Monday, January 25, 2010

submitted to assignment for writing in professional context 2
Lecture: Cunong Suraja



By learning more about grammar, we begin to understand how words combine to form sentences. The rules and mechanics of grammar are also essential to ensuring that we are prepaying the intended meaning, as we explore the sense and contexts of literature. In these books, you'll find introductions that should start you on your way to understanding the rules and mechanics of grammar.
We unconsciously use grammar all the time when we use language for speaking, listening, reading and writing. If we want to improve our English language abilities, there is no escape from addressing grammar issues. White Smoke’s all-in-one grammar software helps you take care of your grammar needs as you write your texts so you actually learn from your own ongoing practice. Featuring an advanced grammar checker, an innovative contextual spell checker, and patented text enrichment, you can be sure that your writing is grammatically correct. Grammar explains how the language should be structured, using various categories
Grammar topics are usually sorted in books into word grammar and sentence grammar. Word grammar sections are further divided according to the different parts of speech - content words, containing verbs, nouns, adjective and adverbs; and structure words, containing determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Sentence grammar relates to the construction of phrases, clauses and full sentences, all the way up to paragraphs and full texts.

Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs. Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express. Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages.
Uses of Do, Does and Did
In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense.
• I don't study at night.
• She doesn't work here anymore.
• Do you attend this school?
• Does he work here?
These verbs also work as "short answers," with the main verb omitted.
• Does she work here? No, she doesn't work here.
With "yes-no" questions, the form of do goes in front of the subject and the main verb comes after the subject:
Forms of do are useful in expressing similarity and differences in conjunction with so and neither.
• My wife hates spinach and so does my son.
• My wife doesn't like spinach; neither do I.
Do is also helpful because it means you don't have to repeat the verb:
• Larry excelled in language studies; so did his brother.
• Raoul studies as hard as his sister does.
The so-called emphatic do has many uses in English.
a. To add emphasis to an entire sentence: "He does like spinach. He really does!"
b. To add emphasis to an imperative: "Do come in." (actually softens the command)
c. To add emphasis to a frequency adverb: "She always does manage to hurt her mother's feelings."
Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense
To make a negative sentence in English we normally use do not or does not with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (Can, might, should etc.).
Affirmative: You speak French.

Negative: You do not speak French.
You will see that we add do not between the subject and the verb. We use Do not when the subject is I, you, we or they.
Affirmative: He speaks German.

Negative: He doesn't speak German.
When the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below.
Negative Contractions
Don't = Do not

Doesn't = Does not
I don't like meat = I do not like meat.
There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spoken English.
Word Order of Negative Sentences
The following is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the Present Tense using Do not or Does not.
Subject don't/doesn't Verb* The Rest of the sentence
I / you / we / they don't have / buy
eat / like etc. cereal for breakfast
he / she / it doesn't
*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = the infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive to have it is just the have part.
Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.
Examples of Negative Sentences with Do not and Does not:
You do not speak Arabic.
John does not speak Italian.
We do not have time for a rest. It does not move.
They do not want to go to the party.
She does not like fish.
Questions in the Simple Present Tense
To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Affirmative: You speak English.

Question: Do you speak English?
You will see that we add DO at the beginning of the affirmative sentence to make it a question. We use Do when the subject is I, you, we or they.
Affirmative: He speaks French
.Question: Does he speak French?
When the subject is he, she or it, we add DOES at the beginning to make the affirmative sentence a question. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the question. We will see the reason why below.
We DON'T use Do or does in question that have the verb To Be or Modal Verbs (can, must, might, should etc.)

Word Order of Questions with Do and Does
The following is the word order to construct a basic question in English using Do or Does.
Do/Does Subject Verb* The Rest of the sentence
Do I / you / we / they have / need
want etc. a new bike?
Does he / she / it
*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = the infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive to have it is just the have part. Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.
Examples of Questions with Do and Does:
Do you need a dictionary?
Does Mary need a dictionary?
Do we have a meeting now?
Does it rain a lot in winter?
Do they want to go to the party?
Does he like pizza?
Short Answers with Do and Does
In questions that use do/does it is possible to give short answers to direct questions as follows:

Sample Questions Short Answer
(Affirmative) Short Answer
Do you like chocolate? Yes, I do. No, I don't.
Do I need a pencil? Yes, you do. No, you don't.
Do you both like chocolate? Yes, we do. No, we don't.
Do they like chocolate? Yes, they do. No, they don't.
Does he like chocolate? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
Does she like chocolate? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
Does it have four wheels? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.

Analysis is used to know the error about the best. The writer will know the fails to account the data or how far the writers do the research. How practice can damage your English? There are 5 steps:
1. Practice
To be well in speaking English we must study hard more and more, to improve our skill. And remember that we must practice and practice in daily and every time because it is the key to success in speaking English.
2. Stop making mistakes
We have said that you need practice to learn English. We have also said that when you practice, you reinforce your mistakes. You can speak and write with almost no mistakes, too.
3. practice make perfect
If you make mistakes, that means you don’t know how to say things in English. You need to learn and you must read and listen to correct English sentences.
4. Get better by practicing
We must make that practice in speaking English is our habit in our daily activities because it make our English be better in every day.
5. Do not afraid to make mistakes
You must try to be more careful by using the rules and if you still make mistake more than one you must study hard and more practice. Instead, try study more by reading and listening in English.
English is the international language in the world. With speaking English we can easily communicate with another people, but there is process to be fluent in speaking English well, there are we must know how to speak English well with the way we must study hard about pronunciation and practice it, vocabulary, reading, especially in grammar because grammar is very important in English like how to make sentence and speaking English well. Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality how to express the time at, during, or over a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.
Tense is one of another quality, along with mood, voice aspect, and person, to express verb forms. Tense also can not always or usually be translated from one language to another language. To make a negative sentence in English we usually use do not or does not with all verbs except To be and Model verbs like can, might , should, and so on.
We must use do not when the subject is I, you, we or they than you will know or see that we add do not between the subject and the verb. But if the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the letter s at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence because it is the third person disappears in the negative sentence.
For example: Affirmative: He speaks German
Negative : He does not speak German
Word order of negative sentence is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the present tense by using Do not and Does not. We must remember that infinitive is the verb before it is changed and it begins with To. For example, to eat, to sleep, to go, to play and so on. There is also the example of negative sentence with do not and does not:
They do not want to go to the party.
She does not study to get a good result.
To make a question in English we usually use do and does in simple present tense. It is normally put in the beginning of the question. We must add do in the question, when the subject I, you, we or they.
For example: Affirmative: You speak English
Question: Do you speak English?

And we must add does in question when the subject is he, she, or it.
For example: Affirmative: He speaks French
Question : Does he speak French?

Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express. Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense.
To make a negative sentence in English we normally use do not or does not with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (Can, might, should etc.).
Affirmative: You speak French.
Negative: You do not speak French.
We use Do not when the subject is I, you, we or they.
When the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below
Affirmative: He speaks German.
Negative: He doesn't speak German
To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Affirmative: You speak English.
Question: Do you speak English?

• Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University. Great Britain: 1985.
• Krohn, Robert. English sentence structure. The University of Michigan Press. The United State of America: 1971.
• Seidl, Jennifer. Grammas in Practice. Oxford University Press. Great Britain: 1981.
• com



Esa Koriyana
Npm : 07211210050


Technique enhanced reads in English lesson
Axis one of the know-how aspect speaks, read has important character in helps student studies foreign language. Read to make student gets assorted text kind likes newspaper, magazine, advertisement, brochure and others. Read also make student knows to how actually that English is used in print or article. Like known author during several months has taught, found that is ability reads low student. Their is comprehension ability is insufficient. They are acres in general read phlegmatically and do reduplication in text read. The cause possibility them only dominate limited vocabulary, and they also don't have technique or strategy reads effective. Aim from this is watchfulness finds to how: (1) technique read fast can increase student ability in read literal; (2) technique read fast can increase student ability in read conclusion. This is watchfulness class action watchfulness (PTK). Watchfulness procedure in this is case consist of four play steps that is planning, execution, observation, and reflection. this is watchfulness consists of two cycles. Each cycle consists of 3 meetings for process learns to teach and 1 meeting for quiz (test). Dates related to speed read and student comprehension is gathered by using watchfulness instrument likes test (beginning test and test end cycle). Data that gutter to pass test analyzed by using program SPSS 11.5, then at explain consider achievement criteria that appointed. Watchfulness result shows that are technique reads fast effectively increase speed read student and accomplishment read comprehension. This is matter is showed with enhanced percentage success in each cycle that is 43 % (pre-test), 61 % (cycle 1), 72 % (cycle 2). Score fulfils success criteria in technique applications has read fast that is appointed that is the increasing of ability has read student. Matter this is means that is technique applications aim has read fast to increase speed has read student has been achieved.


