Monday, July 18, 2011



by Nurhasan

A. Introduction
Language is a means of communication among people by language we are able to obtain a lot of knowledge and experiences. Therefore language is really important for human being. English is a foreign language for Indonesian which should be taught to the students from elementary school up to university, it has now bwcome a required lecture that needs to be taught towards all student. It can function as a generally basic or particulary basic lecture. In this way, students are expected to be able to communicate in English well. English consist of four language skill. Those are listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Among the four languages skills, speaking is the real challenge to most students, why is that so? Because it needs paints taking effort to use appropriate vocabularies orally in order that the message is able to be understood by others correctly. Schoot Thorn burry in his book titled how to teach speaking ; stated “Speaking represent a real challenge to most language learners, speaking is a skill and such need to be develoved and practiced independently of the grammar accuracy” (2005:1).
According to the statement above, it is better for students to develop and practice their speaking independently of grammar accuracy. There are a lot of ways to develop students speaking ability, including speaking skill on procedure text, procedure text is a kind of text that it’s purposes is to give some procedures or tips to make or to do something.
The process of teaching English speaking will be success if there are supported by some factors such as qualified teacher, supplementary materials, teaching method and teaching aids, each of those factors must have function in teaching learning process. The funtion of teaching aids is for helping teacher to deliver their idea or knowledge in order that it can be understood easily by students.
In this paper, the writer chooses the topic, teaching speaking procedure text through pictures. Procedure text is the text that has purpose to give clues or steps, ways or method to make something. Thus the writer chooses pictures as visual aids in helping students in learning speaking procedure text. The writer to choose pictures as teaching, pictures can be helpful for students to develop their ideas in speaking it will help students to arrange some tips or clues correctly.

A. Teaching Speaking
1. Definition of teaching

Generally teaching is not only transferring knowledge or tough to the student, but it is guiding the students in order that they are able to be success. The process of teaching has three main components, the components are teacher who teacher, students who accept the knowledge and the last is material or knowledge it self which is taugh. Menwhile R, kohlshocker and Herber in their book “Teaching involves the ability to entertain the class, keep the student alert, and show them as a good interesting aspect of what they are supposed to learn” (2000:29).
From the statement above shows that teaching is the unique way to create the good situation in teaching learning process; teacher will keep students paying attentions about what teacher is conveyed. Thus, the material can be easier obtained by students.
Teaching also one of the effort of teacher in guiding the students in learning and also facilitating everything which has related to he material. Teaching also can be defined as creating the condition for learning. As H. Douglas Brown states in his book “Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn getting the condition for learning (2000:7).

2. Definition of speaking
Speaking is one of the branch English skill which should be mastered by student. By speaking student may convey themselves in basic interactive skills such as greeting, apologizing, thanking, interoducing, asking or offering for something. Some people suppose that somebody master English well if he or she have a good performance in speaking. Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal symbols, in variety of contexts. This definition explain that focusing speaking should have partner, thus somebody can share their mind and thought to each other so the communication among of them will occur.
B. Genre
The Definition of Genre
Genre is kinds of which has comunicative purposes, text schematic or structural and particular linguistic characteristic. According to the statement that is really important for students to learn and comprehend the kind of genre, if genre is mastered by students, they will easier catch the purpose or social function of text. More over Pardiyono stated in his book “ Genre is really necessary comprehended by students as frame of reference when they want to make a certain text though the text will be easier understood by others”.
Rudi Hartono adds in his book “ Genre is used to refer to particular text types, not to traditional varieties of literature. It is a type or kind of text, defined in terms of its social purposes, also the level of context dealing with social purpose”. (2005:4).

Finding Data
1. Types of classroom speaking performance
a. Imitative
A very limited porton of classroom speaking time may legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder” speech, where, for example, learners practice an intonation contour or try to pinpoint a certain vowel sound. Imitation of this kind is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form.
b. Intensive
Intensive speaking goes step beyond imitative or include any speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive speaking can be self-initiated or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are “going ever” certain forms of language.
c. Responsive
A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive short replies to teacher or student –initiated questions or comments. These replies are usually sufficient and do not exted into dialogues.
d. Transactional (dialogue)
Transactional language carred out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, it is an extended form of responsive language. Convensations for example may have more of a negotiative nature to them than does responsive speech.

e. Interpersonal (dialogue)
The other form of conversation in the previous one was interpersonal dialogue, carried out more for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information.
f. Extensive (monologue)
Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called on to give extended monologue in the form of oral report, summaries, or perhaps short speeches. Here the register is more formal and deliberative. These monologues can be planned.

