activities, especially about they work and also because the price was expensive. But, nowadays mobile phone becomes a popular thing that people should have.
Why mobile phones now become a popular in the human life? Because, mobile phone now become something that everybody can buy. Because now there are so many mobile phones sold with a lower price. Not only for adult, but also children could have too.
Mobile phones were having significant change. From that shape, there are so many choice that we could choose as we want. And also, there are so many features were provided keep up with the development of time as much as we need.
Mobile phone could help us to make relation with others people in anywhere. We can contact our far away relatives that we never meet with mobile phone. And also, because the development of technology, it becomes something that could help us in education, because they put networking at mobile phone that called internet for help students in their study, especially for university students.
In the other hand, we should be careful with the development of mobile phones. Children could access the information that they should not know for them or
they can take a pictures or saw a “bad” pictures that they should not see. For adult, they can take pictures or videos as easy as they want. It is good if they make a good pictures or videos. But it will be trouble if they make a pictures or videos that should not make a trouble for them. Because, someday if they want to sell or they lost it, it will be a big trouble. Because someone who buy it or find it, maybe they can put that to the internet and it could be access by everyone as easy. And also, nowadays there are so many deception that use mobile phones as tools for deceive someone. For example, they deceive someone to transfer money at number of one bank to change with motorcycle or car but before that they should send money for them, but the car or motorcycle never comes.
Corrector : Komariah
NPM : 08211210111

My Personality

Name : Komariah
NPM : 08211210111
Class : 4 A
Subject : Writing
My Personality
My name is Komariah. I was born on 23 September 1989. I live at sukadamai indah Bogor. I am studying at the University of IBN Khaldun and my major is English education. I am first child in my family. My hobby is reading books especially tabloid, magazine, and novel. And I like listening to pop music song by my favorite bands. I have many dreams but I really to be a teacher. I am twenty years old now. My favorite fruits are grape, strawberry, and rambutan. My favorite food is seafood and my favorite drink is orange juice. My favorite colors are white and black. And my personalities of my body, I am big and I have round eyes with the color is black. Then I have a long black hair, my face is round and rosy- full and chubby cheeks, small ears, pointed nose. I have thin lips, then I have special mark is mole on my neck. My eyebrow shape is arched and thick, and I have short eyelashes. Round chin. I think every individual is different from another. It is our personalities make us individual that we are and make us different from anyone else. Our personality can lets others identify us for what we are and tells others what we are like. Every human being possesses both positive and negative qualities. And I have positive traits and negative traits. My positive traits are sincere, helpful, loyal, care, merciful, affectionate, trustworthy, modest, friendly, patient, just, tolerant and broadminded. And my negative traits are forgetful, selfish, pessimistic, jealous, suspicious, and sensitive.
Corrector : Hilia Ratna Puri
NPM : 08211210701

The New Car

Nama : Hermawan Susanto NPM : 08211210079 Subject : Writing in professional context 2
The New Car
Last summer (locally known as the dry season). I began looking at a new car that was being sold in Indonesia. Up until then, all cars sold in Indonesia had to be assembled in Indonesia. That was former President Soeharto's way of helping out two of his kids that were in the local auto industry. After Soeharto's fall, the laws began to change. Cars were being brought into the country fully assembled. There was an additional import tax to be paid, but it wasn't too stiff. The quality of Indonesian “assembled” cars is not very good. For instance, of the four Indonesian assembled cars that I have owned, all four had problems with the electric windows and the seat belts. Anyway, I began looking at the KIA Carnival. They were made in Korea and are something like a Chrysler mini-van. But, they arrived at the design completely independent of Chrysler As you may have already surmised, I bought a new car. The car that I bought was light gray in some light conditions, and almost brown in other light conditions. My car had an air scoop on the hood and a luggage rack on top. The story of the purchase was interesting. I hesitated to publish this story knowing that people never having lived in a third world country would think it was pure fiction. When I decided to go ahead and buy the car, I had to figure out how I was going to pay for it. To most people, that would mean, “How am I going to get the money?”. What I mean, of course is how was I am going to get about $35,000 of my money, stashed in the U.S., transferred to Indonesia and converted into 282 million Rupiah. The easiest method was to simply pay with my VISA (debit) card. I checked with the dealership, and they agreed to accept my VISA card. Because of some fraudulent activity on my VISA card the previous month, I decided to check with Merrill Lynch and VISA just to make sure that it would clear. I called Merrill that night. They told me that it would clear as long as I didn't buy more than two or three cars. VISA said that it would be no problem. The next day, I was off to the dealership armed with my VISA card and overconfidence. At the dealership, they tried to clear the purchase with local banks here in Yogyakarta. I told them repeatedly that they needed to
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clear it with VISA, possibly in Jakarta. As long as VISA clears the purchase, they have nothing to worry about. They would have no part of that. That night, I called Merrill and VISA again. Visa and Merrill couldn't understand what the problem was. They had never been to Indonesia. They did give me the telephone number of VISA's clearing House in the U.S. All I had to do, assured they, was to simply have the merchant call said number and get a manual authorization code. The next day, with no degree of confidence, I hit the dealership again. They didn't know what a manual authorization code was. They didn't have an international telephone line, so couldn't have called the U.S. even if they were so inclined. Besides, no one at the dealership spoke English. At that point, I wrote off VISA as an option. I had, somewhere in my files, an old checkbook from a Rupiah account that I hadn't used in about two and a half years. When I purchased my 1997 ISUZU, I had opened that account, transferred the dollars into that Rupiah account, then paid for the car from the Rupiah account. I would simply (did I say “simply”?) wire $35,000 to my Rupiah account. Armed with my checkbook and renewed confidence, I asked the bank for the ABA number for my account. They informed me that due to inactivity, my account was closed two years ago. In Indonesia, it seems, you use it or lose it. That would be annoying in and of itself, but what is maddening is the fact that they just keep whatever funds are remaining in that account. It wasn't much. I actually have forgotten the amount, but don't think that it was over $20. I then decided that I would simply (that word keeps inappropriately appearing) open a new account. Bank Indonesia has a Singapore/U.S. Dollar account that would do just fine. All I needed was a passport (no problem) and my Work Visa (ditto). The Work Visa was a laminated card with my picture and fingerprints indicating who I work for. The minister of manpower signs it. Not good enough! I also had to provide them with a letter from my employer stating that I did indeed work where the Indonesian Minister of Manpower said that I worked. Normally I would have forged such a letter, but I did not have any blank letterhead stationery and my scanner was down. I was so annoyed at the entire situation, I just wrote the whole thing off. The salesman however did not. Late the next day, he called and told me that he had found a bank in Yogyakarta that would clear the purchase. The next day, armed with my VISA card and a ton of skepticism, I met the salesman and his boss at the dealership. We went in my (old) car to the bank. After about an hour of checking and telephone calls to Jakarta, I realized that they were not billing the purchase to my VISA card, but rather doing a cash advance. I told the salesman's
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boss that if the bank hands me Rp. 282,000,000 here at the bank, he will have to accept the cash “here at the bank”. I didn't want to take a chance of carrying that kind of cash across town. Then the real shocker came. They started counting out the Rp 282,000,000 in Rp 20,000 and Rp 10,000 bills. They do have Rp 100,000 and Rp 50,000 notes in Indonesia, but this bank apparently caters to the “little guy” because they had none. If you could have seen the stack of bills they were counting, you would have protested as forcibly as I did. They finally agreed to give us only Rp. 20,000 bills. Even so, that is 14,100 bills. Try walking into a U.S. bank and asking for $14,100 in one dollar bills! It took about 15 minutes for the teller, using two counting machines, to count out Rp 282,000,000. That was NOT a large stack. That were MANY large stacks. The boss of the dealership had called on his cell phone for one of his employees to brought a bag to carry the stacks. We stuffed all the cash into a small duffel bag. Had we been given the mix of Rp 20,000 and Rp 10,000 bills, we would have needed another bag. I can not make this already long story short, but thankfully it has come to its conclusion. We made it back to the dealership without being robbed. I bought the car and so far am quite happy with it. Corrector : Name : Nur Hasan Class : 5-A

Teaching Descriptive Text in Reading with Using Mind Mapping Software

Teaching Descriptive Text in Reading with Using Mind Mapping Software Subject of Writing of Academic Purposes Lecturer Cunong N Suraja By : Novita Sari Asmiaty NPM : 07211210461 Semester VI B ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION BOGOR IBN KHLADUN UNIVERSITY
MAY 2010 FOREWORDS In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise to Allah for the blessing given to the writer. So, we can finally complete this word. Peace and blessing be upon the lovely prophet Muhammad SAW, the family and follower. On this occasion, we would like to express our great honor and deepest gratitude to our beloved parents, who always give us support, motivation and the best wishes and the beloved brothers and sisters who have also given support to the writers. The writers also like to express the great honor to Cunong N Suraja as the lecturer of Writing of Academic Purposes, as advisor, for his time, kindness, guidance and patience in correcting and helping us in finishing this paper writing. This paper is written to fulfill one of the assignments of English Morphology course in English Education Program Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Bogor Ibn Khaldun University. The writers tried to do the best in writing this paper, but the writers realize that it is still far from being perfect. Therefore, the writers welcome any constructive criticism and suggestions to improve this paper. The writer finally hopes that this paper will be useful for the writers and the readers. Bogor, 16 June 2010
The Writer INTRODUCTION Mind mapping is a technique note created by is memory expert of English, Tony Buzan. This technique is constituted by result research into that way of brain process and information of keep information is not linearly, phase for the shake of phase, but brain of keep information and process information at random. From other side that, brain of keep information in the form of picture, and non in the form of article or letter.