Esa Koriyana, gives at Bogor on 06 Octobers 1988 from father Salim and mother Eulis, he is child to first (1) from two brothers. Elementary school education is finished at school SDN Cimanggu 1 regency Bogor. Junior high school is finished at SMPN 2 Cibungbngbulang regency Bogor, furthermore finish senior high school at sman 1 Cibungbulang regency Bogor.

Praise thanks god author climb to Allah the almighty and most worthy of praise, because with the permission, so this task is finished. Although during finish this task writing, author many get obstacle. But in the end all obstacles can authors overcome.

Author realizes, that is with science limitedness and author ability in composed this task, so feeler this thesis stills not yet far from perfect, for that author gets all criticism and suggestion constructive by this task writing repair is henceforth.

In chance good this, author wants to say maximum thank for that read it. Author hope well this be of benefit to all.

To answer question, does ability read and realize reading with technique tri focus Steve Snyder that mentioned above can to increase student ability in read and realize reading which is on the turn later can to increase academic accomplishment in learns to speak.

Follow study treatment before and after technique use tri focus Steve Snyder:

First meeting

In first meeting, student ability reads and realizes reading text is measures with conventional study model. Study is done in a few stages, that is:

- Foreword, covers; prepare reading ingredient, prepare evaluation tool.

- Kernel activity, cover: student reads word without give technique read effective the time and student (in latest stage) answer exercise related to word (exercise shaped double helix 5-10 exercise).

- Casing, student with teacher counts time that used to read word and accuracy from answer that given by student about questions.

Second meeting

In second meeting, author holds study innovation by using technique tri focus Steve Snyder. Study is done with a few stages, that is:

stage pre study

In this stage is author holds preparation among others: make study plan, prepare implementation tools tide belong technique reads effective, and prepare reading with evaluation tool.

study stage

- foreword

Student is given time to read and realize reading by using technique tri focusing Steve Snyder that meant.

Motivation that given to student among others:

i am aware reads that is easy.

I can to read fast and lancer

Furthermore student is asked to read sentences or expressions in meaning bundle in heart and full comprehension, and then make sentences as beginning confidence before read as a whole. This activity is author mentions with study suggestive. Then submitted several things related to preparations before read. This preparation is more has external technique, but this condition is very physical not pleasant and environment full of disturbance undoubtedly student ability in read not maximal. Therefore student is asked to do preparation before read as follows:

minimize disturbance

take a seat with upright attitude

glance at entire words.

Kernel activity

a. student is given illustration short about reading

b. student is introduced and trained development peripheral that be kernel from technique reads tri focus Steve Snyder. This practice is shaped test simple, that is:

look at directly a object

look at your eye sight scope when see straight forwards (when read word)

look at meaning every sentence or every expression carefully.

c. student has been given directive to use concept to read actually reading that appointed. After finished read student tries to register information that got from reading, also count time that used to read reading. As end student study answers question that reading without see reading text. Exercise that done to number between 5-10 double helix exercise and or responsive question from that teacher with reading text (exercise essay). Furthermore student has corrected result test that done, good time that used or accuracy from the answer.

Watchfulness result and discussion

a. watchfulness result

First meeting

first meeting activity result is known that:

- appear student recurrent in follow study reads.

- because recurrent to experience activity reads with appear student conventional technique less enthusiastic.

- from evaluation result be known that is student average not yet can read swiftly and even less get detail information and accurate.

Second meeting

in second meeting happens change among others:

- appear student begins has motivation better from previous

- student enthusiastic in read reading with technique reads effective.

- happen student ability enhanced in read and realize reading with relative time use short from previous.

b. discussion

before apply it study by using technique tri focus Steve Snyder with approach aid from teacher introduces reading, student many experience difficulty in realize reading, caused by the weak interest reads they have. Also inexistence stimulant to do activity reads swiftly and effective, even they felt heavy load existence when is aimed practice reads fast. The study result even also doesn't experience enhanced.

after done technique change tri factor Steve Snyder that meant, student felt helped to be able to do repair and enhanced in acquisition speaks gradually and certain, self-confidence that them can read and realize reading swiftly and accurate can grow and bloom. Proved this matter also academic accomplishment at area speaks to increase. But realized that result achievement by using technique reads effective that meant not yet come up with ideal number.

Watchfulness hypothesis
Data analysis technique
Data analysis technique is done with correlation Pearson, and technique test for significance test coefficient correlation.

Watchfulness hypothesis

Verbal hypothesis:

H1 = found positive connection between mastery reads English-speaking and English vocabulary ability.

Statistics hypothesis
H1 = p xy > 0

Watchfulness paradigm

α= 0,05

1. Rules test
Analysis rules test that test normality by using test Kolmogorov - Smirnov. Rules test counting result declare that normal distribution population.
2. Hypothesis testing
Hypothesis at raise in this watchfulness what’s found positive connection between English vocabulary mastery ably reads to speak.
H1 = p xy > 0

3. Testing result
After done calculation, got rxy as big as 0,467. Testing significant test to t to rxy got counted as big as 3, 0793 and t table in alpha 0, 05 with n as big as 36 as big as 1,684. Thereby inferential that correlation coefficient rxy significant because value count bigger than table.

Watchfulness result discussion
Based on result research that elaborated, can at explain that ability read very tall and wanted. Because actually, what read somebody vocabulary that represented by word, phrase, sentence and paragraph is a reading or word. So, if somebody reads, particularly if that read it reading speaks foreign so has erudition and vast vocabulary mastery, certain of vital importance for study speaks. Every what read although in a flash certain useful as beginning somebody that wants has ability reads actually

Read very both for education world to stabilize activity in endure good activity insides also outside. Process very difficult for one who never read. Technique that used to be able to read by way of reading discipline speaks. Because without ad attitude like that difficult be done.

Based on invention pickings, be concluded that (1) technique applications read fast in teach to read comprehension makes student not only increase comprehension ability read, but also ability read quicker with can realize vocabulary well, (2) technique applications read fast in teach to read comprehension can increase student ability in read literal, (3) technique applications read fast in teach to read comprehension can increase student ability in read conclusion.

Suggested to English teacher especially in teach reading to use technique read fast because this technique can increase ability read student comprehension. Also suggested to that researcher to applies or canvass technique of a kind with interest careful and effective.

The word book encyclopedia Vol. 16-17.
Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa.(1990).
Webster’s third new international dictionary Vol II. (1981). Chicago, London,Toronto,Geneva,Sydney,Tokyo,Manila: G 7 C merriam Co.



A.Analisycal work of speaking ………………………………………………………….…..……2
1. English speaking test…………………………………….……………………….……2
2. Basic of theory test……………………………………..……………………………...3
B.Toefl Test Speaking…………………………………………………………………………….4
1.Speaking Test……………………………………………………………………….….4
2. Toefl Text Books for Preparation………………………………………………………5
3. The Toefl Speaking Section……….………………………….………………………..5
4. Fun Activities for the Toefl Speaking………………………………………………….6
C. English to speak and speaking to learn………………………………......................................7

It is known that English is a tool of international communication in the world. As the first foreign language. Since many scientific books are written in English. Therefore, teacher and student should pay more attention to it in order to be able to master it easily. In English language we know is English language is very important for education and all activity, especially in our life. The time that is given at school is very limited, the student should get a good technique for studying English and teachers should get many various way for transferring it in teaching. Test in front of class is vey use full because language is tool of communication, everybody in the world needs to communicate to each other in order to do or get what they want or need in their life. In this case everybody must be able to express their felling and though by using a tool of communication that language.