2. Strategis for Developing speaking Skills
Students often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning. But speaking is also a crucial part of the language learning process. Effective instructors teach students speaking strategies using minimal responses, recognizing scripts, and using language to talk about language that they can use to help themselves expand their knowledge of the language and their confidence in using it. These teacher help students learn to speakso that the students can use speaking to learn.
a. Using daily Expression
One of ways to develop the students speaking skill is using daily expression. It can make the students easily practice in using English in their daily activities. This way is able to encourage the students to practice speaking English.
b. Using Minimal Responses
Language learners who lack confidence in their ability to participate successfully in oral interaction often listen in silence while others do the talking. One way to encurage such learners to begin to participate is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges. Such respon ses can be especially useful for beginners.
Minimal responses are predictable, often idiomatic phrases thatconversation participants use to indikate understanding, agreement, doubt and other responses to what other participant is saying, without having to simultaneously plan a response.
c. Recognizing Script
Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges a script. Greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations and other functions that are influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts. So do the transactional exchanges involved in activities such as obtaining information and making a purchase. In these scripts the relationship between a speakers turn and the one that follows it can often be anticipated.
Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response. Through interactive activities, instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different scripts contain.
d. using Language to talk about language
Language learners are often too embarrased or shy to say anything when they do not understand another speaker or when they realize that a conversation partner has not understood them. Instructors can help students overcome this reticence by assuring them that misunderstanding and the need for clarification can occur in any type of interaction, whatever the participants language skill levels. Instructor can also give students strategies and phrases to use for clarification and comprehension cjeck.
By encouraging students to use clarification phrases in class when misunderstanding occurs, and by responding positively when they do, instructors can creat an authentic practice environment within the classroom it self. As they develop control of various clarification strategies, students will gain confidence in their ability to manage the various communication situation that they may encounter outside the classroom.

3. The kind of text
a. Narrative
Social funtion of this text constructs a pattern of events with a problematic or unexpected outcome that entertains and instructs the reader or listener. Narrative entertain because they deal with the unusual an unexpected development of events. They instruct because they teach readers and listeners that problems should be confronted, and attempts made to resolve them. Narrative incorporate patterns of behaviour that is generally higly valued.
The generic of structure narrative is as follow : orientation, this stage alerts the listener or reader to what is to follow, usually by introducing the main characters in a setting of time and place. Complication in this stage a sequence of events which may begin in a usual pattern, is disrupted or change in some ways so that the pattern of events become problems for one or more of the character. Resolution, the problem or the complication is resolved or attempted to be resolved in the resolution. A pattern of normally is restored to the events, but the main character have changed as consequence of experience. Coda this stage is optional it makes explicit how the characters has change and what has been learned from the experience.
b. Recount
Social functions of this taxt tell what happened. The purpose of the factual recount is to document series events and evaluate their significance in some way. The purpose of the literary or story recount is to tell a sequence of events so that it entertains. The story recount has expressions of attitude and feeling, usually made by narrator about the events.
c. report text
Social function of this text is used to present information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or constructed : mammals, the planets, rock, plants, computers and countries of region, tranport and so on.
The generic structure of this text is usually organized to include : General statement identifying the subject of the information report, perhaps definibng and classifiying it. Then description tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of parts, qualities habits or behaviours, if living, uses if non natural.
The significant lexicogramatical features of report are focus on generic participants, use of relational processes to state what is and that which it is, use of simple present tense (unless extinct), and or temporal sequence. (Curriculum,2004)
d. Discussion
The social function of this text is to present (at least) two points of view about an issue. The generic structure of discussion has three parts: trey are issue (statement and preview), arguments for and against or statement of differing points of view (point and elaboration). And conclusion or recommendation.
The significant lexicogramatical features of discussion are focused on generic human and generic non-human participants, use (material processes, e.g. has produced have developed to feel. Relation processes , e.g. is could have, cause, are. Mental processes, e.g. feel), use of comparative (contrastive and consequential conjunctions, reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns (abstraction). (curriculum, 2004)

e. Explanation
The social function of this text is to explain how something works or state reasons for some phenomenon. Explanation answer the question “how”or “why” . the generic of this text is a general statement to position the reader and a sequenced explanation of why or hoe something occurs.
The language feature of this text is focusing on generic, non human participants. Use mainly of material and relational processes. Use mainly of temporal and causal circumstances and conjunctions. Some use of passive voice to get theme right, use simple present tense.
f. Description text
Social function of this text focus our attention on the characteristic features of a particular thing. While descriptions can occur as stand alone text, they are often part of longer text, such as the description of character or setting in a story or biography. Although they might not always be seen as a distinct text type, it is felt that the ability to describe some one or something in detail is an important skill that can contribute to a number of different text types.
4. Procedure text
Procedure text is the text which describes how something is accomplised through some sequence of actions or steps so the students will easier do that job. In the text of procedure, there are a lot of steps or instructions to do to make something and the instruction explains systematically and usually in imperative sentence and uses simple present tense in order that the readers understands what something should do. Procedure text is really impotrant for people, it always appears in the pack of foods or in the pack of the electronic goods, by comprehending the instructions, people can operate the electronics correctly.
Based on the social function of this text, procedure text has three different types, recipes give the information how to make or to do something, second on is games instructions give the information about the rule of the game. The lasdt is scientific experiment gives the informations about steps to do experiment.
As a kind of genre, procedure text also has generic structure or schematic structure and language feature. Generic structure is contained by goal (something that will be done) materials needed for completing the procedure, this may be a list, paragraph. A sequence of steps in the correct order, the step usually uses numbers to show the steps, for example first, second, third and so on.
Porocedure text usually uses imperative sentence or verb action such as add, rotate, pour the water and so on, and adverb of manner such as directly, slowly, carefully, orderly, correctly etc.

