TEACHING VOCABULARY NOUN THROUGH WALL PICTURE
by Nopi Sriyulianti
A. Background of the Study
English is one of international languages, which is used throughout the world and also English is used in many fields of life such as: in Politics, Economics, Social and Education. Therefore, English as a language in international communication is clearly needed by many learners to deliver thought and interact in a variety of situation. English is one of the foreign languages for Indonesian students that must be learnt in school since kindergarten level until University level. English is considered as a difficult subject for the Indonesian students, because English is completely different from Indonesian language being look at from the system of structure, pronunciation and vocabulary. English teaching involves of four language skills, they are Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. In teaching and learning a language, there are four aspects that support four language skills above such as: grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation that are also taught in English teaching and learning process. Vocabulary is one of important aspects in teaching language, as stated by Edward in his book: Vocabulary is one of the important factors in all language teaching, student must continually be learning words as they learn structure and as they practice sound system.
Students sometimes find some difficulties in the process of learning vocabulary in this case in English word, they may be confronted by words that are totally unfamiliar with them and that their problem is they have to produce language due to their lack of vocabulary. As an English teacher, we should be creative to find a good way to help them enrich their vocabulary so they will not feel bored in the class. One of the ways is by using teaching aids. According to Romiszowski in Harjanto”….aids are the carries of message from some transmitting sources (which may be human being or an estimate object) to the receiver of the message (which in our case is the learners)”.
B. Problem identification
Research in first and second language acquisition suggest that initial teaching priorities for language areas should be vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Therefore, the English teacher has to be able to organize teaching and learning activities; they have to give materials by using a suitable technique and master the lesson effectively. Especially in learning vocabulary, teachers must make the students able to memorize such words in English language and group of new words. The statements above mean, vocabulary is important to teach and teachers must try to find the most effective way to teach it. There are many problems of language teaching that can be identified as research subjects. We could discuss about methods, material selection, and others. In this research it is identified that teaching technique for kindergarten level is challenging. Therefore, in this research the writer wants to make a study about how to teach vocabulary through wall picture for Elementary School.
C. Limitation of the problems
To avoid misunderstanding and to clarify the problem, it is necessary to make limitation of the problem. The writer will give limitation of the problem in teaching vocabulary by using wall pictures especially in Noun.
D. Statement of the problems
The writer conducts the study to see how well the pictures encourage student’s vocabulary mastery. The statement of the problem can be formulated into the general research question: How effective is the use of pictures in teaching vocabulary to Elementary School students? To specific this problem, the specific research question are formulated as: .How well the pictures encourage the Elementary School student’s vocabulary mastery?
E. Purpose of the Study
The purposes of the study are:
1. To find out the procedure of teaching vocabulary through wall picture.
2. To find out the student’s opinion about their vocabulary mastery after being taught using wall picture.
3. To find out whether there are any difficulties faced by the teacher in teaching vocabulary through wall picture,
One thing that differentiates human from animals is verbal language or speaking beside mind to think. Humans can communicate with others through verbal language, either to apply or to receive the information the animal cannot do. When we observed a child first acquiring speech, we talk of this progress as a matter of learning new words; we are also likely to feel that the adult speaker with the largest vocabulary has the best command of English. To think of a language as just a stock of words is, however quite wrong. Words alone do not make a language; a grammar is needed to combine them in some intelligible way. Yet it is true that the vocabulary is the focus of language. It is in words that sounds and meaning interlock to allow us to communicate with one another, and it is a word that we arrange together to make sentences, conversations, and discourse of all kinds. Thus we have a paradox in that the most ephemeral part of language is also the center where meaning, pronunciation and grammar come together. Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language skills.
Vocabulary building is really important in any language learning. Vocabulary also becomes the most important aspect in acquiring a language and mastering the second language. It is supported by Schmitt who says: “One of the keys in learning a foreign language is mastery the second language’s vocabulary”. We know and use the words that suit our particular purposes and we continue to learn new words as long as we live. It is clear enough that everybody who learns a language as a foreign language is hoped to know and master the vocabulary to improve the language skills. Vocabulary becomes a major problem in learning English, teachers of Elementary School emphasizes on this matter earlier. In teaching vocabulary, generally the teacher teaches new words taken from reading text. It means that she integrates vocabulary with reading. This integration will lead to integrative lesson plan.