This technique is very good for doing record-keeping, brainstorming, and to recollect items studied. Become, if someone wish to recollect items studied. Become, if someone wish to recollect entire or all items he which have study, hence he is only require to see map of mind he which have make, and he will remember altogether. The elements of a given mind map are arranged intuitively according to the importance of the concepts, and are classified into groupings, branches, or areas, with the goal of representing semantic or other connections between portions of information. Mind maps may also aid recall of existing memories.
What is a descriptive text? The definition of a descriptive text is a text which lists the characteristics of something. Description Text is a phrase used by very young English 'Teachers' whose poor education has not included the word 'expository'. Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience,
creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to be considered when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that "descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic". In this paper, I want compare it between them. Teaching reading with fun and enjoy using electric mind mapping. Although the student will get some experiences and more understand about reading text and then student can find mind idea or important part in text of reading. Electric main mapping is one of media that is easy and interestingly to using it. The student will improve they ability to open mind and creation with draw in computer.
THEORYTICAL Another useful listing technique is mapping or clustering. Instead of making a linear list as illustrated above, you start by writing your topic in the center of you page in a box. And then as you brainstorm for ideas, you write your ideas around the topic. As you write one idea down, you may think of another idea related to it, so you could write this second idea close the first idea in the cluster (a group of idea).
1. Characteristics
Mind maps are, by definition, a graphical method of taking notes. The visual basis of them helps one to distinguish words or ideas, often with colors and symbols. They generally take a hierarchical or tree branch format, with ideas branching into their subsections. Mind maps allow for greater creativity when recording ideas and information, as well as allowing the note-taker to associate words with visual representations. Mind maps and concept maps are different in that mind maps focus on only one word or idea, whereas Concept maps connect multiple words or ideas.
2. History
Mind maps (or similar concepts) have been used for centuries in learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking, and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists, and others. Some of the earliest examples of mind
maps were developed by Porphyry of Tyros, a noted thinker of the 3rd century, as he graphically visualized the concept categories of Aristotle. Philosopher Ramon Llull (1235 - 1315) also used mind maps.
The semantic network was developed in the late 1950s as a theory to understand human learning and developed into mind maps by Allan M. Collins and M. Ross Quillian during the early 1960s. Due to his commitment and published research, and his work with learning, creativity, and graphical thinking, Collins can be considered the father of the modern mind map.
British popular psychology author Tony Buzan claims to have invented modern mind mapping. He claimed the idea was inspired by Alfred Korzybski's general semantics as popularized in science fiction novels, such as those of Robert A. Heinlein and A. E. van Vogt. Buzan argues that while 'traditional' outlines force readers to scan left to right and top to bottom, readers actually tend to scan the entire page in a non-linear fashion. Buzan also uses popular assumptions about the cerebral hemispheres in order to promote the exclusive use of mind mapping over other forms of note making. The mind map continues to be used in various forms, and for various applications including learning and education (where it is often taught as 'Webs', 'Mind webs', or 'Webbing'), planning, and in engineering diagramming.
When compared with the concept map (which was developed by learning experts in the 1970s) the structure of a mind map is a similar radial, but is simplified by having one central key word.
3. Uses
A mind map is often created around a single word or text, placed in the center, to which associated ideas, words and concepts are added.
Mind maps have many applications in personal, family, educational, and business situations, including note taking, brainstorming (wherein ideas are inserted into the map radically around the center node, without the implicit prioritization that comes from hierarchy or sequential arrangements, and wherein grouping and organizing is reserved for later stages), summarizing, revising, and general clarifying of thoughts. One could listen to a lecture, for example, and take down notes using mind maps for the most important points or keywords. One can also use mind maps as a mnemonic technique or to sort out a complicated idea. Mind maps are also promoted as a way to collaborate in color pen creativity sessions. Mind maps can be used for:- Problem Solving Outline / Framework Design Anonymous collaboration. Marriage of words and visuals. Individual expression of creativity. Condensing material into a concise and memorable format. Team building or synergy creating activity. Enhancing work morale.
Mind mapping can be drawn by hand, either as 'rough notes' during a lecture or meeting, for example, or can be more sophisticated in quality. Examples of both are illustrated. There are also a number of software packages available for producing mind maps.
4. Effectiveness in learning
Buzan claims that the mind map is a vastly superior note taking method because it does not lead to a "semi-hypnotic trance" state induced by other note forms. Buzan also argues that the mind map uses the full range of left and right human cortical skills, balances the brain, taps into the apocryphal 99% of your unused mental potential, as well as intuition (which he calls "super logic"). However, scholarly research suggests that such claims may actually be marketing hype based on misconceptions about the brain and the cerebral hemispheres. Critics argue that hemispheric specialization theory has been identified as pseudoscientific when applied to mind mapping.[2]
Scholarly research by Farrand, Hussain, and Hennessy (2002) found that the mind map technique had a limited but significant impact on memory recall in undergraduate students (a 10% increase over baseline for a 600-word text only) as compared to preferred study methods (a −6% increase over baseline). This improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group (actually it was 'spider diagrams' not Mind Maps used in this study) and there was a significant decrease in motivation compared to the subjects' preferred methods of note taking. Farrand et al. suggested that learners
preferred to use other methods because using a mind map was an unfamiliar technique, and its status as a "memory enhancing" technique engendered reluctance to apply it. Nevertheless the conclusion of the study was "Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users." Pressley, VanEtten, Yokoi, Freebern, and VanMeter (1998) found that learners tended to learn far better by focusing on the content of learning material rather than worrying over any one particular form of note taking.
5. Advantages of mind mapping compared to technique note habit.
Way of noting linear is such as those which used during the time, very graceless and drag on to our brain. Ability of brain to process information by multi sensory cannot be used maximally if we note linearly. Besides will be doing plenty activity and tire. On the contrary, with map of mind, time note to become much more brief. Process or activity note to become more interesting and please. Needed to time study again what have been noted to become much briefer, and level of recall (recollecting) very good.
6. Tools
Mind mapping software can be used effectively to organize large amounts of information, combining spatial organization, dynamic hierarchical
structuring and node folding. Software packages can extend the concept of mind mapping by allowing individuals to map more than thoughts & ideas with information on their computers and the internet, like spreadsheets, documents, internet sites and images. Here is an example of a mind mapping: And one of the example mind mapping of electric:
- Instructions to Make Mind Mapping
Increase your students' reading speed and comprehension with mind maps. Reading that students who learn the principles of speed reading correctly become better and more satisfied readers. Mind maps enhance the learning of speed reading by encouraging students to quickly take in many words at once rather than one word at a time. The steps below explain how you can create mind maps quickly and effectively. Difficulty: Moderately Challenging Instructions
1. Step 1
Start the mind map on a blank sheet of paper or blank document in a word processing computer program. Select a book or article to focus on. Place the title of the book or article within the text box in the top center of the document.
2. Step 2
Tell students you are going to flash the mind map in front of them for a second or two before taking it away. They must read the entire title of the book or article within that brief moment.
3. Step 3
Ask the students to write down the titles they read. Review their responses for accuracy. Continue practicing with reading titles only on the mind maps until students' perception is correct each time.