A. Analysical work of speaking test

1. English speaking test
As has been mention before, speaking test is a prosedur which a student is asked to speak and is assessed on the basis of what he say. At a primary level, speaking might involve pronounciation, intonation, and stress. At a functional level, however speaking is not just a correct pronounciation speech pattern and intonation at this stage speaking also requires the correct use and the idiomatic use of target language.
When speaking skill is developed in English foreign language classes there must be a testing program to measure the learners achievement.
The second, to measure a specific aspect element of speaking skill such as:
Structure, Vocabulary, pronunciation, intonation, and stress. A speaking test for functional purpose refders to an integrative pragmatic test, while the letter refers to a discrete point test. The following classification chart shows the possible types of a speaking test.
2. The approach of assessing speaking skills.
Basically speaking test can be classified into two broad approaches the direct and indirect test. A direct speking test refers to procedures learning’s speaking ability by asking the learner to speak.
3. The scoring procedures of speaking assessment
Assessing speaking skills in English as a foreign language classes in one of the many language skills, especially in term of scoring procedures. That is due also to the fact that speking ability involves.
4. The scoring proceduresof speakind test
The scoring of a discrate point is different foim if a functional speaking test daveloving a scoring procedure in a discrete point speaking test is much sample than that of the integrative pragmatic test for functional purpose. This is because in a discrete point test, their rather only focused on a single element of language.
A.Problem of speaking learning
We all know that the success class will depend on the method or technique that the teachers carry out. Based on the above statement, the writer try to find the technique for the test on speaking ability effectively in accordance with curriculum.
B. Limitation of speaking learning
In this case the writer would like to present the test of speaking ability. It will discusses by presenting the theory of some books.
C. The purposes of speking learning
In this research, the writer would like to write the purpose of the study as follows
1. to give descriptions about use and the advantages of the test of speaking ability
2. to give some descriptions about the procedure of the test speaking ability
3. to give some contribute ideas to English teaching process

2. Basic of theory test
A speaking test is one way that learner is asked to speak and is assessment on the basic of what he say. The test requires the examiner to demonstrate their spoken English proficiency by respond.

B. Toefl Test Speaking Practice Ideas
A.Speaking Tasks to help ESL Students Prepare for the Toefl Exam
Preparing for the Toefl is a daunting task. Finding fun ways to practice the test format in a more relaxed way helps students feel less pressured.

Part of preparing students for a Toefl test, is ensuring that they understand the format, question configuration, and section breakdown of the test. This process usually includes use of a worthy textbook, software for practice, if possible, and as much repetition and training that students can undertake.
B.Toefl Text Books for Preparation
There are many Toefl textbooks, such as Deborah Phillips Longman’s Preparation Course for the Toefl Test ( Pearson ESL, 2005 ) to name one. Online, students can also find many resources to guide them into the test preparation. The ETS website offers students opportunities to practice tests.
The teacher, however, can suggest some activities that will help the students understand the structure of the test, through lighter, more enjoyable tasks. These activities will help all students improve their speaking skills, whether they are undertaking the Toefl test or not. This kind of practice would not replace regular exercises, but does enable students to comprehend the meaning of a limited time cut-off point given to the testers, in which to prove their knowledge.
C.The Toefl Speaking Section
Most answers that students have to give verbally, after reading or listening, demand a 45 second to one minute answer. Therefore, an interesting way of rehearsing for this section is to include talking tasks in the classroom that call for an answer limited to this time allotted.

D.Fun Activities for the Toefl Speaking Practice Section
Below are some ideas that the teacher can implement into the warm up, ending, or middle part of a lesson, to help students relax, smile and reduce tension.

Most students graduate from college having had no instruction or practice in public speaking, and, indeed, harboring a deep dread of having to speak to an audience. When asked, five or ten years after graduation, what they wished they had learned in college, to speak effectively and without fear is generally near the top of the list.
The use of speaking assignments across the curriculum not only develops the ability to speak coherently and persuasively, but also helps students learn a course’s subject matter. It is for these reasons that Pomona College’s general education program requires all students to take at least one speaking-intensive course. My experience in teaching such courses has been overwhelmingly positive. Students learn the material better and they learn to speak more effectively. They are well aware of these benefits and thankful for the opportunity to take speaking-intensive courses.
As students taking multiple-choice tests, we could guess at some answers and be rewarded if we got more than 90 percent right. As professors, we are not shown a list of possible answers, should not be satisfied with guesses, and should not be pleased if 5 or 10 percent of what we tell students is wrong. To give an effective and accurate lecture, we need to know the material.
The second reason why we understand a subject better after we lecture on it is that we learn by doing. The virtues of active-learning strategies are widely acknowledged. We understand concepts better and retain them longer when we express these concepts in our own words. Writing assignments are one way to do this, speaking assignments are another.
We have all had moments of insight when we try to explain a subtle or complex point to our students. As our mind works hard to formulate a persuasive explanation, we suddenly recognize a new analogy, a different argument, a fresh interconnection. There is an intimate relationship between logical reasoning and effective speaking. Good logic not only underlies clear speaking, but can be shaped by it.
What To fulfill their general education requirements, each Pomona College student must pass at least one course that has been approved as “speaking-intensive.” There are no traditional public-speaking courses at Pomona. Just as writing need not be confined to English courses, so we encourage speaking across the curriculum. The college’s curriculum committee recommends that several principles be followed in designing speaking-intensive courses to help students develop the ability to speak clearly, logically, and persuasively.
1. Students should receive some instruction on the principles and practice of effective speaking. This instruction might consist of a few general guidelines, or it might be a detailed list of dos and don’ts. One of the things I tell students is that we are all prone to nervous habits (fiddling with a button, putting a hand in a pocket, saying “um”) that distract listeners and signal the speaker’s nervousness. Speakers are usually unaware of these habits and one of our jobs as a supportive classroom audience is to alert them to these problems. I also tell students that audiences have more confidence in speakers who don’t rely much on notes: someone who reads a speech may be just reciting what someone else wrote. A memorized speech can have the same effect. The goal is to give an extemporaneous speech that tells the audience that the speaker knows the material and is expressing it in his or her own words. I also advise students to have lots of eye contact with individual members of the audience, instead of looking at notes, the floor, or the back of the room. There is disagreement too. Some experts say that a speaker should stand in one place and move about as little as possible; others believe that the energy conveyed by movement has a positive effect on an audience.
2. Students should be given sufficient advance notice so that they can prepare for their speaking assignments beforehand. While memorization is strongly discouraged, students should be encouraged to learn the material and to practice before a friend or a mirror.
3. Students should express their own thoughts, not simply read or recite speeches, poems, plays, or songs. Speaking-intensive courses are intended to help students learn substantive material--not memorize lines--and to state ideas and arguments in their own words.
4. The student must be in the spotlight. Student participation in classroom discussion is not sufficient to qualify a course as speaking-intensive. Each student should be a primary speaker--for example, by giving a classroom presentation or leading a focused discussion. If a student can sit passively and merely interject an occasional comment, then the energizing fear of embarrassment is absent and so is the chance to develop effective public-speaking skills.
5. The student should receive specific suggestions shortly afterward (through written comments, conferences with the instructor, or peer evaluations) on how they can present their arguments more effectively. Just as the development of good writing skills requires useful feedback, so does the development of good speaking skills. At the conclusion of each presentation, I give the class a few minutes to write down constructive suggestions. I then collect these and give them to the speaker at the end of class. If everyone says “slow down” or “speak up,” the speaker will know this is a serious problem. This exercise also encourages everyone to think about what works and what doesn’t. I make written suggestions too. One enlightening practice is to write especially popular phrases (such as “um” and “basically”) at the top of the page and tabulate how many times these are used by the student.
6. Students should have opportunities to improve their speaking abilities after receiving this feedback. Obviously, you cannot become an effective speaker by giving one speech. On the other hand, just as one writing-intensive course is not sufficient to make a good writer, so one speaking-intensive course is not enough to make a good speaker. Instead, these courses should be viewed as opportunities to nurture and develop skills that will be honed over a lifetime. In practice, the curriculum committee has approved courses with as few as two speaking opportunities per student.
7. A speaking-intensive course normally should not have more than 20 students; otherwise, there may not be enough time for all students to have multiple speaking opportunities. I have taught speaking-intensive classes with more than 30 students, but there was adequate time because of an emphasis on work outside the classroom rather than lectures.
8. Courses in languages other than English may be approved as speaking-intensive. The use of a foreign language does not preclude students learning by speaking and learning to speak persuasively and without fear.
Why In addition to these guiding principles, I have learned much from my experience with two quite different courses that are both writing-intensive and speaking-intensive: an interdisciplinary statistics class and a finance class for economics majors. In each class, I divide the students into three-person teams. If the enrollment is not divisible by three, I make one or two four-person teams.
In the statistics course, each team is given nine projects (twelve if the team has four members) to do over the course of the semester, each with a specific due date. The team members work together to collect and analyze the data, with one student writing an essay and one giving an oral presentation. Normally, the student who writes the essay also makes the oral presentation, but this is not required. During the semester, each student makes three project presentations. In addition, each student writes a statistics term paper and gives an oral presentation of this paper.
In the finance class, the teams manage competing financial intermediaries and prepare weekly memos justifying their decisions. The results are determined by a computer simulation program I wrote that is based on a secret historical period in an unnamed country, with each week in the course corresponding to three months of real time. The country and time period are revealed and discussed at the end of the course (and must consequently be changed each time the course is taught). The teams use spreadsheets or write their own computer programs to assist their decisions.

