Tuesday, January 19, 2010

THE TEACHING OF SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH DIALOGUE

A paper
Submitted to the english education program of teaching and education faculty of Ibn Khaldun University Bogor.


By
Eva Sholihah
07211210677











ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM
FACULTY OF TEACHING AND EDUCATION IBN KHALDUN UNIVERSITY BOGOR.
2010

Preface

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim
Alhamdulillah, In the name of Allah, the Beneficent and The Merciful. Thank to Allah the Almighty lord of the world who has given the writer mercy, blessing, and health until nowadays.
Shalawat and Salam to our Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has brought us to the lightness.
This paper submitted to fulfill one of the requirements for final examination of English education program of Fkip Bogor, which the writer has brought into accomplishment for the formal study.
The writer realizes that paper is far from being perfect, it is because of her limited ability of knowledge, so she would welcome any idea, comments and criticism for sporting this paper. Although this paper is still less perfect, the writer hopes that it will be useful for those who read this paper.


Bogor, January 2010
The Writer












Introduction
Language is a tool for all people in the world to communicate one another. They express their ideas, opinions, feelings and so on by the language. Speaking is very important when we have a desire to be active in international world, such as: make correspondence with foreign country, short-range study or long-range study abroad, follow the politic and economic education and so on.
In modern world, English is widely spread out in every country as an international language. It is used in several sectors of modern life especially in science, culture, society and communication. Therefore English is very important for students especially to face the globalization era.
English teaching should emphasis on introducing language as a means of communication. Speaking ability, the English teachers have to present the English lesson in a dialogue form and they have it facilitate the students to practice their English by the way of teaching theologies and they practice it. Because it would make them use or practice it in real situation.
The English language is one of the subjects that must be learned at school as the foreign language. The English language which is very important to learn is not easy to teach at school. For both teachers and students must pay more attention to it in order to master more easily.
Most of the English teachers think that the students of senior high school have already got a basic knowledge of English since they have studied it at junior high school, in reality the students still find some difficulties to understand it.









Theoretical Foundation
A. Definition of Speaking Ability
Speaking in development of the relationship between speakers on his hearer. Speaking as a communicate activity has a kind of scope or area that skills can apply. Speaking needs performance, expression, intonation, stressing, pronunciation, grammar and confidence to explore the idea or opinion.
In speaking ability, the most effective tool for communication is speaking, because it can be comprehended quickly. The most human beings use speaking to express message from a speaker to a hearer in all situation and condition such as relaxes situation where speaking is needed.
Speaking is used more often and it is more important to make students or adults orally express their message to show their feeling, ideas, happiness, angry and emotion. Systematic and continues instruction must be developed in order to teach and reinforce the basic attitude skill and abilities of their expression and implement their use in meaningful communicational situations. Speaking scope is limited in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation accuracy because they are more important in speaking than writing. In speaking, the students must have many vocabularies. They should master vocabulary to effect that they can use it fluently add to their feeling of competency in expression. Fluency in language is developed through communication of complete understanding of meaningful words.

B. Language as a tool of communication
People in the world need to communicate to each other in order to do or achieve what they want or need. To do this, people must be able to express their feeling and thought by using a communication tool that is a language. Language is primarily an instrument of communication among beings in a community. There are four language skills to be taught to the students. There are: Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. The most frequent from used is speaking. It is daily means of communicating to ideas other persons.
C. Teaching and learning English a foreign language
As we know English language is the international language. Many people in the world communicate to one another by using English. Although each nation has its own language. The English language is also bridge or tool of communication. In Indonesia the English language must be learnt at junior and senior high school as one of the compulsory subjects. But the Indonesian students still have some difficulties in learning the English language, and one of the Barriers is their mother tongue.
Therefore, the English teacher should find a way how to make the students practice their English language, by practicing it in dialogue forms so that they will be to speak English well. The English teachers must give the students some opportunities to practice the speaking skill, so that the students will find it easier as their habit. This is the way that helps both students and teachers solved the problem.

D. The Speaking Skill and the use of Dialogues in English Teaching
Our task an English teacher is to think about how to give the students some practice in our teaching instructions. It means we should give them chance to practice their English so that, they can express their thought orally.
Everything in dialogues are meaningful and relevant to the situation of the students everyday life. This of course will be very important for the students who learn the English language and dialogue is well suited for practicing language in realistic communication situations.








