Teaching Reading Narrative Text through Fable
By Suryani Desi Nurawaliyah
A. Background of study
In an interview organized around the comprehension of a story adapted from a natural text and the identification of story theme, adolescent students with learning disabilities (LDs) performed below the level of same-age students without LDs and at the same level as younger students without LDs matched on standardized reading comprehension scores. However, on 1 sensitive measure of theme identification (incipient awareness of theme), the LDs scored below the younger students without LDs as well. The LDs also made more idiosyncratic importations during their summarizing and discussing of the story, and such importations were associated with poorer theme identification. The findings suggest that LDs have specific difficulty with "getting the point," perhaps because they build up less effective text representations through the inappropriate use of background knowledge or intrusion of personal points of view. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
B. Identification of the Problem
Based on the problem background and limitation above, the writer states the problem as follow. How to response the students and the teachers from teaching reading narrative text through fable?
A. Definition of Teaching Reading
Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose(s) for reading guide the reader's selection of texts.
Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. The text presents letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs that encode meaning. The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to determine what that meaning is.
Reader knowledge, skills, and strategies include
• Linguistic competence: the ability to recognize the elements of the writing system; knowledge of vocabulary; knowledge of how words are structured into sentences
• Discourse competence: knowledge of discourse markers and how they connect parts of the text to one another
• Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge about different types of texts and their usual structure and content
• Strategic competence: the ability to use top-down strategies (see Strategies for Developing Reading Skills for descriptions), as well as knowledge of the language (a bottom-up strategy)
The purpose(s) for reading and the type of text determine the specific knowledge, skills, and strategies that readers need to apply to achieve comprehension. Reading comprehension is thus much more than decoding. Reading comprehension results when the reader knows which skills and strategies are appropriate for the type of text, and understands how to apply them to accomplish the reading purpose.
B. Definition of Narrative Text
Narrative is central to children’s learning. They use it as a tool to help them organize their ideas and to explore new ideas and experiences. Composing stories, whether told or written, involves a set of skills and authorial knowledge but is also an essential means for children to express themselves creatively and imaginatively.
The range of narrative that children will experience and create is very wide. Many powerful narratives are told using only images. ICT texts tell stories using interactive combinations of words, images and sounds. Narrative poems such as ballads The Highwayman tell stories and often include most of the generic features of narrative. Narrative texts can be fiction or non-fiction. A single text can include a range of text types, such as when a story is told with the addition of diary entries, letters or email texts.
C. Definition of Fable
A fable is a short, pithy animal tale, most often told or written with a moral tagged on in the form of a proverb. Thus to convey a moral is the aim of most fables, and the tale is the vehicle by which this is done, providing both an illustration of and compelling argument for the moral. As a specific development in form and content of the animal tale, the fable is comparatively sophisticated and does not originate as a folktale, though it may make use of folk material, and once composed may be absorbed into a culture and exchanged as traditional oral folklore.
ANALYSIS AND FINDING DATA
A. Generic Structure of Narrative Text
Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story (menghibur pembaca / menyampaikan sebuah cerita). example: folk tale (dedap durhaka) , fable (kancil dan buaya), fairy tale (cinderella)
1. Orientation : introducing the characters of the story, the time and the place the story happen (who, what, when, and where)
2. Complication : a series of events in which the main character attempts to solve the problem.
3. Resolution : the ending of the story containing the solving problem.
Dominant Language Features:
1.Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged
B. Example of Fable (Short Story)
By Brett Nicholas Moore
Wednesday, October 25, 2006
Rated "R" by the Author.
To all you children's writers out there, I apologize for this one.
From Tales of Brother Goose
Once upon a time, there was a gentleman who married the meanest lady in the land. She had two daughters from a previous marriage. They were considered by everybody to be just like their mother. The man had only one young daughter from his previous marriage. She was a kind and gentle soul and, therefore, was much prettier than her two stepsisters.
After the wedding, the stepmother began to unleash her fury on her new young daughter, who made her own daughters seem rotten by comparison. The stepmother gave the young girl all the worst jobs in the house; she was forced to clean the feces off her dinner plate, scrub the urine out of her drinking glass, and try her damnedest to get the stains out of her parents’ bed sheets. The poor girl was commanded to sleep on the floor in the dingy basement, while her sisters slept in nice warm beds in clean rooms. She had endured the abuse as long as she could until she finally retreated to her father for help. Her father told her he wanted to help, but he was powerless to do anything because he suffered from a debilitating disorder called pussy whippedness. She did not know what that was, but felt that it must be a horrible affliction for her father did not look well.
After her chores were finished, she would sit by the fireplace among the cinders. One day, her sisters were trying to think of a way to humiliate her. They soon started calling her Cinder whore, which eventually turned into Cinderella.
The next week, the King’s son the Prince invited the most fashionable sphincters in the land to a party. It may sound funny now but in those days “sphincter” was a respectable term meaning “the crack part of the ass”. Cinderella’s sisters were invited. The invitation excited them so that they spent all the day fussing over which gowns and hairstyles suited them the finest. Poor Cinderella was ordered to help her sisters get ready for the party by ironing their gowns and dressing their hair, though she was only allowed to wear rags herself.
The goal of this paper was to provide a brief introduction to the current research activity in the areas of storytelling and instruction. Much of the work and connections identify end here were made by participants from settings in academia, government, and industry at a Storytelling as Instructional Method workshop held in Mesa, Arizona in 2007. Methods and research in case-, narrative-, scenario-, and problem-based learning uncover a wealth of resources, applications and challenges common to this mode of instruction. Interest in storytelling as instruction continues to build for at least two reasons. First, technological advances are such that communication and interactivity are easier to facilitate (Jenkins, 2006), high-fidelity and media rich learning environments are becoming more and more common (Gee, 2007), and this contributes to the belief that life and learning in the Information Age will differ significantly from that of the Industrial Age (Reigeluth, 1999). Second, research into learning continues to indicate the value and effectiveness of the four methods of storytelling in general. While there is still some disagreement (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006), many are finding that learners embedded in contextual, authentic, real world problems are more engaged, draw on more resources, and transfer learning more effectively (Barnes, Christensen, & Hansen, 1994; Davis, Sumara, & Luce- Kapler, 2008; National Research Council, 2000; Prevou, & Colorado, 2003).
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