4. Step 4
Move on to using complete sentences on the mind maps. Select one or two sentences from the same book or article. Split the sentence into two or three text boxes on the mind map. Flash the mind map in front of the students, now instructing them to read the words within each text box as if they were just one word.
5. Step 5
Test students' comprehension of the sentences by having them explain in writing what they read. Encourage them to anticipate, also in writing, what they believe the following text they read might say.
6. Step 6
Advance to creating mind maps with text boxes that contain entire sentences. Have students practice reading the sentences all at once, trying to assimilate the separate words into one main idea.
7. Step 7
Complete the speed reading lessons with the most advanced mind maps. These have text boxes holding several sentences, clustered
around one main idea. Encourage students to quickly read the text within each box, looking for the one main idea the text contains.
- How to Writing a Descriptive Paragraph:
1. Examine the photograph below.
2. Create a list of descriptive characteristics from the picture (graphic organizer).
3. Weave your descriptive list into a full paragraph of no less than six sentences.
- Some Instructions to make Descriptive Text:
1. Select one picture from the four options provided on the reverse in order to write a description of at least twelve sentences in length.
2. Create a title page, and use correct first page formatting.
3. Use at least one simile.
4. Use at least one metaphor.
5. Use at least one personification.
6. Use imagery that appeals to the senses in order to create mood and a sense of place.
7. Apply knowledge learned from previous instruction this year.
Example Text Descriptive Text
Mekar Sari Garden Fruits
Garden fruit of Mekar Sari is another kind of national park. One of them is
near Puncak in Bogor. It is wide and an opened area. It is much wider. It has much
kind of fruits. Fruits does not we get in market or fruit of tree itself. There we can
see a lot of fruits and we can pick much kind of fruits. There are apples, grape,
watermelon, strawberry, banana, papaya, durian, mango, pineapple, oranges, etc.
We enter area by special bus covered that will accompany us to go there. We can
enjoy it.
The example of mid mapping
Mekar Sari
Garden Fruits
CONCLLUSION Mapping can be very useful for showing important events ideas in relation to each other. In the example below, a student has drawn a map of her life. We can easily see the high points and the low points of her life from this map; also we can see which events stand out in some way for her because she has circled them. If you are telling a story or recounting an experience, mapping can help you organize the material in order. Additionally, it will help you see which events are the most important ones and thus need to be emphasized in the telling or writing. It does not matter what form your brainstorming takes-linear lists, mapping, and it does not matter what you make your notes on-a clean piece of paper, the back of an old envelope, a paper napkin, many kind of scrap paper. This is just an activity for your eyes only-to help you explore your own thoughts and feelings relating to the topic as the first step in writing about the topic.
Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to be considered when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile
to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that "descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic".
1. Buzan, Tony. (2000). The Mind Map Book, Penguin Books, 1996.
2. Farrand, P.; Hussain, F.; Hennessy, E. (2002). "The efficacy of the mind map study technique". Medical Education 36 (5): 426–431.
3. Nast, Jamie. 2006. Idea Mapping. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken. New Jersey
4. Pressley, M., VanEtten, S., Yokoi, L., Freebern, G., & VanMeter, P. (1998). "The metacognition of college studentship: A grounded theory approach". In: D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in Theory and Practice (pp. 347-367).
5. www.cew.wisc.edu
6. www3.interscience.wiley.com
7. www.sil.org
8. www.thefreedictionary.com
9. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essay

Monday, February 14, 2011

Developing Students Writing Skill by Movies

Developing Students Writing Skill by Movies
Mery apriani
NPM: 07211210286
Writing for Academic Purposes
In English there are four language skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. The students must master the four of language skills so they can use English actively and also passively. Writing as a part of the language skills besides listening, speaking and reading, must be taught maximally by the teacher to the student. Writing is also one media of communication. According to Byrne (1980:24) writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication, so that the writer can conclude that writing is very important as one media of communication, that can help us to have a good socialization, can express our idea, feeling, and our opinion so that we can have a good interaction with our society. Although, writing is very important for us, it is a difficult subject especially for the student. The reason is because writing is a mixture of our idea, vocabulary and also grammar. Writing skill are more complex and difficult to teaching, requiring, and mastering not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgment, because of the difficulties of writing, some efforts have been done to solve the problem .The main objective is to make the writing become easier to learn for the students. Writing is a very important subject because in writing we must share idea from our brain, it is not easy to translate concept in our brain to be a written language, and we must also be clever to choose and to combine the vocabulary to create something that is meaningful .We also must pay attention to the grammar, so it is normal if the student think that writing is a difficult subject because they must pay attention to many things (idea, concept, vocabulary and grammar).
Theoretical Background
A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing class.
Film, as stated in Microsoft Encarta (2006), is a series of images that are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore, motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time. But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms, cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures take great pride in their creation. Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the images are sparked on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound.
The functions of film are to educate, entertain, enlighten and inspire the audiences, and in this case the writer tried to use film or movies in the teaching and learning process of narrative text writing. The writer thought that film can also be used as an alternative method in teaching narrative text writing, because the student will get a new experience in their class that is quite different from their daily
experience in their class, and for the teacher a film can be used as an alternative method in teaching that is suitable with their classroom situation.
And as an international language, English is also taught in Indonesia as a foreign language. The goal of English language teaching in Indonesia, as stated in the 12 December 1967 decree of the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture, is to give students a working knowledge of the English language with the following detailed objectives in the order of importance: first is to develop students’ effective reading ability, second is to facilitate students to understand spoken language, third is to develop students’ writing skill, and to develop students’ speaking skill. One of the objectives of English language teaching is to give students an effective writing ability. Learning to write is a process of discovering and organizing ideas, putting them on paper and reshaping and revising them. Many students find writing to be the most difficult lesson since they have to write in English to produce an English text. They have to write down what they think of in their mind and state it on a paper by using a correct procedure. A well-written story lets your readers respond to some events; even
they can almost feel the same. The action details and dialogues put the readers in the scene and make it happen for them. Moreover, it often engages readers’ emotion so powerfully. It can play a large role on other types of writing. To figure the problems out, the writer tries to use a film of narrative text in teaching written cycle. Students can feel more relaxed in learning writing and it will be easier for them to produce a narrative text.
A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing class.
1. Elements of Film
According to Bordwell, a filmmaker has to prepare some basic elements in making a good film. They are script, actors, sets, costumes, aspect ratio lighting, sound, special effects, music and sound effect.
a) Script
Most films are based on written screen plays, which can be adapted from material from other media, such as plays, novels or can be written originally for the screen.
b) Actors
Actors have a very important part in making a film successful in market. They have to be totally involved with the story. They have to act as if they experience the story themselves.
c) Sets
There are two basic kinds of set, the natural and studio constructed. Most members of the audience are not able to differentiate, because the skillful of the filmmakers can create desirable illusions as various and wonderful as they want.
d) Costumes
The clothes people wear reveal much about them; clothes can indicate social, economics, and occupational status and express individual personality.
e) Aspect ratio
The term aspect ratio and format refer to proportions of the film frame. The choice of aspect ratio is crucial to the final ‘look’ of the film. A story set in the open expanse of the desert or the sea, for example, will have more power if the aspect ratio makes it possible to capture that expanse visually. But if a wide screen format is used for dialogue scenes, in which one looks at first at one character in close up and then moves to another.
f) Lighting
Lighting in a film is generally manipulated as to amount, contrast, angle and the kind. Filmmakers talk about two kinds of key lighting; high key and low key. High key lighting tends to bring objects in thebackground or different planes of action into relatively sharp focus. Low key lightning generally requires the use of light from several sources rather than from a single major source, such as the sun. Contrast is important to the effect of lighting generally, the higher the contrast is, the more vivid the emotional tone and three-dimensional effect of the images will be.
g) Special effect
Special effects cinematography is one of the most complex elements in the creation of a film. It ranges from rear screen projection, in which previously photographed material is projected in back of the actors, to the use of elaborate optical benches in which photographed material is re-short to produce entirely new results.
h) Music
Most film viewers know that contemporary films use music in various ways, but few are aware of the extents to produce its effects emotionally and usually ‘blends in’, film music often not consciously noted. Musical usage can range from a stringer –a sharp, usually loud chord that accentuates surprise, revolution, or tenor-to a lush string section playing during a tender or passionate love scene to convey the emotions of two peoples. Music can totally change the mood of scene, rendering it comic, and serious, or deeply disturbing, depending on the filmmaker’s intent.
i) Sound effect
Sound effect involves not only noises that are directly related to what is seen on the screen, such as gunfire, storms, water, and wind. They can also be used to add to the mood and tone of scenes without being directly motivated by the action. With the increasing development of electronic music and varieties of amplified sound, the lines between naturalistic sound effects, music, and electronically generated sound that is used purely for emotional impact have blurred. Bordwell (57:1997) From Brodwell’s opinion, the writer can conclude that the element of film are Script ,actors ,sets ,costumes, dialogue, aspect ratio, lighting, special effect and music.