The weekly memos not only explain the teams’ decisions, but also answer a set of questions intended to focus the students’ attention on relevant information. These questions are assigned a week in advance and depend on the historical period and the performance of the teams.
The team members work together outside class to make the weekly decisions and answer my questions, with one student writing that week’s memo. Half the teams have one student give an oral presentation of the team’s answers to my questions. Each student makes at least two oral presentations during the semester and, in addition, each team makes a group presentation at the end of the semester that recaps their performance.
One challenge in designing a speaking-intensive course is to keep the entire class actively engaged in the weekly activities outside the classroom, even though only a small number will be giving oral presentations. The use of teams seems an effective strategy and also develops team-working skills and builds considerable camaraderie.
One issue I have wrestled with is whether each week’s oral presentations should be on the same topic. The first time that I taught my statistics class as speaking intensive, I assigned all teams the same topic each week so that the students might benefit from comparing their approaches and results. I soon found that if more than two or three people speak on the same subject, the presentations become repetitive and the class becomes bored; after a few weeks, I began assigning each team a different topic. In my finance class, I now ask half the teams one set of questions and half another set, and have only half of each group make oral presentations.
Because thinking on one’s feet is an important objective, I tell students to ask each speaker challenging questions. If the questions lag, I fire away. Even “dumb” questions can be useful, as they force the speaker to explain things differently and perhaps more clearly. Students find spirited exchanges among the speaker and various audience members to be not only beneficial, but a great deal of fun. I have also noticed that students tend to ask tougher questions of the more accomplished or arrogant speakers and to take it easy on those who are struggling.

In each of these courses, the oral presentations take up a lot of class time (from 30 to 60 minutes each week), and much of the traditional course work is consequently done outside the classroom--in the statistics course, reading the textbook and gathering and analyzing data; in the finance course, analyzing the weekly results and making decisions. This has been a dramatic change from my accustomed role of giving lectures and answering scattered questions. What I have come to realize is that the focus of the course should not be on me, but on helping students learn the subject matter and develop intellectual skills that will serve them well throughout their lives. For both of these goals, I am now convinced that students can learn more by speaking than by listening.

A paper
Submitted to the lecture I partial
fulfillment of the recruitment for UAS.

Siti marwati



A. Background of the Study
Every body known that language is the tools of communication to convey the information, thought, idea, feeling, and to distinguish a country with other countries.
Usually we used international language to make a communication with foreign people and English is international language, almost the whole countries in the world use it for communication in regional and international form. A few years ago although the goals of English subject in Indonesia was to get reading and to increase knowledge from the reading matter and speaking was not the important skill. But, remember that “Language is speech and written form is merely secondary”. So, if we study of a foreign language, we will not be satisfied without use it for communication.
Through language people can communicate many things, for instance, to clarify our think and expression our feeling.
The teaching English of Indonesian is provided from junior and senior high school to colleges or university. English expected to be a means of transferring and expending the knowledge, technology, culture and many others, with the final aims is to support national development.
Know the mastering English demand student to learn it thoroughly and seriously to become a user competence good student needs to learn communication skill, such as: listening, writing, speaking and reading. Such enabling skills cannot be studied individually, they must be learnt integrated.
Jack.C.R. (1985) gives an interesting view about this phenomenon:
Interestingly English is becoming the major International language of printed information. A great deal of the world scientific, commercial, economic and technological knowledge is written and published in English though the writer maybe Chinese, Swedes or Italians. Publication in English ensures the widest possible readership for new finding and ideas.(Language And Language Teaching, 1985 p.3)

B. Statement of the Problems
There are many problems and difficulties faces by English teachers that demand solution considering the limited time and scope, this small-scale study will focus on the one aspect of teaching countable and uncountable nouns through pictures matching and its practical application with real visualization.
The study will attempt to find the key how to teach the countable and uncountable nouns using pictures matching. The study is not only restricted to know how teaching nouns using pictures and its relationship with curriculum, but will also attempt to predict learning English structure, especially in countable and uncountable nouns.

C. Limitation of the Study
To limit the study, the writer would like to discuss in teaching English countable and uncountable nouns with Junior High School specially at MTs Al- Arqam first grade.
Beside I concerned to make student more active in the class and show them how to solve and find the solution to their learning problems, also intend to help student to know and understand the strategy to learn noun classily and improve their idea about countable and uncountable nouns. The teacher should give their student an equal chance to practice and use English in the class. Although most of them will make mistakes, teacher should be able to create good situation and productive method of teaching.
When the student makes mistakes due to their lack understanding, teacher should be patient and give conductively atmosphere and treat them wisely. We should emphasize that making mistakes is process learning.
One of mistakes has made by students of MTs Al-Arqom is to use countable and uncountable of English in this case. I would like to investigate problem of using countable and uncountable of English.

D. The purpose of the Study
Based on the statement of the problems above the purposes of study are:
1. Exploring suitable technique in teaching countable and uncountable nouns
2. Finding the best technique in increasing teaching abilities.
3. Giving student a conductively situation in studying English.
4. Finding out the advantages of teaching countable and uncountable nouns.

F. Methodology of the study
a. Method
The method in this research is the experiment and uses different analysis to study. The writer also collects the data taken from the field research and the library by using some books to support this paper.
b. Time and place
The research will be carried out at Al – Arqam Junior high Islamic school at black bridge street Rt. 03/10 Cijujung village Sukaraja – Bogor . I have this case when I teach in this school, I got two week from December 04’09 until December 11’09. In the class, but sometime I learn in the out side.


1. Scope of teaching English
The element of language and how it is conducted cannot be separated if we are to achieve the teaching goals. Language element and how they should be carried out will carried out will be outlined in the following.
a) Language elements
 Vocabulary
Vocabulary enrichment can be conducted through a series of a pictures, particularly those connected with countable and uncountable nouns.
For example: 1. Water, milk, alcohol, etc (uncountable)
2. Bird – birds, key – keys, rose – roses, etc.(countable)
 Pronunciation
Teaching pronunciation can be done in many manners. One simple way is by giving the student s set of pictures contain of countable and uncountable nouns. First the teacher pronounces the words and then the student followed again and again.
 Structure
Acceptable sentences and phrase are taught right from the beginning to the end. Provide the excellent context and usages. For example, the teacher gives countable and uncountable nouns to the student, and they made some meaningful sentences on the basis of the pictures.
For example:
- Food : this store sells health foods and baby foods
- Water: this is an excellent mineral water from Belgium.
b) Language ability
1. Reading
Reading strategy can be given by providing a variety of the text. A the end of the passage some exercises and questions are given to measure the students ability to comprehend and fully understand the situation, context and usages (grammar, pattern, idiom and vocabulary)
2. Dialogue
Teaching dialogue means teaching speaking ability. Giving more practice and familiarization of the whole words, sentences and structures can do this. After the student have already know how the words are pronounced and use them, they should be able practice it with their friends.
3. Writing
Teacher are hoped to teach the ability of writing simple sentences well, short stories and composing a letter. For example by using the simple continuous tense or giving them some reading materials that have been selected to be given to the student as exercises