1. Speaking Procedure text
Speaking procedure text is making the steps or instruction orally in doing or making something. As stated above procedure text has funtion that is giving information for listeners about the action steps and intructions how something is able to be accomplished.
Every kind of text must have the generic structure and grammatical features. Rudi Hartono stated in his book “Schematic structure is the distinctive beginning-middle-end structure of genre” (2005:5).
Before telling procedure text, it is better for the speaker to recognize schematic or generic structure of the text it’s self. The first the speakers should have to goal. It can be the title of the text for example “ Mushroom soup, here is recipe you need to make Mushroom soup. And the secvond is to decide the material, bacause it is really necessary for procedure text as Anderson mark stated “ Materials needed for completing the procedure, this may be a list, this may be a paragraph, this may be left out in some procedures”(2007:29).
Material are important for completing the text it can be ingredients or some equipment to do something. If we decided the goal to make Mushroom soup, the material needed are : 12 ounces mushroom, 4 eggs yolks, ½ teaspoon grated nutmeg, 2 tablespoon chopped parsley, 1 ½ teaspoon salt, 6 teaspoons cream, ¼ teaspoon pepper, 2 point chiken stock.
The last step are the instructions command to acheve the goal. The steps to make Mushroom soup are as following :
1. Prepare mushroom and place in frying pan with melted butter
2. Cover and cook for 10 minutes and stock
3. Season with salt, papper and nutmeg
4. Bring to boil and then simmer for 30 minutes
5. Sieve and blend until smooth, with remaining ingredients
6. Return to pan and heat. Remove pan from stove and cool
7. Add beaten egg yolk and cream, stirring gently. Do not boil
8. Garnish with chopped parsley and serve
2. Pictures As Teaching Aids
Process of teaching has three mains components. The components are teachers, students and instructional material, the two other components that are not the main ones, but those are very important, namely : paces and instructional which is very necessary for delivering the massage and information which is conveyed by teacher. Agood teacher should have a great deal of knowledge in using teaching aids when they are teaching, teacher also had better know any kind of teaching aids or media in order that their activity are more effective.
The use of teacher aids in the class is able to entertain during teaching learning process, thus teacher had better apply teaching aids so the situation in the class is more enjoyable and motivate students to study and complete their knowledge.

3. teaching Speaking Procedure text through pictures
Pictures are common thing in our daily life, they can be found everywhere. Pictures are able to give a lot of information as reading text, so they are a great help in teaching, particularly in teaching procedure text.
Picture are kind of pictures as visual aids. The pictures are able to give information about the instructions in speaking procedure text, though by looking at the pictures students are easier to tell the materials and the steps, and also pictures can develop students ideas in speaking procedure text. The picture are drawn on a paper which tells a sequence of events, so they will lead speakers to develop their idea and speak the procedure orderly.
Basically, there are three step in teaching procedure text. They are preactivity, while activity and post activity. Each of steps has different activities in teaching.
a. Pre activity
Before teachin g, the teacher do what we call pre activity. Teacher do apperception such as ask some questions related to the material and ask some questions related to the previous material. Then, the teachers give motivation in order that students have more motivation in studying.
b. While Activity
The teachers explain everything about the procedure text and give some examples about how to speak procedure text by using pictures. The teacher give some pictures to the students as visual aids. Then, the students asked to speak a procedure text about how to make mushroom soup systematically by looking at pictures included.
c. Post activity
The teacher gives a conclution about the aim and the advantages of procedure text in daily life.


After doing the analyzing the data, the writer concluded that pictures are able to develop student speaking skill and the writer would like to give suggestions in correlation with teaching procedure text.
1. The use of pictures in teaching procedure text should be taken into account as any teaching strategies. It should be use appropiately an effectively.
2. When selecting a picture, some points should be kept in mind. The colored pictures are more effective than black and white ones and can be use for many purpose, the picture should tell the learner something familiar to connect it with real life.
3. Teaching speaking procedure text through pictures needs to be implemented and used in a consistent manner so those students could take the benefit the process and facilitate their learning.


Hartono, Rudi, m.Pd. S.s. 2005. Genres of texts. Semarang English Departement Faculty of language and art State university. Semarang
Anderson Mark and Anderson Kathy. 2007 Text Types in English. South Yarra
Brown douglas. H. 2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching.
Sanfrancisco : Addison Wesley Longman
Scott Thornburry, 2005. How to Teach Speaking. Oxpord : Longman
Brown, H. D. (2006). Principles of language learning and teaching. NJ: Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall.

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