TEACHING CARDINAL NUMBER BY USING BINGO GAME TO THE SEVENTH GRADE OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
by Arlin Nuari
A. Background of The Study
In Indonesia, English has been chosen as the first foreign language to be taught as compulsory subject from the first year of junior high school up to the first year of college. There are four components of language to be taught to junior high school students, they are structure or grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and spelling. Vocabulary is one components that to be learned and mastered, but some students still face problem in learning English cardinal number ( Jaya, 2006 : in http://www.essay.se/essay/8e4e235ac8.).
There are many languages in the world with many varieties in their form and use. Besides of them, English is the most widely used. More people use English in many activities in the world of interaction and communication and also for Indonesian people. Moreover, to make a good communication, people need mastery the four skills those are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Mastery the skills are not easy because the rules of English are different from these of Indonesian language.
Besides, the students will learn the language aspects; there are pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary to support their language skills. Mastery vocabulary is one of the most important things to make our communication be fluent and obstruct. Krenzke (2001:209) states “when people know a lot of words, it’s easier to say exactly what we want to say”. It means that when people mastery much of words or vocabulary especially cardinal number, we can speak and make the communication feels good.
Vocabulary is one of the aspects of language. Vocabulary requires in listening and speaking skills, and also for reading and writing. If the students have very limited vocabulary especially cardinal number, they will find some difficulties in communications and also for reading and other skills if they are lack of vocabulary. The lack of vocabulary is a real problem. Suyanto (2007:47) states that teaching vocabulary is better one if the materials are used still in children world contexts in order to make easier n practice for communicate. Therefore, teacher has leading role to help their students to develop their students’ ability in mastering vocabulary especially for Junior High School.
To teach cardinal number to the students of Junior High School is really important to use media, once of them is Games. Game is one of the alternative media can be used by the teacher in teaching vocabulary especially here in teaching cardinal number. Cezzanne (1895 point out) that game is structured or semi structured activity, usually under taken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as an education tool. In this study the writer uses Bingo game in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grade students at Junior High School.
Bingo Games is of the alter one of the later stages of the process of covering a language point, usually in conjunction with a number of other activities according to ( Huntley, 2009 : in http://www.tefl.net/esl-articles/bingo.htm ). With directions language, the minimum requirement for the bingo game to work would be knowledge of basic directions, including relevant prepositions especially in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grades students Junior High School. Therefore, this research is attempting to find out whether it is effective or not to teach cardinal number using Bingo game to the students, especially the seventh grade students of Junior High School.
B. The Problem of The Study
The main of this study is the use of Bingo game in teaching cardinal number. To be clearer, the limitation and the formulation of the problem are presented below.
a. Limitation of the Problem
The problem in this study is limited on teaching cardinal number by using Bingo game to the seventh grade students of Junior High School.
b. Formulation of the problem
Formulation of the study is formulated in the following question: Is it effective using Bingo game in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grade students of Junior High School?
C. Objective of The Study
The objective of this research is to find out whether or not it is effectively to use Bingo game in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grade students of Junior High School. The writer expects that the result of this thesis will useful for the students, teachers of English, other researchers and also for the writer herself.
1) To the Students:
This study will be useful as information input for language to improve their vocabulary knowledge especially cardinal number. It can motivate to the students in learning cardinal number on applying on games (Bingo) and also to give them more interest to learn new words in English.
2) To the Teachers of English:
This study will guide teachers of English in teaching cardinal number and they can apply this game in their classroom and also they can compare and improve or add their previous teaching techniques.
3) To Other Researchers:
This study can be the source of information for other researchers who are also investigating the teaching method of English vocabulary especially for cardinal number to the students.
4) To the Writer herself:
This study will give more experience to the writer as teacher of English and it will enlarge knowledge in doing research on applying the Bingo game in teaching cardinal number to the students.
A. The Concept of Teaching
Teaching is a profession conducted by using a combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art because it relies on the teacher’s creative provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her students. It is a science since it is a system, an ordered set of ideas and methods used by the teachers in doing their main jobs: planning a lesson, implementing the plan in the classroom and evaluating the outcome of the activities. It is a skill because it demands the ability attained from relevant theories and practice to assist students expertly in learning so that they are able to again linguistic and communicative competence in the target language. While Brown (2001) states teaching is showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand.
Base on the definition above, the writer can conclude that the meaning of teaching is a process of a transferring knowledge from someone to another one in order to make people know or understand about something. For example, in this case teacher will be transfer about cardinal number by using Bingo game to his students.