2. Teaching of Noun
Nouns are the words used name of person, place, or thing. It is can be real object or idea and action, the following is the table of noun:
No Persons Places Thing Idea
5. Henry
Student Town
Bandung Bridge
Door Romance

Here are some examples of using nouns:
1. I go to Bandung ( bandung is a noun in sentences. It is name of place)
2. Mr. Henry comes here.( henry is name a noun. It is a name of human)
3. This my book ( book is a noun in this sentence. It is name of something)
Type of noun
There are three types of nouns, that is:
 Common noun refers to class of person, place, thing, such as woman, teacher, state, lake, bridge, building, belief, etc.
 Proper noun gives the name of title of a particular person, place. Like: Jane Adam, Mr. Chips, Toba lake, Galuh Montain, Golden Gate Bridge.
 Collective noun is noun that name group or a selection of person or thing. Some frequently used collective noun are:
Army class flock herd
Audience committee troop jury
Band crowd group team
(modern English a participial references guide, 1972 p.69)

3. The Use of Teaching Aids
As we know, there are some kinds of teaching aids, which can be used in teaching activities such as the language laboratory, teaching machine, tape recorder, and other visual aids. Many teachers usually use the teaching aids to help the students understand the lesson more easily.
By using pictures the student are expected to gain large knowledge and will more be active and creative in English learning process. The main concern of using pictures is not to claim originality for the strategies suggested. By doing so students are given the best chance practicing English through a through use of pictures. Below are four aspects of activity that should be bared in mind.
1. Material of pictures is used to carry out the activities in the class. They can be taken from the magazine or news papers and should be attractive and interesting to capture the student attention.
2. Procedure: In most case the student have make a small group, in some case teacher should give the student clue words to help them to initiate conversation.
3. Language item: grammatical features can be presented or practical features through the activities. However the final objective is not to teach grammatical but to give student an opportunity to practice English thoroughly.
4. Follow up: this part contains ideas for reinforcement and further practice and should be given two or more exercises as follow up, the individual teacher, of course, is free to select the most appropriate to the situation.
According to those aspects the teacher should be able to attempt the best technique that is picture matching through which students are hoped to think widely about how to memorize and use the vocabulary to get the good mark.


A. Teaching countable and uncountable nouns using pictures
Before starting to teach countable and uncountable nouns in the class, the teacher supposed to design lesson planning for the teaching using pictures matching.
Lesson plan
Class : I (one)
Quarter : I (one)
Topic : Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Book : “Active English for Junior High School “Author by: Rudi
Hartono, S.S., M.Pd
Time : 2 x 45 minute
Teacher objective: To help students understand about countable and
Uncountable nouns.
Student target :
- Student should be able to differentiate between countable
and uncountable nouns.
- Students should be able to make sentences contains
Uncountable nouns.

Preparation : set of the pictures

The picture of countable nouns The picture of uncountable nouns








Procedure :
no stages Teacher activity Student respons


- greeting
- cheking attendant

generalization - good morning
- how are you?
- Introducing the activities connected to the topic
- Explain the countable and uncountable noun using the pictures.
- Good morning mum
Fine mum’s

Student give the attention

The material of countable and uncountable nouns
Countable noun is characterized by singular and plural form. Plural form can be add by ‘s’ or ‘Es’ to the noun as can be seen in the table below.
Countable nouns
Singular Plural
lamp Books
Uncountable nouns
Singular Plural
soap Cheese

B. Analyzing data
In doing observation when I taken as sample were I given countable and uncountable before and after I used the picture. To gain the data, the researcher carried out one way, it was post test. In this case, post test was conveyed to know the differenced of students in countable and uncountable which was taught using picture was applied of 10 students and five students which was taught without using pictures. Finally, the result of post test of them is the students who were taught using pictures was better than those who were not taught using pictures. So, I also have asked to the students about teaching English in countable and uncountable using pictures, what is it can made them interesting? They said, yes teaching through with pictures is help us become active, it is very easy to remember because there so many color are, brave to speak English and pictures is one of the ways to avoid the boring situation to the students.

Language is the tools of communication to convey the information, thought, idea, feeling, and to distinguish a country with other countries or other areas. Teaching English in Indonesia is not an easy activity because it is a foreign language and it is not the second language through it is one of the compulsory subjects at school. Therefore the English teacher should help the student to improve their knowledge and ability of English. One of the goals in teaching English for the students is to communicate in spoken or written from. There are three countable and uncountable nouns that they must remember. They have different function in using them. To make countable and uncountable nouns easy to study, it is important for the teacher to find the technique or ways in teaching. So, the students are easy to understand the lesson. Pictures are used to master the four language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking and its use to create the students active. To make student easy for remember what the differentiation between countable and uncountable noun. Furthermore pictures can be used to teach language function, structure, conversation and vocabulary.

Thursday, January 21, 2010

Writing in Professional Context 2

Name : Tantri Raya Rimbi
NPM : 07211210427
Class : 5C

English language is a compulsory subject that is taught from elementary school until senior high school in Indonesia. One of the language skills that should be mastered by the students is speaking. Many students find difficulty in speaking English. Some factors are their fear of making mistakes, being laughed by their friends and lack of confidence of their own abilities. Therefore, a teacher should help the students in solving this problem by motivating them to speak. For this reason, the teacher can use effective methods that encourage students to take part actively in the class. The teaching learning process is not only involving the teacher and the students, but also between the students and the other students.
There is a method that can be used by the teacher to improve the students’ skill in speaking English. It is doing some games which are interesting and inviting the students to be curious. The teacher can search many games from many sources as his guide in teaching English skills, especially speaking. According to the reasons above, I decided to compose this paper by giving its title: “Improving speaking skill by a connective game”.

Theoretical Background
For a start, speaking is interactive and requires the ability to co-operate in the management of speaking turns. It also typically takes place in real time, with little time for detailed planning. In this circumstances, spoken fluency requires the capacity to marshal a store of memorized lexical chunks. And the nature of the speaking process means that the grammar of spoken language differs in a number of significant ways from the grammar of written language. Hence, the study of written grammar may not be the most efficient preparation for speaking. No wonder speaking represents a real challenge to most language learners. Speaking is a skill, and as such needs to be developed and practised independently of the grammar curriculum. Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words.
Speaking is so much a part of daily life that we take it for granted. The average person produces tens of thousands of words a day, although some people – like auctioneers or politicians – may produce even more than that. So natural and integral is speaking that we forget how we once struggled to achieve this ability – until, that is, we have to learn how to do it all over again in a foreign language.

A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong solitaire).
Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role. According to Chris Crawford, the requirement for player interaction puts activities such as jigsaw puzzles and solitaire "games" into the category of puzzles rather than games. Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.

Data Finding
The games in this section offer a reason for speaking, and thus they can give learners a confirmation and confidence resulting from the successful use of the language or a warning signal on the unsuccessful use of the language.
Some games give the learners considerable support in the language needed for the game, and other games offer a stimulus and context, but no specific language focus or support. Although some games are likely to cause the learners to focus on a particular language point, this section primarily offers practice in fluency rather than in grammar practice.
In these games the learners might make mistakes in their use of the language. As a general principle it is better not to interrupt the speaker but to wait until he or she has finished before first responding to the content, and only then pointing out a mistake in the formal use of the language, if you think it necessary to do so. A better way might be for you to note the mistake and to give focussed practice on that point at another time.
There are some connective games that can be used by the teacher to improve the students’s speaking skills. One of the games is connecting two pictures.

Two Pictures
Family Connect
Language Imagining and explaining connetions between pictures, objects or words
Preparation You will need two pictures big enough for all the learners to see, each showing a single object, person or place.

 Take two seemingly unrelated pictures and ask the learners to suggest a connection between them. Some learners will suggest very reasonable connections. Some learners will suggest crazy connections. In one sense, the latter are more useful since more people will pay attention and think about them!
Learner 1: He is going to the bank to get some money.
Learner 2: He is going to the bank to steal some money.
 If you wish, organise acompetition to find the most reasonable connection and the craziest connection.
 This game may be played in groups or with the whole class.



