USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
IN INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITY
FACULTY EDUCATION SCIENCE AND TEACHING
UNIVERSITAS OF IBN KHALDUN
Using Adjective Clause in Instructional Activity
In the learning process we need to know and understand about what we teach our students, one of which will be explained in this activity is the adjective clause, one of the grammar. This is very important for us where we will see and understand the adjective on the use and function, in this will also explain how the use of the adjective clauses in these learning activities must be understood. And we will try to analyze this adjective clause carefully. And starting today to learn is not too late for us to learn one clause we will know and understand. Keep trying and do not give to get something because we are trying then it will be the gain in accordance with what we expect, success for all.
B. Theoretical Foundation
a. Instructional Activities
Instructional Activities refers to teaching and teaching-related activities such as curriculum development; preparing for and conducting class meetings, including: laboratory, studio, clinical, practicum, or shop practice; developing instructional materials; preparing and grading assignments and examinations; conferring with students about coursework; non-credit and community services instructional offerings; engaging in other teaching-related activities; academic advising and career counseling of students; recruiting students; evaluating student transcripts and life experience equivalencies; assisting students in planning their programs of study; advising student groups; serving as a mentor to individual students; other related student life and student support activities; and other "hours arranged" such as credit by examinations and independent study.
I began with a power point presentation about these sounds. A little introduction to them, I explained how my students pronounce these sounds, and show them words that contain them.
The PowerPoint included two major activities. The first one was that they saw two similar words on the slide; each word is connected with a picture that explains its meaning. I would pronounce one of them and the students had to say what this word was. This activity aimed to see initially whether the students learned from the previous instructional slides.
The other activity was about the song "Mary had a little lamb." The students would watch the video clip of the song and read the transcription of it at the same time. Then we together would discover which word in the song has either one of these specified sounds. Though they enjoyed the song, they had some difficulty finding out the right words. This experiencing of difficulty seems to be normal since they are second language learners, but my aim of the activity was that they should have a better sense of these vowels.
b. Differentiated instruction (sometimes referred to as differentiated learning) involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.
Differentiated instruction, according to Carol Ann Tomlinson (as cited by Ellis, Gable, Greg, & Rock, 2008, p. 32), is the process of “ensuring that what a student learns, how he/she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he/she has learned is a match for that student’s readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning”. Differentiation stems from beliefs about differences among learners, how they learn, learning preferences and individual interests (Anderson, 2007).
a clause is a pair or group of words that consist of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase. It may instead be marked on the verb (this is especially common in null subject languages). The most basic kind of sentence consists of a single clause; more complicated sentences may contain multiple clauses, including clauses contained within clauses.
Clauses are often contrasted with phrases. Traditionally, a clause was said to have both a finite verb and its subject, whereas a phrase either contained a finite verb but not its subject (in which case it is a verb phrase) or did not contain a finite verb. Hence, in the sentence "I didn't know that the dog ran through the yard," "that the dog ran through the yard" is a clause, as is the sentence as a whole, while "the yard," "through the yard," "ran through the yard," and "the dog" are all phrases. However, modern linguists do not draw the same distinction, as they accept the idea of a non-finite clause, a clause that is organized around a non-finite verb.
The adjective is a modifier that has the grammatical property of comparison.
There are many pairs of adjectives ending in –ing and –ed. Adjectives like new/large/round/wooden are fact adjectives. They give us objectives information about something. Adjectives like nice/beautiful are opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives
c. Adjective clauses
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, indentifies, or gives further information about noun. (an adjective clause is also called a relative clause
1. Adjective clauses perform the same function in sentences that adjectives do: they modify nouns.
2. A sentence which contains one adjective clause and one independent
clause is the result of combining two clauses which contain a repeated noun. You can combine two independent clauses to make one sentence containing an adjective clause by following these steps:
a) You must have two clauses which contain a repeated noun (or pronoun, or noun and pronoun which refer to the same thing).
b) Delete the repeated noun and replace it with a relative pronoun in the clause you want to make dependent. See C. below for information on relative pronouns.
c) Move the relative pronoun to the beginning of its clause (if it is not already there).
d) Put the adjective clause immediately after the noun phrase it modifies (the repeated noun):
3. The subordinators in adjective clauses are called relative pronouns.
a. These are the most important relative pronouns: who, whom, that, which.
These relative pronouns can be omitted when they are objects of verbs. When they are objects of prepositions, they can be omitted when they do not follow the preposition.
WHO replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb. In informal writing (but not in academic writing), it can be used as the object of a verb.
WHOM replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the object of a verb or preposition. It cannot be the subject of a verb.
WHICH replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It can be the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition.