1. The meaning of Vocabulary
In some literature, we found the meaning of vocabulary. There are some definitions of vocabulary. According to Harimurti Kridalaksana, Vocabulary is a component of language that maintains all of information about meaning and using word in language. According to Webster.s Ninth Collegiate Dictionary, Vocabulary is:
a. A list or collection of words and phrase usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined.
b. A sum or stock of words employed by a language group individual or work or in a field of knowledge.
c. A list or collection of terms or codes available for use.
There are some experts who give definition of vocabulary Hatch and Brown define vocabulary as a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of word that individual speakers of language might use. Furthermore Webster Dictionary noted that, vocabulary is: A list or collection of words usually alphabetically arranged and explained or lexicon, stock of words use in language or by class, individual, etc. While according to Roget, Vocabulary is:
a. An alphabetical list of words often defined or translated, the vocabulary includes idioms and two words verb.
b. All the word of Language.
c. Specialized expression indigenous to a particular fields, subject, trade or subculture.
From the definition above, that vocabulary is a component of language and numbers of words by a person class, profession, etc. In the communication and every aspects of life such as in trade, education, business, social, politic, etc.
2. The Types of Vocabulary
There are some types of vocabulary:
a. Receptive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to recognize it when it is heard (What is the sound like?) or when it seen (What does it look like?) and having an expectation of what grammatical pattern the word will occurrence. This includes being able to distinguish it from word with a similar form and being able to judge if the word form sounds right or look right.
b. Productive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to pronounce the word, how to write and to spell it, how to use it in grammatical pattern along with the word in usually collocates with it, it also involves not using the word too often if it is typically a low frequency word and using it in a suitable situation using the word to stand for the meaning it represents and being able to think of suitable substitutes for the word if there any.
Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary Lee Field Classified Vocabulary into two terms there are:
a. Active Vocabulary refers to items the learner can use appropriately in speaking or writing and it is also called as productive vocabulary, although, in fact, it is more difficult to put into practice. It means that to use the productive vocabulary, the students are supposed to know how to pronounce it well, they must know and be able to use grammar of the language target, they are also hoped to familiar with collocation and understand the connotation meaning of the words. This type is often used in speaking and writing skill.
b. Passive Vocabulary refers to a language items that can be recognizes and understood in the context of reading or listening and also called as receptive Vocabulary. Passive Vocabulary or comprehension consists of the words comprehended by the people, when they read and listen.
From the explaining above, we know that every experts in every book is different in classifying the kinds of vocabulary, because every person has different ways in showing and telling their opinions and ideas. It means that vocabulary is of two kinds function and content words.
3. The Use of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is important in case it could help the students to enjoy their classes. One who masters enough vocabulary will find fewer difficulties than those who have fewer vocabularies. When they read a certain text, they will easily get the information from it since they can understand every word in the text. On the others hand, those who lack of vocabulary will face a lot of problems. Mastery of vocabulary will be useful for the process of achieving language- teaching objectives.
That is the mastery of language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing). If we want to communicate with others in certain language, we must master the language they belong to especially to know enough vocabulary of those language. Yang Zhihong who say that “Words are the basic unit of language from supports it. Without vocabulary, one cannot communicate to effectively or express idea”. He also states that having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier. Furthermore, Long and Richards explain that vocabulary like grammar is an essential component of all uses of language.
Pictures are kinds of visual instruction materials might be used more effectively to develop and sustain motivation in producing positive attitudes towards English and to teach or reinforce language skills. It is supposed by Tang Li Shing in His Article that. The Picture had an irascible appeal for the children. They created suspense and surprises as well as interest, all of which are indispensable in teaching and learning a foreign language.
1. The Meaning of Pictures
Jean L. Mckenchnie defines picture in Webster dictionary that. Picture is an image, or likeness of an object, person, or scene produce on a flat surface, especially by painting, drawing or photography. Meanwhile according to Andrew Wright.Picture is not just an aspect of method but through its representation of place, object, and people, it is essential part of the overall experiences. Vernon S Gerlach stated: Pictures are a two dimension visual representation of person, places, or things. Photograph prints are most common, but sketches, cartoons, murals, cut outs, charts, graphs and maps are widely used. A picture may not only be worth a thousand words it is may also be worth a thousand years or a thousand miles. Through pictures, learner can see people, place and things from areas for outside their own picture can also represent image from ancient times or portray the future. The kinds and numbers of pictures that the teacher should take with him to carry out the activities in class can be taken from magazines, articles, or others and should be interactive and interesting to capture the students. Attention the purpose of using pictures for the students is to give them an opportunity to practices the language in real context or in situations in which they can make it to communicate their ideas.
