Sunday, January 17, 2010

Writing in Professional Context 2

Name : Andar Susanti
NPM : 07211210296
Class : 5A


A number of English Grammar books and dictionaries which are written in Indonesia translate some English words into Indonesia words poorly. When the translated who is related to a term of grammar rules, it may be a significant obstacte in mastering the English grammatical sentence formulation. In writing skill we always found some problem to write something in our mind. And it is could be a constraint to every people. In English learning we have heard about an Elliptical constract. In this term, we can learn about how we combaine sentenses but we ignore some word, but it is not make the meaning loss. This is so useful for us as an amatueur in writing skill. We can imagene how we will get bored when we read some written, but there are so many repetation. It is much better we loss it, but the meaning is still like what have we understand. I give this paper with the title “Making an Efective Sentence in Writing Skill Using Eliptical Constraction” in this paper we will know how to get an efective sentence without using a repetation, but it is still have the meaning.


Before we learn about the other, first, we have to know what the sentence is. A sentence is a grammatical unit comprising a group of words that separates from other grammatical constraction and usullly consist of at least one subject with its predicate and contains a finite verb or verb phrase. Its arrangement may be symbolized by such foemulas as S V O (subject+verb+object), N1 V N2 (noun+verb+noun), or NP+VP (noun phrase+verb phrase). There are so many kinds of sentence, or we can call types of sentences, for example: simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and the last compound complex sentence. A clause is a group of words containing a subject and predicate. A clause forms part of a compound or complex sentence. And then, an elliptical constraction is a constraction that lacks an element tht is recoverable or inverable from the context. And the elliptical is uncomplete sentence, because there is just a subject, without predicate. It substitutes by auxiliaries’ verb. In this case, we will learn about how we combine the sentence with using an elliptical constraction so we can get an effective sentence, without use the repetation in every word.


The elliptical construction is a sequence of words in which some words have been omitted. Because of the logic or pattern of the entire sentence, it is easy to infer what the missing words are. If we want to use an elipsis sentences, we have to know what kind of the sentences is it. First, in two kinds of positive sentences which have similar predicate, we can use “too” or “so”. Example:
• He is busy. I am busy
(=He is busy and I am too)
(=He is busy and so am I)
In two kinds of positive sentence that contain compound verb (auxiliary/modal+verb) we can arrange with the same way. Example:
• He will come here soon. She will come here soon
(=He will come here soon and she will come here soon too)
(=He will come here soon and so will she)
Second, in negative sentence and the predicate still similar, so we use “either or “neither”. Example”
• Ed doesn’t like mango. George doesn’t like mango.
(=Ed doesn’t like mango and George doesn’t either)
(=Ed doesn’t like mango and neither does George)
Two kinds of negative sentence which contain compound verb (auxiliary/modal=verb) we can arrange with the same way. Example:
• He can’t play tennins. You can’t play tennis
(=He can’t paly tennis and you can can’t play either)
(=he can’t play tennins and so neither can you)
If we want to combine two sentences which contradictive one each other (positive and negative or negative or positive) in the same tenses we can use “but, while and whereas” but we are not make any change in that meaning. Example:
• We were late yesterday. He was not late yesterday
(=We were late yesterday, while he was not)
(=He was not late yesterday, while we were)
To explain a combination from two kinds of positive sentences which contain verb, noun and etc, in the same tenses, we can use “both…and…” example:
• I am student. She is student
(=Both she and I are student)
When we want to explain one of two deeds in two sentences which have similar tense we can use “Either....or….” Example:
• We can read a newspaper. We can play the guitar
(=We can either a newspaper or play guitar)
When we want to explain that both not/is not from two deeds in positive sentences which have similar tense. We can use “Neither….nor…” example:
• My brother isn’t a policeman. My brother isn’t postman
(=My brother is neither policeman nor a postman)
(=My brother isn’t either a policeman or a postman)