2. Types of Film
Bordwell and Thompson (1997:50) defined the types of movie or film as follow:
(1) Documentary film
A documentary film supports to present factual information about the world outside the film. As a type of films, documentaries present themselves as factually trustworthy. According to Bordwell and Thompson (1997:44) there are two types of documentary films, they are:
 Compilation films; produced by assembling images from archival
 Direct cinema; recording an on going event ‘as it happens’ with
minimal interference by the filmmaker.
(2) Fictional film
A fictional film presents imaginary beings, places or events. Yet, if a film is fictional, that does not mean that it is completely unrelated actuality. For one thing, not everything shown or implied by the fiction films needs to be imaginary, a typical fictional film stages its events; they are designed, planned, rehearsed, filmed and refilmed. In a fictional film the agents are portrayed or depicted by an intermediate, not photographed directly in documentary.
(3) Animated film
Animated films are distinguished from live-action ones by the unusual kinds of work that are done at production stage. Animation films do not do continuously
filming outdoor action in the real time, but they create a series of images by shooting one frame at a time.
(4) Experimental or avant-grade film
Some filmmakers set out to create films that challenge orthodox notion of what movies can show and how it can show it. Experimental films are made for many reasons, they are:
 The filmmakers want to express personal experience or view
 The filmmakers may also want to explore some possibilities of
the medium it self,
 The experimental filmmakers may tell no story but they may
create a fictional story that will usually challenge the viewer.
3. Advantages of Film in Teaching Writing
Harmer (2002:282) states that the advantages of using film in teaching and learning process are:
1. Seeing language - in- use
One of the main advantages of film is that students do not just hear language, they see it too. This greatly aids comprehension, since for example, general meaning and moods are often conveyed though expression, gesture and other visual clues. Thus we can observe how intonation can match facial expression. All such, paralinguistic features give valuable meaning clues and help viewers to see beyond what they are listening to, and thus interpret the text more deeply.
2. Cross – cultural awareness.
A film uniquely allows students to look at situations far beyond their classrooms. This is especially useful if hey want to see, for example, typical British ‘body language ‘ when inviting someone out, or how American speak to waiters. Film is also of great values in giving students a chance to see such things as what kinds of food people eat in other countries and what they wear.
3. The power of creation
When the students make their own film as media in teaching and learning process, they are given the potential to create something memorable and enjoyable. The camera operators and directors suddenly have considerable power. The task of filmmaking can provoke genuine creative and communicative uses of the language, with students finding
themselves doing new things in English.
4. Motivation
For all the reasons so far mentioned, most students show an increased level of interest when they have a chance to see language in use as well as hear it, and when this is coupled with interesting tasks.
4. Importance of Writing
Writing, as one of the language skills, has given an important contribution to human work. Generally, writing can be interpreted as the act of forming or tracing a character on paper or other suitable materials with a pen or pencil. Rivers (1968:242)
distinguished writing from other skills according to the form; it was from the simplest form to the most highly developed one. From its simplest one, writing can be conceived as the act of putting down in conventional graphic from something that had been spoken. Another definition is given by Michael (1981:10) that writing could be a systematical visible and permanent representation of the auditory and transient phenomena of speech, Byrne (1980:24) defines that writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication.
Mean while, Flower suggests a more elaborate definition Flower, States writing is a social act that can only occur within a specific situation. It is therefore influenced both by the personal attitudes and social experiences that the writer brings to writing and the impacts of the particular political and institutional context in which it interviews, Analyses of surrounding practices and other techniques, researchers seek to develop more complete accounts to local writing contexts (1989:54). In line with Flower, Nystrand also states that writing is a matter of elaborating text in accordance with what the writer can reasonably assume that the reader knows and expects. Nystrand states: Writing is a matter of elaborating text in accordance with what the writer can reasonably assume that the reader knows and expects, and the process of reading is a matter of predicting text in accord with what the reader assumes about the writer’s purpose (1989: 75). Meanwhile, Meyers says that writing is a way to produce language when you do and when you speak. Writing is communicating with others in a verbal way. Meyers states: Writing is a way to produce language, which you do naturally when you speak. Writing is communicating with others in a verbal way. ssWriting is also an action-a process of discovering and organizing your ideas, putting them on a paper and reshaping and revising them
Writing, as one of the language skills, has given an important contribution to human work. There are so many records of recent activities that we can read today, which can also be read in the future. As a good teacher, we need to use visual aids as a method in writing teaching and learning process because by using visual aids, teacher can give new atmosphere in their class so that the students have a big enthusiasm in teaching learning process, besides visual aid can help students master the material that the teacher gives to them.
From Heaton’s statement above the writer can conclude that besides the other language skills (reading, listening, and speaking), writing is one of language skills that is more complex and difficult than the others. Because students must mastering the grammar and vocabulary. The students must have concept of writing not only in their brain but they also have to translate it in writing language, and it is difficult to write concepts that exist in our brain. So more students assume that writing is a difficult lesson and the result is that the student did not want to study writing or make a text of writing. It is important for teacher to find a method that can make students easily master the material and they can also enjoy the writing class. The writer hopes that film can be an alternative method in teaching narrative texts writing. There are many lots of methods of teaching that can be applied in teaching and learning process such as using pictures, song, card, games, film, drama and more methods that the teacher can use. This method can help the students and teacher in teaching and learning process.
The English teacher can use any kinds of method or visual aid but they must remember that the method must be suitable with their classroom situation; it must be
able to make the students feel comfortable and enjoy the lesson so they can easily master the material. He also had opinion in his book, Visual Aid for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (1965; 41), that the use of any kind of methods has goals to give the students the opportunity to express their own idea, using the language pattern that they have learned. The function of using all kinds of method of opportunity in using English in a way that enables them to express their ideas, interest feeling and needs, clearly, correctly and confidently.
Film, as stated in Microsoft Encarta (2006), is a series of images that are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore, motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time. But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms, cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures take great pride in their creation. Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the images are sparked on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound. The functions of film are to educate, entertain, enlighten and inspire the audiences, and in this case the writer tried to use film or movies in the teaching and learning process of narrative text writing. From that statement the writer can conclude that visual aids are very important and useful in teaching learning process so that students will be more enthusiastic in learning writing in classroom. And many writer thought that film can also be used as an alternative method in teaching narrative text writing, because the student will get a new
experience in their class that is quite different from their daily experience in their class, and for the teacher a film can be used as an alternative method in teaching that is suitable with their classroom situation.
In this case we can conclude that movie or film is very useful in writing teaching process. Especially in writing narrative text, here there are many step how to write good narrative text.
1. Orientation
In which the writer tells the audience about who the character in the story are, where the story is taking place, and when the action is happen. (Can be a paragraph, a picture or opening chapter)
2. Complication
The story is pushed along by a series of events, during which we usually expect some sort of complication or problem to arise. It just would not be so interesting if something unexpected did not happen. This complication will involve the main character(s) and often serves to (temporally) toward them, for reaching their goal. Narratives mirror the complications we face in life and tend to reassure us that they are resolvable.
3. Resolution
In a “satisfying “narrative, a resolution of the complication is brought about. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left completely unresolved (although this is of course possible in certainly types of narrative, which leave us wondering (how is the end?) Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that the generic structures of recount are:
Firstly is an orientation. The readers are introduced to the main characters and possibly some minor characters. Some indication is generally given of where the
action and when an action happened. Secondly is complication. This is where the writer tells how the problem arises; sometimes something unexpected events will happen. Thirdly is resolution. It is an optional closure of event. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left completely unresolved. The writer can conclude that resolution is the end of a story. Furthermore, the generic structure of narrative text can be shortened as; orientation, complication and resolution.
writing is a very important subject because in writing we must share idea from our brain, it is not easy to translate concept in our brain to be a written language, and we must also be clever to choose and to combine the vocabulary to create something that is meaningful .We also must pay attention to the grammar, so it is normal if the student think that writing is a difficult subject because they must pay attention to many things (idea, concept, vocabulary and grammar). Besides that reason, there is another factor that makes writing be the most difficult subject. The other reason is that there are a lot of many kinds of texts in English, such as narrative, descriptive, recount, spoof and many more. Each text has different characteristics. There are generic social function, structure and lexicon grammatical features. Usually the student can differentiate each text from another and they mix all kinds of texts. This will be a challenge for the teacher to find out how the student can distinguish each kind of text from another. To solve that problem, a teacher must find out how to make them be able to distinguish each kind of text from another, the teacher also must try to develop the ability of writing, grammar and structure of the student, and they also must find out an interesting method or visual aid to teach writing, so they will be interested in writing class.