B. The Concept of Number
Numbers in English is divided into two type, they are Cardinal number and ordinal number. Numbers with a decimal point (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.) may be read as a cardinal and Number is not decimal (0th, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, e.t.c.) point may be read as ordinal number.
C. Types of Cardinal Number
Cardinal numbers refer to the size of a group. Cardinal numbers are numbers used to show quantity. They are also sometimes referred to as count
Ten 20 twenty
Eleven 30 thirty
Twelve 40 forty (no "u")
Thirteen 50 fifty (note "f", not "v")
Fourteen 60 sixty
5 fifteen (note "f", not "v") Fifteen 70 seventy
Sixteen 80 eighty (only one "t")
Seventeen 90 ninety (note the "e")
8 eighteen (only one "t") Eighteen
If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, one should write the number as two words separated by a hyphen.
In English, the hundreds are perfectly regular, except that the word hundred remains in its singular form regardless of the number preceding it (nevertheless, one may on the other hand say "hundreds of people flew in", or the like)
100 one hundred
200 two hundred
900 nine hundred
So too are the thousands, with the number of thousands followed by the word "thousand"
1,000 one thousand
10,000 ten thousand
11,000 eleven thousand
20,000 twenty thousand
21,000 twenty-one thousand
30,000 thirty thousand
85,000 eighty-five thousand
100,000 one hundred thousand or one lakh (Indian English),
999,000 nine hundred and ninety-nine thousand (British English)
nine hundred ninety-nine thousand (American English).
1,000,000 one million
10,000,000 ten million or one crore (Indian English)
In American usage, four-digit numbers with non-zero hundreds are often named using multiples
D. The Concept of Games
Saleh (2001:57) states that a game is a kind of play that can be used to practice certain language features at certain phrases in learning process in order to develop communication skills.
According to Thornbury (2005:153), the word game (in language teaching) means an organization activity that usually has the following properties:
a. A particular task or objective.
b. A set of ruler.
c. Competition between players.
d. Communication between players by spoken or written language.
According to Ersoz (2000:1), games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation. Uberman (1998:20) states that many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time filling activities but have a great educational value. Lee (1979:2) holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct format.
Games encourage, entertain, teach and promote fluency. If no for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times see overwhelming (Uberman, 1998:20). In conclusion, games help encourage and participants to sustain their interest in English. The writer realized that games motivated the students to acquire knowledge, vocabulary, grammars, and the like.
a. The Importance of Games
Language learning is not easy work. Effort and patience are required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. According to Wright, et al, (1984:1), games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. Learning a new language can be a hard and need long journey. The use of games in learning environment will not only change the dynamic of class, but it will also make easier for students and help the brain to learn more effectively. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games. Su Kim (in http://www.teflgames.com/games.html, 1995:35) clarifies many advantages of using games in classroom:
1) Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of language class.
2) They are motivating and challenging.
3) Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4) Games provide language practice in the various skills-speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5) They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6) They create a meaningful context for language use.
Furthermore, Lewis (in Mei and Yu-Jing, 2000:4) states that games are fun and children like to play them. In additional, Lengeling and Malarcher (1997:42) mention general benefit of games:
• Games can encourage creative and spontaneous use of language
• Games can promotes communicative competence
• Games can motivates and fun for students
• Games allow students to focuses on grammar communicatively
• Games make teacher acts only as facilitator
• Games builds class cohesion
• Games promotes healthy competition
• Games is easily adjusted for age, level, and interest
• Games as utilizes all four skills.
Based on the views above, a game allows students to: work co-operatively, learn from others, learn from mistakes, and allow people to have fun.
b. The Bingo Games
There are many kinds of games which can be used by the teacher in teaching cardinal number. One of them by using Bingo game, Bingo game is kind of word game. According to Rini (2008:34) Bingo is one of the most popular games in teaching foreign language. This game is really effective to train the students in improving their English spelling ability individually or group. Further more, Jeannie (2000) states that Bingo game is a game for the whole class, which encourages students to study and review their Vocabulary. In addition Kavaliuskiene (2000) adds that Bingo games is an ideal tool in assessing and teaching English especially vocabulary. In this game the students are asked to mark all the number on their Bingo cards by giving a check (√) on it. The students have no mark number which are the same number that mentioned by the teacher number on his Bingo card will shout Bingo and win the game. In applying this game material based on the students level. It is advisable for the teacher to add pictures on the students. Bingo cards to attract their interest. In this case the teachers could prepare the Bingo cards before playing or asking the students make the card by themselves. To make Bingo cards the teachers should follow the following steps, they are:
1. Prepare several things such as : papers, pen, ruler, and pictures,
2. Draw a big square of a paper and divided it into 9 small squares,
3. Write on one word and picture in each small square.
The procedure of applying bingo game:
1. Give each student a Bingo grid sheet or have the students draw their own grid sheet.
2. Write a list of words on the board. It could contain around 20 items.
3. Writes is name of numbers in small pieces of paper. Each small piece of papers contains one word.
4. Choose 9 papers randomly, read, and show them to the students one by one. Each student will mark the word on his Bingo grid sheet when it is the same as the word which is mentioned by the teacher.
