Sunday, January 17, 2010

“Improving the student’s writing skill using narrative text”

Di Ajukan Sebagai Tugas UAS
Untuk Mata Kuliah Writing in Professional Context 2

Wiranty Khasanah
Semester 5C


The Important of Writing Skill

Language is very important that we need to communicate with the other people. We can connect the information which wants to be conveyed each other. There are a lot of languages that are used in the world. One of them is English language. English is considered as an international language by some people. As an English learner, we must be able to master it. There are a lot of ways that can be used by u. if we could master its language, we would have add our ability especially I English learning. An English learner at least has to master kinds of the language skills. They are speaking skill listening skill, writing skill and reading skill. We have to balance our language skill abilities in order to make our learning easier. If we can manage them well, we have to maintain them too. We should pay attention about the English learning in order to get the best result. One of language skills that we have to learn is writing skill. Writing skill is very useful for us to write the written text well. In this skill, we are demanded to write the text as well as possible of course using some rules that are available.
So, I wrote a paper that is titled “Improving The Student'”. Making narrative text can help the student to improve their ability to write the text well. Because the narrative text commonly uses past tense, it can add the student ability in vocabulary of past verb. Beside that it can enrich our knowledge about the Indonesian folktale.

Theoretical Background

Writing skills are specific abilities which help writers put their thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the message. Writing skills help the learner gain independence, comprehensibility, fluency and creativity in writing. If learners have mastered these skills, they will be able to write so that not only they can read what they have written, but other speakers of that language can read and understand it. Here are some kinds of writing skills: Comprehensibility skills for writing include understanding that writing is communicating messages or information. Fluency skills for writing include recognizing the linear sequence of sounds, mastering writing motions and letter shapes, recognizing the chunking of words, recognizing the need for space between words, writing quickly. Creativity skills for writing include the ability to write freely anything the learner wants to write.
Independence is the ability to function in a given area without depending upon another's help. Independence in reading and writing is the ability to read and write anything one can say or understand in his or her language without depending upon another's help. Comprehension is the ability to grasp something mentally and the capacity to understand ideas and facts.
Fluency is the ability to read, speak, or write easily, smoothly, and expressively. Creative writing is writing that expresses the writer's thoughts and feelings in an imaginative, often unique, and poetic way. Creative writing is guided more by the writer's need to express feelings and ideas than by restrictive demands of factual and logical progression of expository writing. Expository writing is writing that is designed to convey information or explain what is difficult to understand.
Narration as a fiction-writing mode
As with many words in the English language, narration has more than one meaning. In its broadest context, narration encompasses all written fiction. As one of the four rhetorical modes of discourse, the purpose of narration is to tell a story or to narrate an event or series of events. Narrative may exist in a variety of forms, including biographies, anecdotes, short stories and novels. In this context, all written fiction may be viewed as narration. Narrowly defined, narration is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator is communicating directly to the reader. If, however, the broad definition of narration includes all written fiction, and the narrow definition is limited merely to that which is directly communicated to the reader, what comprises the rest of written fiction? The remainder of written fiction would be in the form of any of the other fiction-writing modes. Narration, as a fiction-writing mode, is a matter for discussion among fiction writers and writing coaches.
A fiction-writing mode is a manner of writing with its own set of conventions regarding how, when, and where it should be used.
Fiction is a form of narrative, one of the four rhetorical modes of discourse. Fiction-writing also has distinct forms of expression, or modes, each with its own purposes and conventions. Currently, there is no consensus within the writing community regarding the number and composition of fiction-writing modes and their uses. Some writing modes suggested include action, dialogue, thoughts, summary, scene, description, background, exposition and transition.

Finding Data
The narrative mode is a natural method of telling a story step by step. It is obviously a valuable mode to use in the retelling of experiences.
Unlike the purely narrative mode, the expository mode, when used in a narrative framework, does not recount events in chronological order: rather it summarizes, explains, or interprets them. The skill that is required in the development of exposition in the service of narration is one that has occurred over long periods of time. Narration show that your experience was like and exposition tell about it.
Narrative patterns. Although in this chapter you are writing about place involving others, you should not disappear from the essay entirely; as you have chosen this place write about because of its vital interest to you. An observer of the place and the activities there, you can put yourself in the essay by giving a chronological account of your visit as an unobtrusive narrative framework to essay. The question of arranging the essay then becomes “how can I frame the essay with a narrative account of my visit so that I can convey my considerable interest and at the same time keep the atmosphere and action of the place in the foreground?
One way to answer this question is to develop a second narrative that, in answer to the fifth question of the explorer’s method of inquiry, relates the process by which the systems of the place work together. Process analysis is a type of chronology that indicates how a person or mechanism accomplishes a crosses how anything work – from a simple can opener to the writing of an essay – one is dealing in time : in beginning, middles, and endings.
A narrative account of the operation may be most effective in answering the question “how does this place operate?” the period of time covered, of course, will depend on the cycle or cycles of operation. Processes can be completed in a hour, in day, on a weekly basis, monthly, annually, or reasonably. Once you have determined what processes need explanation the objective is to narrate them sequentially.