Jennifer Peat, Elizabeth Elliott, Louise Baur, Victoria Keena. 2002. Scientific Writing Easy when you know how. BMJ Books, BMA House, Tavistock Square Publisher
Sherwin Cody. 2006. The art of writing and speaking English. The Old Greek Press. Publisher
Peter Elbow. 2000. Every one can write. Oxford University Press.
Mary kay stein, Linda Kucan. 2009. Inatructional Explanation in the Discipline. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York,
NY 10013, USA),

“Teaching How to Write Descriptive Text Using Descriptive Video”

“Teaching How to Write Descriptive Text Using Descriptive Video” Subject of Writing For Academic Purposes Lecturer H Cunong N Suraja
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INTRODUCTION Writing is one of skill which very important in English competence. Besides reading speaking and listening, writing skill is rather difficult mastered. The others skill is compounded in writing because the student who has good writing skill, he or she is good in others skill. Actually, writing cannot be opened done. It has the complex rules according with the kind of writing. Writing as a process to get product is influenced by some elements such as vocabularies, grammar, organization, spelling, and punctuation. In the writing English subject, students have to know and understand those elements. Students have been learned kinds of text in writing skill. They should produce written simple functional text in the recount text, narrative text, news items, procedures, and descriptive text. They can use right diction, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and organization. Based on the title of this paper, writer describes the writing of descriptive text using descriptive video. Descriptive text is difficult enough to learn by the students. Descriptive is a type of text function to describe particular person, place, or thing. The students can use simple present and adjective clause in writing descriptive text. The methods that are usually used to teach writing in the class are guided writing and individual writing. In guided writing method the students’ activity is to write out grammar exercise. This method is not affective to improve student’s writing ability. Whereas in writing the descriptive text using video is more effective and efficient because methods between guided writing and individual writing are compounded into a practice method. The use of descriptive video in teaching descriptive writing can help student to write easily and interesting. In addition, it can develop to assist student’s exercise in writing individually. Although descriptive video technology was developed to assist individuals with visual impairments, it can be used to help all students build their vocabulary, comprehension, writing ability and the generic structure of the text.
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1. Definition of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose or function is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. The content of text of course has a rule and formation called generic structure or text organization.. The generic structure of descriptive text are : Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described. Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics
Descriptive text also has the gramatical fitures and the significant characteristisc as gramatically. Significant grammatical structure as follows: focus on specific participants use of attributive and identifying processes frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups use of simple present tense
The purpose from the text above that description is used in all forms of writing to create a vivid impression of a person, place, object or event e.g. to: Describe a special place and explain why it is special. Describe the most important person in your live. Describe the animal’s habit in your report.
Descriptive writing or text is usually also used to help writer develop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc. To complete our intention to, here are the characteristics based on descriptive writing or text, below;
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As a feature, description is a style of writing which can be useful for other variety of purposes as: To engage a reader’s attention To create characters To set a mood or create an atmosphere To being writing to life
Description is one of the genres taught in the eleventh year. It takes 8.77% of all texts found in the textbook. All description texts found in the textbook have good generic structures. They have completed all of their obligatory elements. To describe something is to mention certain details of it so that whoever reads or hears the words can imagine it in their own minds. Everybody can imagine and, as with any ability, with practice you get better. Descriptive language crops up everywhere – it is in fact a very vague term. Descriptions crop up in all kinds of writing,
2. The influences of implementing technology in learning and teaching process Technology is one of most effective media in teaching and learning process. Along of developed word, technology has been growing up each era. It gives the influence into educational process, from methods, instrumens and learning media. How technological media has improved students' learning, helps teachers to think constructively and critically, and builds towards a practical methodology for the design, development and implementation of educational technologies. To explore students' learning, teacher has to use the suitable educational technology bases on subject individual teaching methods and media, including non-interactive media (lectures, print, audio, etc.), hypermedia (CD-ROM, etc.), and interactive media (simulations, modelling programs etc.); and discusses the design methodology, designing learning activities, setting up the learning context and maintaining quality.
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Basicly, technology has to be flexibly and creatively. It is able to size up a task, recognize how technology might help them to fulfill the task, and then use the technology to do so. Helping students learn to apply technology in learning is easier because the use of technology as daily media in teaching learning process. Students are learning to use technology as part of the information problem-solving process to perform better in classroom curriculum. When a teacher reflects on integrating technology skills into teaching and learning, it is not necessary to change the fundamentals of quality instruction or the information problem-solving perspective that is at the heart of the big skills approach. The implementation of technology through the big works in the following ways: ■Develops students’ problem-solving, complex thinking and information management abilities. ■ Enables students to become comfortable with technology and understand that the technologies are valuable tools to help them perform their work. ■ Focuses students’ attention on using technologies as tools to extend knowledge and to individualize learning. ■ develops an active participatory learning process in which students become self-directed learners. ■ Facilitates integrating technology across all grades and into all disciplines. ■ Assists teachers to change their roles from presenters of information to “learning coaches” who offer tools and advice. ■ Helps teachers introduce technology and have students use technologies even if the teachers aren’t experts themselves. Implementing technology within the big process is easy, direct, and powerful. It also encourages classroom teachers, library media specialists, and technology teachers to collaboratively design instruction that can intentionally create challenging and exciting learning experiences. Such opportunities expand the scope of new technology use by all students.
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3. Descriptive Video as implementation of technology in education
One of teaching method which helps students improve their writing abilities and their attention to details while experiencing a new technology called Descriptive Video. Also known as described programming, Descriptive Video refers to programming with an additional audio track that narrates a film’s visual elements. Video is one of technology using as media for teaching and learning. Video uses visual and audiovisual. The video can be stored on videotapes, CD-Rom, DVD, or computer drives, and it can be used in either preservice or inservice teacher education/professional development programs. Kind of descriptive video in this writing is educated video such video of animal’s description, nature, etc.This additional audio track contains narration or description to explain the plot of film and the knowledge of the educated massage. Contributors explain the nature of the video they use in their teacher education programs or courses and talk about how they use it, focusing in particular on principles for: (1) making the videos (decisions about how and what to capture on video, the degree to which the teaching should be scripted, whether it should be shown uninterrupted or segmented and edited, and so on), and (2) principles for using the video in the teacher education program (why and how it is used at what points in the program, how viewings are structured and scaffolded by the teacher
4. Teaching writing of descriptive text using descriptive Video
Teachers can use Descriptive Video technology to differentiate instruction. Described programming gives students models of highly descriptive writing. Some students are able to use these models and improve their writing with relative independence. Other students require greater scaffolding. Actually, the use of media technologies such video offer new literacies and that these literacies depend to some extent on using media technology to communicate effectively. In this paper, students will balance theory with practice, and the successful student will leave with technical, working knowledge of some New Media technology. She
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will also be familiar with what it means to think critically with and through these technologies.
Student’s Descriptive Writing Process
Student’s writing process after watching video ; Describe from memory Take the topic or object that students are going to write base on the video that being watched and picture it in the mind. Imagine that students are close enough to touch and feel the object in the video. Look at it closely and identify its story.. Write every detail about the object that can be remembered. Sketch Student tries to draw a pictures of the object which attends in video. Visualize it in student’s mind and sketch from memory, or place studentsselvis comfortably near the object.. This sketch is just for helping students fully explore the details of the object. Sketching the object also gives a creative outlet for when student are struggling with putting pen to paper. Reviewing and pointing Students tries to remember the plot in descriptive video that has been watched and make the outlines by arranging the description of the object in that video. Compliting Student tries to give the more detail description of object bases on the outline formation.
Teaching descriptive writing process
Steps teaching writing using video: Always preview and evaluate the video even if you produced it yourself. It will help establish relevance in terms of the points or visuals you wish to emphasise during the viewing. Check the room’s lighting, seating, picture and sound quality to be sure that everyone can see and hear the video when it is played.