The use of pictures are more efficient and practice than words, they are easier to recall and to remember than words, further more they expose real life situation although it happened a long time ago. As it has been explained by Vernon, S.Gerlach and Donald p. Elly,.Picture may not only be worth a thousand miles. Through pictures, Learner can be shown people, places and things, from areas far outside their own experiences. Pictures can represent images from ancient times or portray the future.
According to Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman,.Pictures can be formed such: wall charts, commercially- produced flashcards, hand drawn pictures, and of course illustration from course books and supplementary books. From the meaning of pictures above, it indicates that the pictures has exchanged and represented the real object into a simple device which has displayed a series of places, object, person, or even experiences.
2. The Types of Pictures
Through picture presentation, people are able to reach outside their minds. Pictures that they can see always lead to the reality of their minds. But the realities that have been presented by pictures depend on the types of the pictures.
According to Betty Morgan Bowen, there are some types of pictures as their shapes:
a. Wall charts.
b. Wall pictures: is simply a large illustration of scenes or events. It is usually to be used with the whole of class.
c. Sequence Picture is a series of pictures of a single subject it is function is tell a story or a sequence of events.
d. Flash cards
• Word Flash cards; card with printed words on it can help up rapidly, the cards can be used to demonstrate exactly what the teacher wishes.
• Picture Flash cards; useful for the representation of a single concept, such as an object or in action.
e. Work cards. Includes visual as well as text magazine pictures drawing maps and diagrams can be important part or work cards at all levels used for vanity of purposes.
3. The Use of Pictures
There are five roles of pictures:
a. Pictures can motivate the students and make him or her want to pay attention and want to take part.
b. Pictures contribute to the context in which the language is being used. They bring the world into the classroom.
c. The pictures can be described an objective way or interpreted or responded to subjectively.
d. Pictures can cue responses to questions or cue substitutions through control practice.
e. Pictures can stimulate and provide information to be referred to in conversation, discussion and story telling beside Horse five roles in using picture, there are six reasons why pictures helpful in teaching learning process.
There are six reasons why using pictorial material:
a. Pictures are useful for presenting new grammatical and vocabulary items.
b. Pictorial material allows for meaningful practice of vocabulary and structures presented by the teacher.
c. Pictorial material can also provide a stimulus for using the language at the reproduction and manipulation stages to speak, to read and to write.
d. Pictures can be used for revision from one lesson to another as well as for long term revision of vocabulary and structures.
e. Pictorial material can be used to supplement whatever textbook the teacher is using or whatever course he is following. Picture, of course can be used to provide more practice of the exercises that students have done using the text book.
f. Pictorial material is easy to collect, to make and to transport.
4. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Picture Used
a. The Advantages of Pictures Used
Following are some opinions concerning with the advantages of using pictures. According to Vernon, S. Gerlach:
1. They are inexpensive and widely available.
2. They provide common experiences for an entire group.
3. The visual detail make it possible to study subject, which would turn back to be impossible.
4. They can help you to prevent and correct disconcertion.
5. They offer a stimulus to further study, reading and research visual evidence is power tool.
6. They help to focus attention and to develop critical judgment.
7. They are easily manipulated.
b. The Disadvantages of Pictures Used
There are some disadvantages of pictures used in teaching and learning process, such as:
1. Students pay attention on the picture more than on learned material.
2. It takes time and costs much to provide attractive pictures.
3. Small and unclear pictures may arouse problems in the teaching learning process since the students may misunderstand about the pictures.
C. Wall Picture
1. The Meaning of wall picture
Wall picture is simply a large illustration of scenes or events. It is usually to be used with the whole of class. Wall picture is a wall, bulletin board, or other large surface in a classroom where students and teachers alike can place words in large letters than will be visible from around the room. Wall picture can be used to provide students with high- frequency words or other terms they may need to call upon in their reading and writing. Each letter of the alphabet is listed in order with space left under each letter for words to be placed. As elementary school students learn and study new words they are added to the Wall Picture under the appropriate letter.
2. The usage of wall picture
Wall Picture is used by elementary teachers in many ways depending on the needs of the students. The more students interact with the words the more effective the wall pictures are. Teachers should vary the wall picture activities they use to keep students’ interest peaked.