THAT replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people, animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition (but that cannot follow a preposition; whom, which, and whose are the only relative pronouns that can follow a preposition).
b. The following words can also be used as relative pronouns: whose, when, where.
WHOSE replaces possessive forms of nouns and pronouns (see WF11 and pro in Correction Symbols Two). It can refer to people, animals or things. It can be part of a subject or part of an object of a verb or preposition, but it cannot be a complete subject or object. Whose cannot be omitted?
WHEN replaces a time (in + year, in + month, on + day,...). It cannot be a subject. It can be omitted.
WHERE replaces a place (in + country, in + city, at + school,...). It cannot be a subject. It can be omitted but a preposition (at, in, to) usually must be added.
4. Adjective clauses can be restrictive or nonrestrictive.
a) A restrictive adjective clause contains information that is necessary to identify the noun it modifies. If a restrictive adjective clause is removed from a sentence, the meaning of the main clause changes. A restrictive adjective clause is not separated from the main clause by a comma or commas. Most adjective clauses are restrictive; all of the examples of adjective clauses above are restrictive.
b) A nonrestrictive adjective clause gives additional information about the noun it modifies but is not necessary to identify that noun. If a nonrestrictive adjective clause is removed from a sentence, the meaning of the main clause does not change. A nonrestrictive adjective clause is separated from the main clause by a comma or commas. The relative pronoun that cannot be used in nonrestrictive adjective clauses. The relative pronoun cannot be omitted from a nonrestrictive clause.
5. Adjective clauses can often be reduced to phrases. The relative pronoun (RP) must be the Subject of the verb in the adjective clause. Adjective clauses can be reduced to phrases in two different ways depending on the verb in the adjective clause.
Adjective Clauses -- analyzing
1a. relative pronoun = SUBJECT of the adjective clause:
E/N noun/pronoun WH/S V
N a single man, who lived to a very advanced age,
N this eldest daughter, whose advice was so effectual,
E business which requires my immediate attendance
E no companion that could make amends
1b. ADJECTIVE PHRASE (reduced from a clause like 1a): (Did you find any of these? Probably not. See the questions below for suggestions.)
E/N noun/pronoun no WH/S no be /V
N Mr. Henry Dashwood, ....the legal inheritor of the Norland estate,
E the thousand pounds .... belonging to each of the girls
1c. ADJECTIVE PHRASE moved BEFORE the subject (nonessential only) (reduced from a clause like 1a): (you also probably didn't find any of these. See the suggestions below.)
no WH/S no be or V, S V
lowering her voice a little, she said ...
affecting to take no notice of what passed, she internally resolved henceforward to ..
2a. relative pronoun = OBJECT in the adjective clause:
E/N noun/pronoun WH/O S V
E a man whom I can really love
N the old lady..., whose possessions he was to inherit,
E complaints ... which politeness had hitherto restrained
E all that he and Marianne could say
2b. relative pronoun OMITTED (essential only) (from a clause in which the relative pronoun is NOT the SUBJECT) (Did you find any of these? See below)
E/N noun/pronoun no WH/O S V
E The assistance he thought of
3. PREPOSITION + relative pronoun:
E/N noun/pronoun Prep WH/OP S V
N Miss Dashwood, by whom he was sitting,
N their visitor, towards whose amusement he felt himself bound to contribute,
E this dear parlour in which our acquaintance first began
4. WHERE/WHEN/WHY as relative pronoun:
E/N noun/pronoun WH/Adv S V
E a place where everything reminded her of former ..
N the park, where they were to breakfast,
N dinner time, when she entered the room ...
5. Q/N + of + relative pronoun (nonessential only):
noun/pronoun, QorN/SorO of WH/OP (S) V
High hills, some of which . were open ...
two daughters, both of whom she had lived to see ..
the garden, the gate of which . had been left open...
6. Clauses beginning with which that modify an entire proposition: (non-essential)
SorO (S) V
... they had the pleasure of sitting down nearly twenty to table, which Sir John observed with great contentment.
E. Conclusion and Suggestion
In the adjective clause learning is very important, because adjective clause is one type of grammar, when we think that a success is success, with us trying to learn the adjective clause is also the premises we have increased our knowledge of grammar. Each learning activity, usually you'll notice that what we learn will be very useful to us in the future, with this, too, that the Active learning activities are more stressed the ability adjective clause.
In each article, if there is something wrong or less true, for that I wish there was, suggestion, constructive criticism of this paper to be better in the future.
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Murphy, Raymond. 1985. English Grammar In Use, New York : The press syndicate of the university of Cambridge.
Frymer, Jack. 1965 . The nature of educational method, Ohio : charles E, Merrill Books. Inc.
Azar, betty schrampfer. 1989. Undestanding and Using Using English Grammar, New Jersey 07632 : Prentire- Hall. Inc.
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