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Prepare student’s writing tools like book and pencil to darw the key point of video content. Prepare students by briefly reviewing previous related studies, or teach prerequisite skills in order to equalise students’ background. Brief them on the video’s contents and list the key points to direct attention to specific aspects of the video relatinng with what will be wrote. For recapitulation or further discussion, re-play the video to consolidate information which was previously presented rapidly. This contributes to the overall learning experience as students will have the opportunity to see what they have missed in the first showing. Since watching a video is mostly a passive activity, you should introduce activities to motivate student participation, especially before and after the playback Conduct post-viewing discussions or quizzes to emphasise key issues or points. Redirect attention to new content or concepts, and help students to process complex information. Assign writing lists and project work and so on. teacher may identifys other activities that would help to reinforce student learning
Steps teaching writing of descriptive text (After showing a video)
Calkins’s Four Phases of the Writing Process. According to Calkins (1994), there are four distinct phases of the writing process: prewriting, writing, editing, and revising. Phase 1: Prewriting
Teacher gives some questions to the student’s brainstorm a list of object; here writer use an example about animal. Examples of the questions: - What is the animal’s name? - What does the animal look like? - What kind of animal is it? - What is the animal’s habitat? - Is the animal nocturnal or diurnal? - What does the animal eat? Is it herbivore or Carnivore?
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- Tell an interesting fact about the animal. - What enemies does the animal have? From these questions directly show the formulation of descriptive text. This way is to give the direction how to arrange the descriptive text after watching a video to the students. Phase 2: Writing
In this phase, teacher takes an instruction to the students for making outline or mapping of the answering of these questions relate to the content of video. Example: [What is the animal’s name?] ------- The name of this animal is [name of animal]. It is a [mammal, bird, or reptile]. It lives in the forests of [continent or Country]. It can be made like a graphic or mapping before arranging into paragraphs. Other examples takes from Joseph’s completed graphic organizer:
Here is Joseph’s draft report: Hedgehog The name of this animal is hedgehog. It is mammal. It lives in North America, Asia, and Europe. It lives in desert. Hedgehog eats insects, snails, snakes, bird eggs and grass. It is omnivore. It is nocturnal because it eats food at night. Something unusual about my animal is that spines come out when hedgehog is scared. It rolls into a ball. It has enemies like owl, fox, mongoose and wolf.
Hedgehog eats snails, insects and plants? It is omnivore.
Hedgehog is mammal.
Hedgehog is nocturnal. It hunts for food at night.
Hedgehog rolls in ball when hedgehog is scared.
Hedgehog live in the forest of Europe, Asia, and
North America.
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Phase 3: Editing
Many teachers may ask their students to self-edit because they believe that students should be given the opportunity to self-correct their work. However, students will not be able to self-edit, as they will have trouble finding most of their mistakes and may be frustrated in the attempt. When students are fluent enough to discuss their written ideas and thoughts, the teacher should provide instruction on how to peer edit using think-aloud and modeling. For example, the teacher takes her text as model to edit step by steps, while from generic structures and the use of tense etc. Phase 4: Revising
It is important to tie the type of revision that is possible for each learner. For example, students in the early stages may not yet have developed the skills for describing possessives and tenses; they may only just be learning how to write nouns in the plural form and match them to the correct verb forms. When reviewing students’ papers, teachers tell specific details about what they are supposed to do during the revision process. Simply stating, “Add more information here” is too vague; a more appropriate comment would be “Mention something special that hedgehogs can do here.” If students are a part of the editing process, the revisions will be more meaningful to them. Giving a homework writing
Teacher gives instruction to the student for rewrite descriptive text using descriptive video which is given to each student in a form of CD. Presenting a Finished Document
Teachers should encourage students to share their writing with classmates and family. Students can display work in the classroom and hallway or “publish” classroom books.
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ANALYSIS 1. The efectiveness of using descriptive video in teaching descriptive text;
The efectiveness of using descriptive video for;
Student in learning process
Teacher in teaching process
Student need the focus time and use the full efective times to analyse text by watching video
Teacher has the efective time in teaching when use the video need the enough time to be efective teaching. It must by appointing times in course plan.
Student will more understand about the description of their writing and they can easily appointing the plot of the video becomes generic structure of descriptive text
Teacher will more understand about teaching technique how to match the content of video with steps of teaching instruction.
Student can operate technology as the guided class-learning and self- learning
Teacher can operate technology as the guided learning and teaching
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2. Grafic of Teaching Learrning Process in Descriptive Writing using Descriptive Video
 Preparing for playing a video
 Giving an intruction to note some question
 Playing video
 Controling a watching process and guides it.
 Giving the model outlines of list scene
 Giving intruction to rewrite the content or scene of video
 Editing the writing togethers
 Giving task to rewrite the others video
 Publishing student’s writing
 preparing for watching
 Watching and pointing the main point of the scenes
 Making outlines and explenation of the scenes
 Arranging the outlines become a plot based on the video
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 Editing it by looking at teacher’s intruction
 Review it at home
3. Compression between Manual Writing and Automatic Writing. Manual writing is done without instrument or technology as a media to get a source for making a text, while automatic writing is writing text by using technology as media and instrument for getting some descriptions about object. Steps to make manual writing are:
1. Find and Explore a Topic
Before the writer can write an effective descriptive paragraph, the writer needs to do two things: find a good topic; study the topic carefully (a strategy that we call probing).
For guidelines and examples, visit Discovery Strategy: Probing its Topic.
2. Draft a Descriptive Paragraph
Once the writer has settled on a topic for its descriptive paragraph and collected some details, the writer ready to assemble those details in a rough draft that begins with a topic sentence. the writer will find a common model for organizing a description at Draft a Descriptive Paragraph.
3. Revise a Descriptive Paragraph
Now the writer will revise your descriptive paragraph, concentrating on its organization. That is, the writer will check to see that its sentences follow a clear and logical order, each detail related to the one that came before and leading to the one that follows. These two exercises will give you practice in revising effectively: Practice in Supporting a Topic Sentence with Specific Details Practice in Organizing a Descriptive Paragraph
4. Revise, Edit, and Proofread
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It's now time to invite someone else (a classmate, for example, teacher) to read the writer’s descriptive paragraph and suggest ways to improve it. Taking the reader's comments into consideration, revise the paragraph one last time, using as a guide this Revision Checklist for a Descriptive Paragraph. For examples of the finished product, see Model Descriptive Paragraphs Example of descriptive text:
The Blond Guitar
By Jeremy Burden My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guitar--the first instrument I taught myself how to play. It's nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed. At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key. The strings are stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the wood worn by years of fingers pressing chords and picking notes. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago. No, it's not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it. If the writer analyzes the steps of manual writing, it’s use self mind as much and exploring the individual study. This method is fare if it used for high student or Student University, but the automatic writing which use technology as media is special for senior and elementary student. Both of these methods of writing are good for each target.
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CONCLUSION Writing is part of English skill. Writing as a process to get product is influenced by some elements such as vocabularies, grammar, organization, spelling, and punctuation. However descriptive text tends to specify the described object Descriptive text commonly tries to reveal the image of certain person, place, animal, or thing,Text Descriptive text has structure as below: Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described. And description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics. The language feature of descriptive text using attributive and identifying process. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Using simple present tense Video is media or instrument to guide student in making descriptive text. This technology is effective if applaying to elementary and junior student. The use of video guides in making an topic and outline of the description text then student easy to arrange these outlines become a text. There are two process of methods which have been explained in this paper, such follows: teaching descriptive writing using descriptive video and learning how to write descriptive text using descriptive video. Both of these process are more efective then manual writing which doesn’t use technology in teaching and learning.
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REFERENCES Berkowitz, R. & Michael B. E. (2000). “Teaching Information &Technology Skills: TheBig6™in Secondary Schools”, Ohio: Linworth Publishing. Bowkett, Steve (2010).” Countdown to non-fiction writing: step by step approach to writing”, New York : Routledge. DiPrince, Dawn (2005).” Twisting Arms Teaching Students How to Write to Persuade”, Colorado: Cottonwood Press Grenville, Kate. (2001).” Writing from start to finish: a six-step guide”, Sydney: Allen & Unwin Haynes Judie & Zacarian, Debie. (2010).” Teaching English language Learners across the Content areas”, Alexandria: ASCD. Nur Listyani, Heny (27th of July 2006). “Generic Structure; Analysis on Written Texts Found in the English Textbook for the Twelfth Year of Senior High School.” (Paper writing), Semarang


Name : Nike Wiedyani
NPM : 07211210414
This chapter gives a brief description of some fundamental reasons underlying the topic of the research. In detail, this chapter consists of background statement of the problem, the scope of the research, the aim of the research, hypothesis, research method, research procedure. The result of the research proved that the experimental group that used previewing is effective in improving student’ reading comprehension by email.