• On the first day of school the teacher can put his name, the name of the school, and the grade of the class on the wall.
• Grade level sight words can be placed on the Wall Picture after the teacher introduces them. A teacher can place familiar environmental print, such as a cereal box title, on the Wall Picture to illustrate a new word pattern.
• The teacher can give the students clues about one of the words on the Wall Picture and have the students guessed the word.
• The students can clap as they chant and spell the words on the Wall Picture to practice him.
• Students can use the words on the Wall Picture to create practice games such as Memory or Hangman.
A Wall Picture is a teaching tool that elementary teachers use to aid students during reading and writing lessons. It can be used to teach sight words, sounds, rhymes, word patterns, and spelling. Teachers use a variety activities to help students interact with the Wall Picture words and increase students ability to read and write them.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
The object is students all of class especially for elementary school. The interview to the teacher and the questionnaires are give to the students. The findings are focus on applying teaching vocabulary noun through wall picture.
B. The procedure of teaching vocabulary noun through wall picture in the class.
In teaching vocabulary noun through wall picture method, the teacher need to follow some procedure in order to make the teaching learning activity run well. The teachers try to teach vocabulary noun of transportation through power point to improve student’s memorizing. The information that some procedure there are:
Before the teacher entered the class, she must prepare her lesson plan and the material will teach to the students. The teacher also brings the materials, such as some noun picture, glue, to the classroom.
The teacher usually starts the lesson by greeting the student and checking the attendance list. It is support by the result of the using this method that the teacher always greet the student when they start the lesson. The activities during the teaching and learning process the classroom.
The teachers prepare the picture about nouns and show to the student.
b. Teacher’s Explanation
Teacher explains the lesson by reading the text carefully. Then, the teacher gives the material to the students to write the difficult or strange words. This is the patterns apply by the teacher in teaching vocabulary noun through wall picture are:
1. Greeting the students and asking some questions related to the students condition.
2. Having a listing of the sight words that the students are to know and read.
3. Showing pictures and have students pick which one does not rhyme (table, chair, cupboard, book, bag, etc)
4. Creating a class story about the school and have pictures to match each sentence. “This is Novi’s bag.”
5. Showing to the students a word and have them write all words associated with that word and group those words.
6. Having students identify vocabulary by topic – show them pictures of ten occupations.
7. Explaining the meaning of the words and pronouncing it.
8. Evaluating the lesson by asking some questions related to the topic and asking some vocabularies that they learn.
9. Closing the lesson by greeting and asking the students’ feeling about teaching and learning process of vocabulary noun through wall picture.
Teacher asking the student’s feeling about teaching and learning process of vocabulary noun through wall picture.
C. The Teacher’s Difficulties in Using Wall Picture for Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching vocabulary was very easy because this method was not common yet to the students, so that the teacher needed to explain first about the procedure of the method to the students in order to make the method applied well. There are some procedures need to follow by the teacher in order to make the process of teaching vocabulary run well. It is easy to apply wall picture method in the process of teaching learning, especially in teaching vocabulary because through wall picture method the students also can improve their vocabulary mastery easier getting new vocabularies and they also feel happy, fun and more interesting because they can see, touch, hear, write and also say the noun itself. The use of wall picture method is very simple. The most important is the teachers do not lazy in preparing the material which will be used in the class.
Vocabulary is one of the important factors in all language teaching learning and the students must continually learn new words as they learn structure and as they practice sound system, but most of the students are not interested and motivated at all. Therefore, the writer uses pictures as one of the strategies in teaching that benefits the students in many ways. The writer conclude that :
1. Wall pictures help the students to understand the difficult words easily by looking at the pictures.
2. The use of wall pictures make the vocabulary learning more enjoyable and interesting because they can memories the meaning of the difficult words by singing the song with the pictures as key words and without asking another person or looking them up in the dictionary.
3. Wall pictures are possibly used in teaching pronunciation and structure also.
4. The use of wall pictures makes the class more active and alive.
5. The use of wall pictures could attract the student’s curiosity in learning new vocabulary.
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The Mac. Millan Schmitt, Norbert. 2000. Vocabulary in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Thornburry, Scott. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Oxfordshire: Longman Pearson Education.
Zhihong Yang, 2000. Learning Words, English Teaching Forum, Vol.38.
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