5. When any students are able to mark all words (number) on his Bingo grid sheet, he shouts, “Bingo” and wins the game.
The Example of Bingo game is presented bellow: Listen to the words and mark your grid sheet.
1. The teachers mention and show the following cardinal number one by one:
Each player has a number of BINGO cards (players can usually play any number of cards). Each BINGO card has 5 rows and 5 columns thus providing 25 spaces. The columns are labeled from left to right with the letters: 'B', 'I', 'N', 'G', 'O'. With one exception (the center space is "free") the spaces in the card are assigned values as follows:
• Each space in the 'B' column contains a number from 1 - 15.
• Each space in the 'I' column contains a number from 16 - 30.
• Each space in the 'N' column contains a number from 31 - 45.
• Each space in the 'G' column contains a number from 46 - 60.
• Each space in the 'O' column contains a number from 61 - 75.
• Furthermore, a number can appear only once on a single card.
2. The students mark their Bingo cards
B I N G O
10 17 39 49 64
12 21 36 55 62
14 25 FREE
SPACE 52 70
7 19 32 56 68
5 24 34 54 71
3. The number of unique BINGO cards is very large and can be calculated with this equation:
4. // the B, I, G, and O columns * the N column
5. (15 * 14 * 13 * 12 * 11) ^ 4 * (15 * 14 * 13 * 12)
6. While perhaps interesting to a statistician, the number of possible BINGO cards has nothing to do with player's chances of winning.
7. You will note that there are 75 possible BINGO numbers:
8. B1, B2, B3, ... B15, I16, I17, I18, ... I30, N31, N32, ... O74, O75.
9. Each of these numbers is represented by a ball in a large rotating bin. Each ball is painted with its unique BINGO number. An announcer spins the bin, reaches in a selects a ball, and announces it to the room. The players check all of their cards to see if that number appears on their card. If it is, they mark it.
10. When a player has a BINGO (5 in a row, column, or diagonal), he or she calls out BINGO. The game pauses while the card is verified. If indeed a winner, the game stops and a new game begins. If the card wasn't a winner, the game proceeds where it left off. Each BINGO game proceeds until someone wins (there's always a winner).
E. Teaching Cardinal Number by Using Bingo Game
In teaching process one ways to make the students enjoyed is learning by games. Game is one of the good strategies. Every teacher will prepare the games of activities before the class starts, but for students activities they need nothing to prepare because by reading the examples they can do whatever they wants based on the examples and interactions written.
According to Huntley (in http://www.tefl.net/esl-articles/bingo.htm) if the variety is the spice of life, as they say, then a variation of this age-old favorite will fit the bill when lesson ideas are running a bit short. Its beauty is that it's in the form of a familiar game, while being versatile enough to enable you to practice and reinforce a wide range of language and skills. The example given here is designed for teaching street directions, but any other topic can be adapted to the same concept. Whatever the teaching point being covered, it's important to pre-teach the target language first, and to possibly do some preliminary practice. The bingo game would be one of the later stages of the process of covering a language point, usually in cardinal number with a number of other activities. With directions language, the minimum requirement for the bingo game to work would be knowledge of basic directions, including relevant prepositions.
In preparing a handout, draw a square grid with about 25 cells (five down and five across), although larger ones would be good for a greater challenge or a longer game. On the same or on another page, draw a simple street map with a variety of cardinal number (One, two, three, etc) that are marked with numbers from 1-25. There should be at least 25 such numbered in cardinal number on the map, although having more of them is better. In the classroom, instruct students to fill each cell in their grid with random numbers from 1-25, or more if there are corresponding numbers on the above-mentioned map. Once they have done this they are ready to start.
The teacher then gives street directions, using the map on the student handout, while the students listen, to find the cardinal number that the teacher is referring to. Once students identify the cardinal number they can cross-check the number with their own grid and mark it off if it is there. Once they mark off five numbers in a row, they have achieved a bingo and won. The game can be then stop there or continue so that other students can achieve a bingo.