Several places that strung out formation of Elliptical constraction we can omit the subject and or Auxiliary/modal. Like these sentences:
• Mr. Hunt ate a piece of bread for breakfast and (he) drank a cup of coffe. (=”he” is much better if we omit, because we do not have make repetation in subject)
• My servant has swept the floor, (my servant has) washed the dishes, and (my sevant has) cooked our lunch. (=”my servant” always we repet over and over. Therefore, it much better if we omit it)
We can also omit the predicate:
• I work at school and my wife (works) at a bank
• Jack will visit the chruch, while Ahmad (will visit) the mosque
And the last, we can also omit the object:
• Why do you open (the door) and (you) close the door?
There are some adverbs of frequency which considered as negative form:
• Never
• Seldom
• Rarely
• Few
• Hardly
• Barely
• Scarely
• Little


Elliptical Construction is some special clauses in English, in which certain words are omitted. The avoided words are implied within the clause itself; so, letting them out doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence anyway.
Before we want to make an efective sentence and using an elliptical constraction, there are several things that we have to pay some attention. Because, it so important for us. We have already known about two types in sentence, positive and negative sentence. In positive sentence, we concern about the subject first, is it singular or plural. Because, the subject could be influential the verb.
In simple present tense form with singular subject, we use Verb1 without s/es. And plural we use s/es. If the construct using simple past tense forms, we can adjust the verb that is Verb2.
The pattern of Elliptical constraction in positive sentence is:

S + V (be) … + too
S + (be) … + and +
So + V (be) … + S

If we found two kinds of positive sentences, which contain compound verb, we can arrange the sentences using pattern above. Compound verb is containing main clause and sub clause. We can use conjunction to combine the sentence. But, we are not omitting the meaning. E.g:
• Rita can play the piano. I can play the piano
There are two independent clauses, if we want make in elipsis sentence,
Therefore, in order to make it becomes a parallel we must change it through compounding phrases, so
It will be: Rita can play piano and I can play the piano too or Rita can play the piano so can I.
In this case, we should have to concern about the conjuction, and what kind of verb that we want to use. And do not forget to suit the tenses first. So, we do not have to repet the sentence, and we get an efective sentence to express or write some of sentences.
In negative sentence, which contain similar predicate, usually we use pattern like this:

S + negative auxiliary or be + either
Negative statement + and +
Neither + positive auxiliary or be + S

For example: I have not met her. Ria has not met her.
It will be: I have not met her and Ria has not met either or I have not met her and neither has Ria.
In written English language, an Ellipsis refers to the ommision of a word or set of words from a sentence. The idea of simply omiting words in a sentence makes that ‘sentence’ to be referred as an Elliptical Sentence.
E.g: a) Either Chelsea or Man Utd will win the English Barclays Premier League this season.
- The full meaning of the sentence is:
Either Chelsea will win the English Barclays Premier League
Or man Utd will win the English Barclays Premier League
As you can deduce from the above, an elliptical sentence undoubtedly avoids repetation of words which can otherwise be read ‘in between line’. Intelligent usage of ellipses greatly enhances the structure of a sentence and tus conveying a clear meaningful message. However, the elliptical clauses are correct only in situations, where the meaning is not affected. In certain other place palces, they may cause confusion in meaning and those sentences should have omitted words, or be rewritten. For instance:
Jim played well for the tournament, and Mary couldn’t on TV.
Here the sentence is complete only we add “Mary couldn’t watch it on TV”. The above sentence has absolutely no meaning.
The following sentence has confusion in it. Gary purchased a dress for his wife, and Tom purchased one too.Though it may be somewhat evident that Tom purchased the dress for his wife, it can also mean that Tom purchased it for Gary’s wife. Such confusion is more felt in the following sentence:
Jim threw a stone at the elephant, I also did the same, and the tiger, which chased me, wailed. Here the sentence doesn’t make it clear whom ‘I’ threw the stone, the tiger or the elephent. However, it seems in the third part that I stoned the tiger.


Read the sentence fully and understand what exactly the meaning is before you jump into conclusions and omit words to make them look cool. Sentence, which looks very innocuous, may confuse the readers. Elliptical Constraction are some special clauses in English. The avoided words are implied within the clause itself. So, letting them out doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence anyway.


Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Biber, Douglas. Susan Conrad and Geoffrey Leech. 2005. Longman student grammar of spoken and written English. England: Pearson Education Limited.
Frank, Marcella.1972. Modern English a Practical Reference Guide. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Sihombing, Binsar and Barbara Burton. 2007. English Grammar Comprehension. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Widiasarana.

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