Variation 1 Three words
Preparation (optional) Bring 3 objects to the lesson.
 Show the class three objects or write three nouns on the board, for example: pencil, ball, table.
 Invite learners to find as many things as possible which connnect them, for example:
The pencil and ball are on the table.
She does her homework on the table and she uses a pencil. Then she plays table tennis on the table and uses a table tennis ball.

Data Analyzing
Playing such this game seems easy, but I have analyzed about this game, and I found some difficulties in playing it. First, if I want to play this game, I have to search some pictures and consider whether the pictures are connected each other. According to the picture above, there is a man who is bringing a case and he wants to go to a place. Another picture describes the place that is proposed by the man. There is a bank picture. Those are connected each other. If I want to find other pictures which relates to the man picture, I can use other pictures, for example: an office picture, and a school picture. The second, I have to think whether the students know about the pictures exactly. I should use the clear pictures in order to make the students see clearly and they do not confuse what the pictures are. The third, I should consider whether the students will get challege in doing this game, because the students usually like the challenge in their learning.
I found the difficulties in preparing this game. However, I should also think about advantages and disadvantages. Everyone likes playing the games, because they can find the challenge and its fun as long as or after playing it. The advantages of playing connective game are effective in improving speaking skills for the students. First, the game makes the students more creative in making sentence to say. They can imagine any activities that they will do if they bring the cases and want to go to some places, especially the bank. They can reveal their ideas and make it as good as possible. The second, the game makes the students more interested in learning English. They can learn pleasantly although they study in the class. The third, the students can increase their vocabularies by making many different sentences for the pictures. The last, the students learn to analyze the pictures and try to express anything after they saw the pictures. They can analyze something pleasant, and it can stimulate their mind.
The disadvantages of the game do not affect more for the students. First, I need more space to put the pictures in the class, because I have to use big enough pictures in order to be seen by the students. The second, I need more time in doing the game, because the students need more time to think about the pictures and express their ideas.
After analyzing the game, I got much more advantages that will be got by the students than the advantages. Except the pictures, there is another object that can be used in playing connective games. I can use a pen and a book, then I command the students to make a connection between that two things. So, if I want to play many games to improve the students’ speaking skill, I can find and use many objects as its devices.

Using the game in learning English is one of the effective methods that can be used by a teacher or other people. Some games give the learners considerable support in the language needed for the game, and other games offer a stimulus and context, but no specific language focus or support. Although some games are likely to cause the learners to focus on a particular language point, the game above primarily offers practice in fluency rather than in grammar practice, because I discussed about the speaking skill.

Thornburry, Scott.2005.How to Teach Speaking.Malaysia:Stenton Associates,Saffron Walden,Essex,UK.
Wright, Andrew, David Betteridge, Michael Buckby.2006.Games for Language Learning.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
The Meaning of Conditional Sentences

The Final Exam of
Writing in Professional Context 2
H. Cunong N. Suradja, Drs. M.Hum

Arranged by:
Eva Rahmatilah/07211210432
5 A Morning


First, thanks to Allah SWT with his Mercy and Permission, the writer could finish this paper whit the title “The meaning of Conditional Sentence in The Real Situation.”
The purpose of this study is to fulfill one of the requirements of the final exam of Writing in Professional Context 2 at the English Department of Education and Pedagogy Faculty, University of Ibn Khaldun Bogor.
The writer realized that the kind of the study would not be finished without significant contribution from many people. Therefore, the writer would lake to express her sincere appreciation to H. Cunong N. Suradja, M.Hum aas lecturer of this course.
The grateful thanks are expressed to the writer’s parents, brothers and sisters, and special friends for their support and consonant prayer. Without the help of all those people, this paper might never have come into being.

Bogor, January 2010
The Writer,
Eva Rahmatilah

Table of Content

Preface …………………………………………………………….......... i
Table of Content ………………………………………………………... ii
Introduction …………………………………………………………….. 1
Theoretical Foundation ………………………………………………… 2
Conditional Sentence …………………………………………………... 3
Analysis ………………………………………………………………… 7
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………... 11
Reference ………………………………………………………………. 12


There is an utterance that Grammar in English is the heart of everything. Many learners who studies English often find many methods of learning grammar that are very confusing them. As a result, many people (especially Indonesian learners) are lazy and scare to learn English, because they feel that English is a difficult language to study. They are scare to speak something in English although to say daily conversation that they ever learn since Elementary School or even since in Kinder Garden. Actually language not only case to tell something, but also about logical of word order. The word or sentence order in English is affected by the tenses, whereas Indonesian people don’t know about tenses in Bahasa Indonesia itself. So, it is one of that makes Indonesian learner (from Elementary till University students) confused. Word or sentence patterns to express the actions that happened in the past, now, or future will be different. Bahasa Indonesia just distinguishing past, now, and future by using adverb of time, it doesn’t change the word or pattern of the sentences. In this paper the writer will not explain about tenses, but conditional sentences or if clause. The writer took the title ‘The Meaning of Conditional Sentences’. This paper will show several exercises of Conditional sentences in order that reader (especially the beginners)

Theoretical Foundation

In the growth of life in this modern century, minimally it is very necessary to understand a foreign language, or even it is better if we can master it. This is intended in order not to misunderstand in receiving and giving the information to others. The communication will be run well if they understand what they are talking.
English is one of language which has been made as international language which is used as a communication tool by people in the world as a bridge for their business. This can be watched in the various international activities.
Based on the matters above, it is natural that in Indonesia English has been considered as one of the important subject that must be taught since Elementary schools until universities.
Generally the English teaching has done by the teachers toward the students at school don’t hold on the meaning of English as a mean of communication. Their reasons are as follows.
1) They are chased by curriculum. It’s about forty-five minute, or even just thirty-five per hour.
2) Learner’s response or the student’s interest.
3) Teaching aids used to develop are not enough.
4) Teacher’s competence or skill both method and English are not sufficient.
If those factors above are not handled soon by English teachers, English teaching process will yet hindrances continually and it will not succeed effectively.
The main materials of the English teaching that often given is tenses, yet in this paper the writer will not explain about tenses, but will be explained about conditional sentences and the meaning in the real situation. The reason why the writer chose this subject is because this material is seldom to be taught in every school levels. In addition most of the English learners find any difficulties to determine both the conditional sentences forms and the meaning itself.

Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.
Another definition of conditional sentences is the verb tense that is used to indicate that an action or state of being is dependent on the occurrence of a condition. The condition does not need to be explicitly stated. For example, in the sentence "I would eat it" the condition is not stated but would be implied by the context. The conditional tense is formed using the auxiliary verb "would," although "would" also has other uses.
Conditional Sentences divided into two; main clause and sub clause (if clause) that is divided by if. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

a. Conditional Sentences Type 1
It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.
Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.
Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.
Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative.
Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
There are three tenses which is very important in this first type, namely future time, habitual and command.
Future Time
If + Subject + Simple Present Tense …, Subject + modal auxiliaries + V1
1. If I study hard, I will pass the exam.
2. If she invites us, we will come to her party.
3. I will watch an interesting film if I go to the cinema.
If + Subject + Simple Present Tense …, Subject + Simple Present Tense
1. If the manager has meeting in the morning, he meets his client in the afternoon.
2. Isa always cleans his own room if he has enough time.
3. My mother always gives me a present if I get a good mark in English.
If + Subject + Simple Present Tense …, Subject + Verb in command form
1. If you go to the drugstore, please buy some aspirin for me.
2. Please send me an email if you have the information.

b. Conditional Sentences Type 2
It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
Conditional Sentences Type II refers to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if …“
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.
Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.
The second type of conditional sentences is used when we want to express something contrast with the fact that happen now.
Form: if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative.
Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.
Were instead of Was
In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘– even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.
Example: If I were you, I would not do this.

c. Conditional Sentences Type 3
It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.
Conditional Sentences Type III refers to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.
Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.
I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.
Form: if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative.
Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.
We can use this third type to express or to tell the regret about something that never happened at present. We can omit if and put had in sub clause (if clause).
If the flight had left on time, we would not have arrived so late
Had the flight left on time, we would not have arrived so late.