A valuable variation to having the teacher act as the caller and reading out the directions, is to have each student read out one set of directions, for a given cardinal number. This gives each person more chances to speak and to use the target language, while other students can become accustomed to listening to a greater range of speaking voices and accents.
Once again, other lesson points besides directions are possible. One idea is to have matching pairs of sentences or fragments of sentences in two columns. Conditional sentences for teaching negotiations would lend themselves to this particularly well. The sentences or part sentences have to be matched up, but the caller will only read out the first part, in the first column, so the students have to hurriedly find the numbered matching part in the second column to find the right number and participate in the bingo game.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
A. Method of Research
Experimental method is one of the most powerful research methodologies researchers can use (Thornbury, 2002:230). In this study, the writer will use a pre-experimental method. The pre-experimental method is given to one group of students, which use one group pre-test post-test design.
According to Thornbury 2002(:236) , one group pretest-posttest desing is a single group is measured or observed not only after being exposed to a treatment of some sort, but also before. The design is as follow:
Pre Test Treatment Post Test
B. Population and Sample
According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:66), a population is the group to which the results of the study are intended to apply. The population of this study was only the seventh grade students of Junior High School MtsN Cibinong. The total number of population was 206 students comprising seven classes. It was shown in the following table.
THE POPULATION OF THE RESEARCH
NO Class Number of student
1 7.1 36
2 7.2 34
3 7.3 36
4 7.4 36
5 7.5 34
A sample is a group in a research study which information is obtained (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:66). According to Arikunto (1998:117) sample is a part of population that will be observed. In this research, the writer will use the simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is a sample in which every member of population has an equal chance of being selected.
In this study the writer will write the whole of six classes on piece of paper and put them in a glass. Then, the writer will take one of them to be taken as sample, it is class 7.1. out of 206 students, there are 36 students taken as random sampling.
THE SAMPLE OF THE RESEARCH
No Class Number of students
1 7.1 36
C. Techniques for Collecting Data
To obtain the data, the writer will use a written test. Test is examination or trial of something to find it quality, volume, completion, etc. The objective of giving a test in this study is to see or find out whether or not it is effective to use Bingo games in teaching Cardinal numbers. The test will use in the written test by form multiple choices.
The pre test was conducted to measure the students’ achievement in study cardinal number before the research was begun. Post-test was conducted after teaching treatment. The function of post-test is to compare students’ scores in the study of cardinal number after teaching cardinal number by using Bingo game and teaching cardinal number before using Bingo games.
The objective of the test was to see the students' progress after being taught in the research. And than, in this study the test were used to know whether there is any effectiveness different between the student’s achievement in learning cardinal number who are taught through Bingo games.
D. Techniques for Analyzing Data
In this study, the writer will apply there techniques of analyzing the data, they are (1) Percentage Analysis, (2) Conversion of Percentage ranges, (3) Matched T-Test.
a. Percentage Analysis
Percentage analysis will use to find out the students’ individual scores in teaching cardinal number by using Bingo games, the formula is:
X : The students’ score
TA : Total number of correct answers
N : The students’ number
b. Conversion of Percentage ranges
In this study, the writers apply the conversion percentage ranges will be represented as following:
SCORE GRADE LEVEL OF COMPETENCY
80% - 100% A EXCELLENT
70% - 79% B GOOD
55% - 69% C ENOUGH
40% - 50% D WEAK
< 40% E VERY WEAK
c. Matched T-Test
This research will apply to find out whether or not it is significantly effective to use Bingo games in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grade students of MtsN Cibinong. The formula is as follow:
Matched T-Test =
X1: Average score of post-test
X2 : Average score of pre-test
SD: Standard deviation
SD = Standard deviation of test score.
D = Differ Pre test and Post test.
N = Number of students.
Vocabulary is one of the important factors in all language teaching learning. And the students must continually learn new words as they learn structure and as they practice sound system, but most of the students are not interested and motivated at all. Therefore, the writer uses bingo card as one of the strategies in teaching that benefits the students in many ways. The writer concludes that:
1. Bingo Games help the students to understand the difficult words easily by practice using Bingo Games.
2. The use of Bingo Games make the vocabulary learning more enjoyable and interesting because they can memories the meaning of the difficult words
3. The use of bingo games makes the class more active and alive.
4. The use of bingo games could attract the student’s curiosity in learning new vocabulary, especially cardinal number.
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