Finding Data

Based on the preliminary study, the researcher found some problems related to the English instructional activities those are the students' low speaking ability, the students' low motivation in learning English, and the monotonous and inappropriate teaching techniques used by the teacher. Therefore, the researcher is greatly motivated to overcome the problem by implementing role-playing technique in teaching speaking. The researcher employed collaborative classroom action research design, in which the researcher was assisted by a collaborative teacher (a colleague) in conducting the study. The research is conducted in a single class that consists of twenty four students, in which all of the students are taken as the subjects of the study. The procedure of the research consists of four main steps: planning, implementation, observation and reflection. To collect the data, the researcher uses some instruments i.e. observation checklists, field notes, and questionnaire.
The finding of this research showed that the students' skill in speaking improved significantly from one cycle to the following cycle. This can be seen from the result of each cycle. The students' speaking performance improved from 41.7% of all students who could reach at least good level at the first cycle to 66.7% of all students in the second cycle. The students' self-confidence also improved from 37.5% of all students who could fulfill 5 of 7 indicators in this study in the first cycle to 62.5% of all the students in the second cycle.
The role-playing procedures implemented by the researcher in this study consist of 7 major steps. Those are deciding on the teaching materials, organizing the group of the students, providing the situation and dialogue to be role played, teaching the dialogue for role plays, having the students practice the role plays, having the students modify the situation and dialogue, and having the students perform the dialogue in front of the class.
This paper examines students' oral performance of speaking tests: a dialogue interview test discussion test in which conversational interactions between the speakers are inevitable and sociolinguistic ally appropriate language use is required. This paper also investigates the effectiveness of oral rating categories such as grammar, fluency, vocabulary and conversation strategies.
One of the major objectives of teaching oral communication is enhancing students' ability to use oral language in various sociolinguistic contexts. Speaking is often interactive, involving more than one person at the same time. Of course, speaking can be monologist, involving only one speaker, as in a lecture or a radio broadcast. Even if we limit our contexts to academic settings, sociolinguistic conditions and levels of student performance vary significantly. Some students seem to be good at monologue type speeches or oral presentations in tests. Others appear to be more skillful in handling dialogue type interview tests. Still others perform best in discussion activities
In any classroom, interaction plays a key role to the success of the learner. Teaching online means moving that interaction in a direction that is self-directed yet connected to the content. The learner in the online course stills needs the human interaction that provides the framework for content to take on meaning in the learner’s mind. This paper provides an overview of three guiding principles, dialogue, reflection and energized activity in designing an online learning environment that provides meaningful interaction. Both motor-perceptive skills and interaction adeptness are usually required in conversation. Many times this pairing calls upon effective understanding of the two in order to implement oral exercises in an effective manner. Motor skills involve perceiving, recalling, and articulating in the correct order sounds and structures of the language. Interaction skills involve making decisions about communication, such as what to say and how to say it. Keeping in mind the difference, the class level should play a large part in determining which of the two skills are predominately used during the course.
Generally the situation or setting makes a difference in the way the speaker uses the language, for example, time limitations. Does the speaker have time to "process" his or her thoughts before speaking out loud? Other conditions can also affect the use of language. Does it make a difference whether the speaker is interacting with one person or with a group? Differing situations do have distinct aspects and thus can influence the way in which the speaker uses language.
Speaking can't be taught separately. It is often connected with listening. So we often speak of listening and speaking. The traditional way of listening and speaking is aural-oral method. Now, the new method of two-way communication is very popular. As you know that any teaching method has its psychological base. The aural-oral method began in the 1940's. It is based on behaviorism. One of its psychological theories is that learning a language is forming a set of new language habit.
This is its usual process: Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement. The aural-oral method is fit for the teaching of beginning stage. It focuses on the practice of oral English drills. But too many drills are being practiced without any context or given conditions. So what is learned is isolated clauses. And it has few communicative functions. The two-way communication makes up for the defect in communicative ability in the traditional teaching. Two-way means the relationship of the communication between the teacher and the students. This relationship is connected with the communicative activities between two people. This method is different from the traditional aural-oral method. But it also bases on the process of S-R-R. So we call it a mew type of aural-oral method has some peculiarities.
It can create a fresh environment for speaking English. It needs some necessary explanations of Grammar, including some sentence structures. Hints are the major way of practice.
Teachers can control the practice wholly or partly. The practice can also be controlled by students freely. The internal force of study is not due to the interests in phonetic structure, but the content of the material. To make the correct response, the students are asked to pay more attention.
Example:
Teacher: Ask me if I am a student.
Student: Are you a student?
T: Tell me-No, You're a teacher.
S: No, I'm a teacher.
In this example, "Ask me" means that the student must say a question sentence while "Tell me" shows that the student must say a decorative sentence. But before doing this, the teacher must explain something about the exchange of interrogative sentence and declarative sentence. The two-way communication can lengthen the dialogue limitlessly. This is its advantage. At the same time, if the student wants to give the correct response, he has to think it hard, The sentence is not easily forgotten which is created by themselves through thinking, sometimes with the teacher's hint. You can talk freely. You can express yourself as well as you can.
For example:
T: Ask me how many people there are in my family.
S: how many people are there in your family?
T: Tell me-there are five
S: There are five
T: Ask me what my parents do.
S: What do your parents do?
T: tell me-your father is a teacher and your mother works in a company.
S: My father is a teacher and my mother words in a company.
T: Ask me if my father likes his job.
S: Does your father like his job.
T: Tell me - Sure, he likes teaching very much.
S: Sure, he likes teaching very much.

All these responses form a complete dialogue.
A: How many people are there in your family?
B: There are five.
A: What do your parents do?
B: My father is a teacher and my mother works in a company.
A: Does your father like his job?
B: Sure, he likes teaching very much.

If you want to ask more about "father" or other family members, the dialogue can go on as far a possible. So, in a word, the aural-oral method is not a out-of-date one, but a useful one. Especially it is fit for the beginning stage. It attaches the importance to the oral drills, and has a bad communicative function. It is only used to a phonetic base. After all, the aim of the language learning is to communicate. So the two-way communication is more effective and direct, but it is also fit for the beginning stage.
























Conclusion

In this task chapter the writer will try to conclude what has been described in the former chapter.
As it has been said in chapter one that this paper is not aimed at finding some new techniques, but it is aimed manly at describing and analyzing some theories which support the writer’s ideas in writing this paper.
1. Speaking ability of the English language (the intelligence of making use of the English language. A.S Hornby, Dictionary of Crrent English). In the first class of seminar high school is very important. It may help students succeed in learning in the second class and in the third class of senior high school, but it needs to be improved.
2. One way to improve the students speaking ability is the teaching of dialogue also improve the other language skill such as : listening, reading, and writing.

1 comment:

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