In this part, the writer will explain furthermore about Conditional sentences and their meaning in the facts (real situation) from Type 1, 2 and 3.

Type 1
Sue has lost her watch. She thinks it may be at Ann’s house.
Sue : I think I left my watch at your house. Have you seen it?
Ann : No, but I’ll have a look when I get home. If I find it, I’ll tell you.
In this example Ann feels there is a real possibility that she will find the watch. So she says: If I find …, I’ll …

Type 2
Ann says: If I found a wallet in the street, I’d take it to the police.
This is a different type of situation. Here, Ann is not thinking about a real possibility; she is imagining the situation and doesn’t expect to find a wallet in the street.
So she says: If I found …, I’d (=I would) …
The fact is Ann doesn’t find a wallet in the street, so she will not take it to the police.
Although in this type uses past tent, the meaning is not past (present).

Type 3
Last month Gary was in Hospital for an operation. Liz didn’t know this, so she didn’t go to visit him. They met a few days ago. Liz says:
If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you.
The real situation was that Liz didn’t know he (Gary) was in hospital. It was impossible for Liz to visit Gary in the hospital when he was sick last month.

Compare (Type 2 and 3):
I’m not hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (Now)
I wasn’t hungry. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something. (Past)
These examples are provided to help readers (beginners) are able to understand so far about Conditional Sentence. The following exercises include affirmative and negative clauses.

A. Conditional Sentence Type I
1. If you study hard, you will pass this English test.
2. If the sun shines, we will swim in my grandmother’s swimming pool.
3. If my son has a temperature, he will see the doctor.
4. If Indri goes, her husband will be very sad.
5. If my mother earns a lot of money, our family will fly to Singapore.
6. The children will not go for a walk if it rains.
7. If I do not argue with my father, he will lend me his motorbike.
8. If we take the bus, we will not arrive in time.
9. If Tom doesn’t tidy up his room, Victoria will not help him with the muffins.
10. If the boys don’t play football, the girls will not come.

B. Conditional Sentence Type 2
1. If my brother had enough money, he would buy a new house.
2. If the man were my friend, I would invite him to my birthday party.
3. My family would go to London if they had a promotion.
4. I would call my father if I saw him again.
5. If the students had no school, they would play chess.
6. If Oliver found money, he wouldn’t keep it.
7. If they didn’t wear pullovers in the mountains, it would be too cold during the night.
8. If Tony knew her phone number, he wouldn’t it to Frank.
9. If I were you, I wouldn’t go to Eric’s party.
10. If he didn’t print the document, I wouldn’t correct it.

C. Conditional Sentence Type 3
1. If the weather had been nice, my friend and I would have gone shopping.
2. The motorcycle wouldn’t have broken down if my uncle had checked it.
3. If they had gone to the restaurant, they would have had more to eat.
4. I would have understood the song if I had read the lyrics.
5. The sand on the beach would have been warmer if the sun had shone.
6. If Danni had learnt more words, he would have delivered a good speech.
7. They newly married couple would have bought the house if the woman hadn’t sold it to her own son.
8. If my parents hadn’t stopped me, I would have reached your house on time.
9. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something.
10. If I had been tired, I would have gone bed earlier.

D. Conditional Sentences and the meaning/the real situation (Type 2 and 3)
1. If I knew his number, I would phone him.
[I don’t phone him because I don’t know his number]
2. I would call my father if I saw him again.
[I don’t see my father, so I don’t call him now]
3. I would help you if I could, but I’m afraid I can’t.
[I will not help you because I can’t]
4. We would need a car if we lived in the country.
[We don’t need a car because we don’t live in the country]
5. I wouldn’t mind living in England if the weather was better.
[I will not live in England because the weather is not better]
6. If you went to bed so late every night, you wouldn’t be tired be tired all the time.
[You didn’t go to bed so late every night, so you will be tired all the time]
7. If there weren’t so many cars, there wouldn’t cause so much pollution.
[There is much pollution because there are so many cars]

8. If I had had any money on me, I would have got a taxi.
[I didn’t get a taxi because I didn’t have any money on me]
9. If Margaret hadn’t worn a seat belt, she would have been injured.
[Margaret wasn’t injured in the crush because she was wearing a seat belt]
10. If Jim hadn’t lent me the money, I wouldn’t have bought the car.
[I was able to buy the car only because Jim lent me the money]
11. If the driver in front hadn’t stopped so suddenly, the accident wouldn’t have happened.
The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly]
12. If I’d been hungry, I would have eaten something.
[I wasn’t hungry, so I didn’t eat anything]
13. If I had had your address, I would have sent you a postcard.
[I didn’t send you a postcard because I didn’t have your address]
14. If I had seen you, of course I would have said hello.
[I didn’t say hello because I didn’t see you]
15. I would have gone if I hadn’t been so tired.
[I was so tired so I didn’t go]


Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.
If you want to tell about the possibility, you can use conditional sentences type 1. If you want to imagine something, you have to use conditional sentences type 2. But if you regret about something that happened in the past, so you must use conditional sentences type 3.
Type I
Condition : possible to fulfill
Form : if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example : If you study hard, you will pass this English test.
Type II
Condition : condition in theory possible to fulfill
Form : if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example : If my brother had enough money, he would buy a new house.
Type III
Condition : condition not possible to fulfill (too late)
Form : if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II
Example : If my brother had enough money, he would buy a new house.


Indra Astuti, Santi. 2008. Simple Step to TOEFL. Jakarta: Hi-Fest Publishing.
Khorn, Robert. 1971. English Sentence Structure. USA: The University of Michigan.
Murphy, Raymond. 1994. English Grammar in Use. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schramfer Azar, Betty. 1993. Fundamentals of English Grammar. Jakarta: Binarupa Angkasa.
Simanjuntak, Herpinus. 2004. Percakapan dan Tata Bahasa Inggris. Jakarta: Kesaint Blanc.

“The Reason Why Students are Speechless in Speaking Class “

Compiled by
Iin Fajriatun Najah
Class VB


Introduction ………………………………………………………… 2
Theoretical Background …………………………………………….4
Data …………………………………………………………………...6
Analysis ………………………………………………………………12
Conclusion and Suggestion …………………………………………14
Reference ………………………………………………………….….16

Being international language, English is needed by most people in the world. Speaking skill is becoming dominant in all aspects, such as in science development, technology, and cultural convey directly or indirectly. If it is think over furthermore, it might be assumed that speaking ability is very important in our daily life because everybody needs it without exception, for example, teacher must be competence in speaking because she/he is a teacher, and we need to speak to convey the message in communication process. We should have a good skill in speaking, especially speaking English for English student. Because English is becoming the second language, and the student should mastering it.
Based on the explanation above, the writer realizes that English student sometime are the speechless in speaking class with the some reason and factors that causes this problem. In speaking, by using English is not an easy matter by students, in fact; they usually face some factors that make them hard to speak up. Usually the students are, they always being passive or speechless when they want to speak in classroom. It causes by lack of vocabularies, especially new vocabularies and idiom. It makes the students doubt to say what they want to convey. Then the anxiety of pronunciations or fear to try makes them fear for speaking, the other problems are the difficulties in understanding grammar, and then the last is environment that could influence the students’ speaking ability. Inspired by the above condition, as a fact, the writer would like to find out the analysis of English student why students are speechless in speaking class.