Not all teachers realize the important of teaching reading. In teaching reading, there are some teachers that just say “Please turn to page 34. Read the passage and answer the questions.” The teachers who start the lesson in this way are hardly likely to motivate students to read. It can make students just read the text and do not comprehend the text; while in the competence standard, it is stated that students have to comprehend the text.
To comprehend the text, the students need some motivation, background knowledge, and some strategies and skills. Students may fail to comprehend the texts while researching text. Lazar (1993:76) groups such problems as motivation, comprehension, making interpretations, and inadequate reading strategies. Those kinds of failure occur, because of the lack of appropriate knowledge structures.
To solve those problems, pre-reading activity is appropriate. Eddie Williams (1989: 37) states the functions of pre-reading activity are to introduce and arouse interest in the topic of the text, to motivate learners by giving a reason for reading, and to provide some language preparation for the text. In line with Williams, Chastain (1988) states that the purpose of pre-reading activities is to motivate the students to read the assignment and to prepare them to be able to read it.
There are some research such as The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on ELT Trainee Teachers’ Comprehension of Short Stories, Increasing Comprehension by Activating Prior Knowledge and Sehema Theory-Based Pre-Reading Tasks: A Neglected Essential in the ESL, Reading Class that investigate the effectiveness of pre-reading activity in improving students’ reading comprehension. And the result of their researches showed that the use of pre-
reading activity in improving students’ reading comprehension is effective. The researchers use different reading activity for the different subject.
Pre-reading activity creates an opportunity to challenge the students to call on their collective experiences (prior knowledge). Pre-Reading activity has been developed to help students relate new information in written discourse to their prior knowledge. Prior knowledge is an important element in reading process. It is an essential factor in comprehension that makes sense of reading experiences.
A number of organized pre-reading approaches and methods have been proposed in the literature for facilitating reading through activation of background knowledge. Lazar (1993) classifies the provide knowledge that the reader lack as: previewing, providing background knowledge, pre-questioning, and brainstorming. In this research, the writer will use previewing as pre-reading activity. Previewing the text by using the title, pictures, illustrations, or subtitles of a text as stimuli, can help students predict or make some educated guesses about what is in the text and thus activate effective top-down processing for reading comprehension.
Through this process, the teacher moves students from memorizing information to meaningful reading activity and begins the process of connecting reading activity rather than remembering bits and pieces.
In this research, referring to those descriptions, writer would like to observe the effectiveness of previewing as pre-reading activity to improve students’ reading comprehension ability.
Research Question
In order to reach the aims of the research, it is a must for the writer to select the problem that is going to be investigated. According to Arikunto (1998), to enable the research to be conducted appropriately, a researcher should formulate the problem as clear as possible.
Relating to the theory above, this research address the following questions:
1. Would the use of previewing as a pre-reading activity lead to significantly higher reading comprehension than when they read without previewing?
2. What is students’ perception of the use of previewing as a pre-reading activity to improve students’ reading comprehension?
The Scope of the Study
This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of previewing as pre-reading activity to improve student’ reading comprehension and students’ perceptions toward previewing.
The Aims of the Study
In conducting the study, the researcher has aims to achieve. There are two aims as follow :
1. To investigate whether the use of previewing lead to significantly higher comprehension than when they read without previewing.
2. To discover whether the students’ perception toward the use of previewing improve their reading comprehension.
According to Hatch and Farhady (1982) hypothesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research. It means that a hypothesis should be formulated before starting a research.
Thy hypothesis proposed in this research is “previewing is effective to improve students’ reading comprehension”.
Research Method
To get the empirical data, the quantitative method was employed since the goal is to find out the effectiveness of previewing to improve students’ reading comprehension, the experimental study used is quasi-experimental design. This category of design is most frequently used in the evaluation of education program when it is not possible for the researcher to use random assignment (Gribbons and Herman, 1997).
This design was used due to the reason that there is limited of time. As Hatch and Farhady (1982:23) state:
Because of these and many other limitations, constructing a true experimental design may be difficult if not impossible. However, it does not mean that we should abandon research that our studies need to be approximate as closely as possible the standards of true experimental design. The some care we take, the more confident we can be that we can share with others.
In this research, the method used is quasi-experimental design with
formula :
G2 T1 T2
G1 T1 X T2
G1 : Experimental group
G2 : Control group
X : Treatment
T1 : Pretest
T2 : Posttest
Research Procedure
The research employed some procedures of follows:
Data Collection
1. Library research
The writer read lot journals, research papers, books, and other literary related
to the research.
2. Preparing the investigation
a. Observation on the spot
b. Preparing questionnaire
3. Giving a pretest
4. Treatment
Treatment was given only to the experimental group.
5. Giving Posttest
6. Giving questionnaire.
Population and Sample
A group of subjects who were chosen as a population was simply a group
that had or more similar characteristic in common. In this research, the population
was the second year students of SMP NEGERI 12 Bandung. The samples of this
research were two classes which were selected based on the classification made
by school.
The instruments used in this study were reading comprehension test and questionnaires. The reading comprehension test was used in pretest and post test. The pretest and posttest ware given to both experimental and control groups. The pretest was conducted at the beginning and the post test was given at the end of the research. The purpose is to measure students’ reading comprehension. The questionnaire was given only to the experimental group to investigate students’ perceptions toward previewing.
Data Analysis
The data analysis performed in this research involved several statistical processes. First, analyzing the students’ scores on try-out test to investigate the validity and reliability of the instruments. Second, analyzing the experimental and the control groups’ scores in the pretest and post test using t-test formula to investigate whether the tow groups are equivalent or not. Third, analyzing the scores of pretest and posttest of each group to investigate whether there was a significant improvement in students’ scores. Fourth, analyzing the students’ perceptions using percentage. The last is interpreting the research findings.
Clarification of Terms
In this study, there are some terms need to be clarified to avoid misinterpretation and unnecessary misunderstanding of the terms used in this paper. Some terms are clarified as follow:
a. Previewing: predict or make some educated guesses about what is in the text by using several stimuli in a text such as title, photographs, illustrations, or subtitles.
b. Pre-reading: the activity that introduce the topic of the text, motivate the learners to read, and provide some language preparation for the text.
c. Reading: a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas.
d. Reading comprehension: the process of inferring the ideas and information that depends on that depends on the information contained and the background information available with the reader.
The Nature of Reading
Reading is a process of deriving meaning from written or printed text. Although reading is a receptive skill, reading is a active and interactive process. Anderson (1999) states that reading is an active process that involves the reader and the reading material in building meaning.
Furthermore, Reading is a selective process. (Goodman, 1970: 260) states:
Reading is a selective process. It involves partial use of available minimal language cues selected from perceptual input on the basis of the reader’s expectation. As this partial information is processed, tentative decisions are made to be confirmed, rejected or refined as reading progresses.
Moreover, Mackay and Mountford (1997) make inferences from the definition proposed by Goodman above as follows:
1. The definition assumes that reading is an active process.
2. Reading must be viewed as a two-fold phenomenon involving process comprehending-and product-comprehension
3. Reading involves an interaction between thought and language. Additionally, according to Wallace (1992):
.….texts do not contain meaning; rather they have potential for meaning. This potential is realized only in the interaction between text reader. That is, meaning is created in the course of reading as the reader draws both on existing linguistic and schematic knowledge and the input provided by the printed or written text.
Furthermore, reading is viewed as a kind of interaction that occurs between the reader and the text (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983; Grabe, 1983). The meaning, as an outcome of the interaction between the reader and the text, not only resides in the text itself, but also lies in the interaction between the reader and the text (Grabe, 1991). Grabe and Stoller (2002:18) state that reading is also interactive in term that linguistic information from the text interacts with information activated by the reader from long-run memory, as background knowledge.
In addition, Jones (2003) states that the keys to comprehension are the activation of background knowledge, active engagement in content, and metacognition. Furthermore, Hayes and Tierney (1982) states that presenting background information related to the topic to be learned help readers learn from
texts regardless of how that background information is presented or how specific or general it is.