A narrative is a story that is created in a constructive format (as a work of writig, speech, poetry, prose, pictures, song, motion pictures, video games, theatre or dance) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. It derives from the Latin verb narrare, which means "to recount" and is related to the adjective gnarus, meaning "knowing" or "skilled" (Ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European root gnō-, "to know".) the word "story" may be used as a synonym of "narrative", but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative. An important part of narration is the narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a process called narration.
Along with exposition, argumentation and description, narration, broadly defined, is one of four rhetorical modes of discourse. More narrowly defined, it is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator communicates directly to the reader.
Stories are an important aspect of culture. Many works of art, and most works of literature, tell stories; indeed, most of the humanities involve stories.
Narratives have also been used in Knowledge Management as a way of elicitate and disseminate knowledge, and also to encourage collaboration, to generate new ideas and to "ignite change" Stories are of ancient origin, existing in ancient Egyptian, ancient Greek, Chinese and Indian culture. Stories are also a ubiquitous component of human communication, used as parables and examples to illustrate points. Storytelling was probably one of the earliest forms of entertainment. Narrative may also refer to psychological processes in self-identity, memory and meaning-making.

Once, there was a kingdom in Priangan Land lived a happy family. They were a father in form of dog, his name is Tumang, a mother which was called is Dayang Sumbi, and a child which was called Sangkuriang.
One day, Dayang Sumbi asked her son to go hunting with his lovely dog, Tumang. After hunting all day, Sangkuriang began desperate and worried because he hunted no deer. Then he thought to shot his own dog. Then he took the dog liver and carried home. Soon Dayang Sumbi found out that it was not deer lever but Tumang's, his own dog. So, she was very angry and hit Sangkuriang's head. In that incident, Sangkuriang got wounded and scar then cast away from their home.
Years go bye, Sangkuriang had travel many places and finally arrived at a village. He met a beautiful woman and felt in love with her. When they were discussing their wedding plans, the woman looked at the wound in Sangkuriang's head. It matched to her son's wound that had left severall years earlier. Soon she realized that she felt in love with her own son.
She couldn't marry him but how to say it. Then, she found the way. She needed a lake and a boat for celebrating their wedding day. Sangkuriang had to make them in one night. He built a lake. With a dawn just moment away and the boat was almost complete. Dayang Sumbi had to stop it. Then, she lit up the eastern horizon with flashes of light. It made the cock crowed for a new day.
Sangkuriang failed to marry her. She was very angry and kicked the boat. It felt over and became the mountain of Tangkuban Perahu Bandung.
Simplified from:

Simple Past Tense

The Past Simple tense, also called the Simple Past, is used for past actions that happened either at a specific time, which can either be given by a time phrase (yesterday, last year, etc.) or understood from the context. Regular Verbs add -ed to the base form, or -d if the verbs ends with -e. Irregular verbs can change in many different ways.
"Generally [the simple past] tense refers to events, habitual activities, and states in the past: I talked to my brother this morning; The Normans conquered England in 1066; He went to London every day; It contained sugar. In the 'sequence of tenses' rule in reported speech, it restates the present tense of the original utterance: 'He likes chocolate' as reported in She said he liked chocolate. However, the present tense may be retained if the state of affairs being reported is covered by the time of speaking: John said he likes chocolate. It is used to express unreality, especially in unreal conditional sentences (If John came, Mary would leave; compare If John comes, Mary will leave), with wishes and recommendations, etc. (I wish I knew; It's time we went), and for tentativeness or politeness (Did you want to talk to me?)."
(Frank R. Palmer and Sidney Greenbaum, "Tense," The Oxford Companion to the English Language, ed. by Tom McArthur, Oxford Univ. Press, 1992)

The Different Sounds of the -ed Ending
Don't let the sound of an -ed ending ever trick you into making a spelling error when you form the past tense. While we do hear a d sound at the end of some verbs (for example, moved and visited), we hear a t sound at the end of others (promised, laughed). Also, if you have a habit when you speak of clipping off word endings, don't do this when you write. No matter what sound you hear or fail to hear when you pronounce a regular verb in the past tense, be careful when you write to add -d or -ed at the end.
• "Throughout my career I swam for form. Speed came as a result of it."
(Johnny Weissmuller)
• "Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school."
(Albert Einstein)
• "My work always tried to unite the true with the beautiful; but when I had to choose one or the other, I usually chose the beautiful."
(Tom Stoppard)
Very often the past simple ends in –ed (regular verbs):
 I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a shop.
 We invited them to our party but they decided not to come.
 The police stopped me on my way home last night.
 She passed her examination because she studied very hard.

In questions and negatives we use did/didn’t + infinitive:
They Enjoyed
Did You
They Enjoy?
Didn’t Enjoy

The past of be (am/are/is) is was/were:
I/he/she/it was/wasn’t
We/they/you were/weren’t

was I/he/she/it
Were We/they/you


Writing skill is one of the language skills that must be emphasized by English learner. As an English learner, we must be able to write the text well so; people can understand what we talk about. One of way to learn it is by writing narrative text. Narrative text can help us to write a story with good rules to make a good story too. Beside can teach us how to write well, it can also add our vocabulary because in writing it, we must use past form.


Murphy Ramon.1994.English Grammar in Use.Scotland:Combridge University Press
Keenan Segal Margaret.1993.Interactions II A Writing Process Book.Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company

1 comment:

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