Theoretical Background
1. Identification of The Problems
In this analysis, the identification of the problems as follows:
1. How is peaking skill of the student in English class?
2. What are the reasons that cause the students hard to speak in English class?
2. The Limitation of the Problem
This analysis is conducted at UIKA; the object of this analysis is English student (the B five classes). And the subject of the analysis is to find out the reasons student are speechless in speaking class of B class, English department.
3. Formulation of the Problem
From the problem limitation above, the writer formulate the problem as follow:
a. The students speaking skill is quiet good, but there are many reasons that cause them fear to try to speak and being hard speaking so their speaking skill improves well.
b. There are some reasons that cause the students hard in speaking. Such as, lack of vocabularies, it is causes because the students less of open their dictionary or reading some books or journal to find out some new vocabularies and idioms. That can make them lack of ideas when they want to convey something in front of the class and doubt to speak. Another reason is the environment, motivation, and self confidence.
4. The objective of the Analysis
1. To know the students’ speaking skill
2. To know the significant reason that cause the students’ are speechless to speaking English in the classroom.
5. The Uses of the Analysis
The uses of the analysis are can be seen in two points of view, practically and theoretically. Practically, the paper can be used by the teacher as a guide to make a technique to increase students’ speaking skill. And for the student, this paper can be used as a guide to improve their speaking skill.
Theoretically, this paper gives the theory about the difficulties in speaking skill.
6. Operational Definition
Speaking is one of speech activity by using oral speech (Tarigan, in Mimi Lestari).
Speechless is unable to speak, e.g. because of deep feeling.
Reason is cause or an explanation for sth that has happened or that sb has done.
Difficulty is state of being difficult, or hard to do; an obstacle that hinders, a condition or state of affairs almost beyond one’s ability to deal with and (

1. Definition of Speaking
Speaking is the act or art of a person (Webster Dictionary, 1991). According to Tarigan in Lestari (2006:13), speaking is one of speech activity by using oral speech. Tarigan defined that’s peaking was a skill in conveying the message through oral speech. Meanwhile according to Kridalaksana in Lestari (2006:13) stated that speaking was an activity which produced language to communicate as a basic skill in speech.
Based on three definitions above, it does can be seen that speaking is the act or art and a skill in conveying the message which produced language to communicate as basic skill in speech.
In speaking activity, both speaker and listener must be capable to express their ideas to convey the message each other. In other words, there are two sides of communication happened in one time, so that the speaking activity going communicatively.
2. Basic Types of Speaking
From a pragmatic view of language performance, listening and speaking are almost always closely interrelated. Five categories of speaking performance assessment task bellow:
1. Imitative: is a one end of continuum of types of speaking performance is the ability to simple parrot back (imitate) a word or phrase or possibly a sentence.
2. Intensive: is a second type of speaking frequently employed in assessment context is the production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical or phonological relationship.
3. Responsive: its include interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversation, standard greeting and small talk, simple request and comments.
4. Interactive is the difference between responsive and interactive speaking is in the length and complexity of the interaction, which sometimes includes multiple exchanges and or multiple participants.
5. Extensive (monologue): is extensive oral production tasks include speeches, oral presentation, and story-telling, during which the opportunity for oral interaction from listener is either highly limited or ruled out together.
3. Speaking in Context
Speakers have a great range of expressive possibilities at their command. Apart from the actual words that the speakers use can vary speaker’s intonation and stress which helps them to show which part of speaker saying is more important. By varying the pitch and intonation in speaker voice, speaker can clearly convey their attitude to what they are saying; too, speaker can indicated interest or lack of it, for example and speaker can show whether they wish to be taken seriously.
At any point in a speech event speaker can rephrase what they are saying they can speed up or slow down. This will be often being who will show through a variety of gestures, expression, and interruption that they do understand. In a face interaction the speaker can use whole range of facial expressions, gesture and general body language to help to convey the message.
4. The Purpose of Speaking
Speaking has so many functions nowadays as follow:
1. To utter or articulate sounds, as human beings; to express thoughts by words; as, the organs may be so obstructed that a man may not be able to speak.
2. Speaking used to express opinions; to say; to talk; to converse.
3. Speaking used to convey sentiments, ideas, or intelligence, as if be utterance; as, features that speak of self-will.
4. Speaking used to utter with the h; to pronounce; to utter articulately; as human being.
5. Speaking used to utter in a word or words; to say; to tell; to declare orally; as to speak the truth; to speak sense.
6. Speaking used to declare; to proclaim; to publish; to make known; to exhibit; to express in anyway.
5. Speaking Situation
Interactive speaking situation include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive.
6. Oral Presentation
Many people feel nervous about speaking to an audience, but oral presentation can be successful with good planning and a systematic approach as follow:
1. Speaking to an Audience
At some stage in studies, we will need to give a formal presentation. Planning, structuring, preparing, and presenting.
2. Body Language
Body language make the conversation or presentation in oral more easily and comprehend, make eyes contact with the person managing the discussion. Sitting opposite the tutor may make easier sitting behind other people, or right the back of the room, will definitely make it much harder.
3. What to Say
In oral presentation, we should think about the language to use when we are taking the floor in a discussion.
4. Interruption In oral presentation, there are times when we need to break in while someone else in speaking in order to make an important point.

Based on the analyzing of the students’ why are student speechless in speaking class that they sometimes or not really like speaking class, then they not really fluent in speaking English, so they are seldom communicating by using English. The students always find the difficulties when they want to speaking English, and then based on the statement the students, the environment influence to their speaking skill. Here the common of reasonable that always find by the students:
Difficulties The Reasons
Vocabulary Lack of vocabulary (new words)
Grammar The difficulties in using particular tenses in speaking.
Ideas Lack of ideas
Anxiety Feel fear to try (to speak in front of the class)
Environment Need the good environment
Self confidence Low self confidence to speak in front of the class

Based on the table above, there are the explanations about those problems:
Vocabulary according to Merriam Webster Dictionary (2008), vocabulary is a list or collection of words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined. The students usually lack of new vocabularies in speaking, so when they are want to speak out, they cannot speak fluently.
Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of a given natural language, and as such a field of linguistic (www. The when the student arrange the words to speak, they t with their tense or word structure that they will use in speaking.
Ideas is the material from the through that will transfer trough speaking. The students will lose their ideas if they are less of reading some books or journals. But the ideas will flow smoothly if they are reading more.
Self-Confidence is the beliefs of self ability.
Self-confidence is divided into two categories, and they are:
-Anxiety: the students in English class usually afraid to speak up front of the class because they fear to make mistakes in speaking.
-Environment: environment can give bad or good effect to the students’ speaking skill. Sometime the students doubt to speak up because the environment, they can feel shy to speak in front of much of people or public.

Conclusion and Suggestion
I. Conclusion
The students of English Department of University of Ibnu Khaldun usually find some problems or reason why they are speak speechless, especially when the lesson is running. That reason is sometimes or not really like speaking class, then they not really fluent in speaking English, so they are seldom communicating by using English. The students always find the difficulties when they want to speaking English. Then based on the statement of students, the environment influence to speaking skill. Then the problems that make them hard to speak are
First, vocabulary. The students usually lack of new vocabularies in speaking, so when they are want to speak out, they cannot speak fluently. Second is Grammar, when the students arrange the words to speak. They doubt with their tense or word structure that they will use in speaking. Third are ideas, the students will e their ideas if they are less of reading some books or journals? But the ideas will flow smoothly if they are reading more. The fourth is self- confidence, self- confidence is divided into two categories, they are :
-Anxiety: the students in English class usually afraid to speak up front of the class because they fear to make mistakes in speaking.
-Environment: environment can give bad or good effect to the students’ speaking skill. Sometime the students doubt to speak up because the environment, they can feel shy to speak in front of much of people or public.
2. Suggestion
Based upon the analysis that was performed at English speaking class of University of Ibnu Khaldun(B class). The writer would like to propose suggestion as follow: As a teacher, they should be active and communicative in classroom. And then give motivation and feed back to the student. Then, the teacher should give the warmness in classroom environment, so the student feels comfort and they can raise their self-confidence. And then the student should try more by reading some books or journals so that they have ideas to communicative especially speaking in English. And the last the student should try to practice more each other.

Brown, Gillian and George Yule, Teaching the Spoken Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Febriana, Reni.2009. Analysis of Student’ Difficulties in Speaking Skill in English Class, a research paper. UNTIRTA Serang: Unpublished.
Gay, L. R Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Application. Florida International University. 1992.
Hutchinson, Tom and Alan Waters, English for Specific Purposes; a learning-centred approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Seventh Printing 1992.
Lestari, Mimi.2006. The Influence of Student’s Speaking Ability at the Second Grade of SMPN3 Cilegon, a research paper. UNTIRTA Serang: Unpublished.
Unknown, Let’s Speak English;Learning Spoken English half time. Cetakan Pertama, English is Easy Center, 2009.
Webster new world Dictionary, third college edition 1991, New York. Prentice Hall.