Reading is an activity with purpose. A person may read in order to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer’s ideas or writing style. Grabe & Stoller (2002:18) says that reading is always purposeful not only in the sense that readers read in varied ways derived from differing reading purposes, but also in the sense that some individual purpose or task, whether imposed internally or externally, activate any motivation to read a given text. According to Grabe & Stoller (2002:18) there are seven purposes of reading, those are reading to reach for simple information, to skim quickly, to learn from text, to get an integrate information, to search information needed for writing, to critique texts and to achieve general comprehension.
Lastly, both teachers and students need to recognize the knowledge of reading definition and purposes. It facilitates teachers to determine the appropriate approach for teaching reading. For students, it helps students’ awareness of reading process and reading strategies.
The Characteristics of Good Readers
Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. The text presents letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs that encode meaning. The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to determine what that meaning is. According to Solomon (1990:12) there are several characteristics of good readers. Those characteristics are:
a. Concern with meaning rather than making sounds
b. Reading quickly and not focusing on every letter or word
c. Leaving out unknown words when fluency is more important than accuracy
d. Using different reading strategies depending on the content and purpose of reading
e. Paying attention only to the relevant information
f. Guessing and predicting ahead
g. Looking quickly through something unfamiliar before reading it in detail
h. Picking up key words to get an idea of what it is about
In addition, according to Byrnes (National Capital Language Resource Center, 2004) there are six characteristic of a good reader, those are read extensively, integrate information in the text with existing knowledge, have a flexible reading style depending on what they are reading, have motivation, rely on different skills interacting, and read for a purpose in the sense that reading serves a function.
Furthermore, according to Duke and Pearson (1999) a good reader has several strategies:
a. Have clear goals for their reading
b. Look over the text before reading
c. Activate prior knowledge
d. Make predictions
e. Use meaning and expect the text to make sense
f. Makes connections: text to self, text to text, text to world
g. Used text features (pictures, headings, boldface type)
h. Identify important ideas and words.
One of the main purpose of teaching reading is to teach student to be a good reader. To accomplish it, teachers need to comprehend the characteristics of good readers.
Reading Comprehension
Grabe & Stoller (2002:17) state that reading comprehension is the ability to understand information in a text and interpret it appropriately. Reading comprehension is the process through which the dynamic interaction of the reader’s background knowledge, the information inferred from the written language, and the reading situation context is constructing meaning (Dutcher 1990).
In reading comprehension, processes in reading play an important role. According to Grabe & Stoller (2002 : 17) there are several processes involved in reading comprehension; those are interactive process, strategic process, and evaluating process. Interactive process means that linguistic information from the text interacts with information activated by the reader from long-term memory, as
background knowledge strategic process mean that reader able to read flexibly in line with changing purposes and the ongoing monitoring of comprehension. Evaluating process mean that reader must decide if the information being read is coherent and matches the purpose of reading.
Reading comprehension is one of the purposes of teaching reading, so teacher must recognize the process to achieve it.
The Concept of Teaching Reading in Classroom
Traditionally, the purpose of teaching reading in a language is to encourage the students to develop their reading skills and strategies thus they can read efficiently and effectively. Therefore, an appropriate teaching technique should be organized in order to achieve teaching reading objectives.
Brown (2001: 315) states that reading technique is divided into three activities; pre-reading activity, during-reading, and after reading activity. Pre-reading activity is the time for introducing a topic and activating students’ schemata (students’ knowledge). During reading activity is the time for acquiring the information from the text. After reading activity is the time for checking students’ reading comprehension.
Furthermore, according to Byrnes (National Capital Language Resource Center, 2004) instructors can help their students become effective readers by teaching them how to use strategies before, during, and after reading.
Reading strategies play an important role in reading process. According to Duke and Pearson (2005) there are six reading strategies that can be used by teachers in helping students improving their comprehension, those are prediction, think aloud, text structure, visual representation of text, summarization, and questioning.
Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their reading behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and reading purposes. They help students develop a set of reading strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation.
Pre-reading Activity as an Activity on Teaching Reading
According to Chastain (1988), the purpose of pre-reading activities is to motivate the students to want to read the assignment and to prepare them to be able to read it. Ringler and Weber (1984) call pre-reading activities enabling activities, because they provide a reader with necessary background to organize activity and to comprehend the material. These experiences involve understanding the purpose (s) for reading and building a knowledge base necessary for dealing with the content and the structure of the material. They say that pre-reading activities elicit prior knowledge, build background, and focus attention.
Furthermore, Parviz Ajideh (2003) says that pre-reading activities have tended to focus exclusively on preparing the reader for likely linguistic difficulties in a text; more recently attention has shifted to cultural or conceptual difficulties. However, pre-reading, activities may not just offer compensation for second language reader’s supposed linguistic or socio-cultural inadequacies; they may also remind readers of what they do, in fact, already know and think, that is to activate existing schematic knowledge.
There are many kinds of pre-reading activity that can be used in reading teaching. The experience-text-relationship (ETR) method of Au (1979) consists of students expressing their own experience of knowledge about the topic prior to reading. After the student have adequately shared their knowledge, the text become the focus of the class. During this segment of the lesson, the teacher asks the students to read short sections of the text and then questions about the content. The teacher must be sensitive to those text areas that could elicit misunderstandings and work through any difficulties that the students may have. In the final stage, the teacher aids the students to draw relationships between personal experience and the material discussed in the text stage. This provides an opportunity for each student to make comparisons and contrasts with what they already know and to accommodate the new information into their preexisting schemata. Through this process, student’s schemata become redefined and extended. The teacher has the responsibility of leading the students to the appropriate answers without giving them too much information, so the task becomes one of self-discovery and integration.
Moreover, Langer’s (1981) pre-reading plan is a three-step assessment/ instructional procedure. It is in line with Au’s ETR method, uses a discussion based activity in the assessment stage, which allows the teacher and the student to define the amount of information and vocabulary items need to be taught. The aim of this activity is to facilitate the students to comprehend the text. The pre-reading plan begins with the teacher introducing a key word, concept or picture to stimulate a discussion. By having the students say anything that in their mind and having that information recorded on the blackboard; students are able to see the associations. By asking the students question, such as, “What made you think of…?” they become aware of their network of associations. The students also have the opportunity to listen to other explanations and interact with other students. This interactive process also provides students the opportunity to accept, reject or alter their own initial associations and to integrate them into more accurate pictures of the target concept. The third and final step is the reformulation of knowledge, which provides the opportunity for students to verbalize any changes of modifications of their associations that may have occurred during the discussion activity. The purpose of helping the student to link his/her background knowledge with concepts in the text is to set up appropriate expectations about the language and content of the passage.
In addition, Auerbach and Paxton (1997) states the following pre-reading strategies of which three major ones as a good indication of schema-theory-based pre-reading tasks/strategies more favor us in this study.
1. Accessing prior knowledge
2. Writing your many into reading (writing about your experience related to the topic)
3. Asking questions based on the title
4. Semantic mapping
5. Making predictions based on previewing
6. Identifying the text structure
7. Skimming for general idea
8. Reading the introduction and conclusion
9. Writing a summary of the article based on previewing
Previewing as Pre-reading Activity
One type of pre-reading strategy is previewing. Swaffar et. al. (1991) state that previewing techniques have benefits that allow students to formulate hypotheses about text. According Chia (2001) the purpose of previewing is to help readers to predict or make some guesses about what is in the text and thus activate effective top down processing for reading comprehension. Several stimuli in a text, such as the title, illustrations, photographs, or subtitles, are usually closely connected to the author’s ideas and content of the text.
The make more specific predictions students apparently need more guidance. The following guidelines are used in previewing.
1. The teacher asks the students to read the title of the text. Do they know anything about the subject?
2. Then ask them to see the picture in the text which is related to the content of the text. Do they know anything about the picture?
3. After that, ask the students read the first few paragraphs, which generally introduce the topics discussed in the text. Can they determine the general themes of the text.
4. Then ask them to read to first sentence of cash paragraph, usually the topic sentence, which gives the main idea of the paragraph. Can they determine the major points of the text.
5. After that ask them to read the last paragraph, which often reveals the conclusion of the author. Let the students to discuss how the author organizes the information to present his point of view.
6. The last, the students then read the entire article for more detailed information. As they already have an overview of the text, they can understand the rest of the information much more easily.
Pre-reading activity activity can be used by teacher as a motivation activity. The appropriate pre-reading activity will help the students in comprehending the text. Teacher’s guidance is needed in this activity.
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