Thursday, January 21, 2010

Writing in Professional Context 2

Name : Ayum Hartini
NPM : 07211210082
Class : 5A

Word recognition, the ability to identify words by sight, analysis, and meaning, is one of the major aspects of reding. The other is comprehension. In the reading process, neiher aspect can function properly with out the other. They are, for partical purposes, of equal value in the instructional program. A basic reading vocabulary is a list of words (several hundred words) which is absolutely essential for reading. The instant words, because these are the words a child must recognize instantly in order to have reading facility. These words are used over and over again, like the, is and man. They are used so frequently that the student can not make to stop and sound them out on he will lose the meaning of the sentence. The instant words are the commest words of the English language. They are based on frequency counts of words used in children’s reading material and in their speaking and writinng.

Theoritical Background
Independence and versatility in recognizing and usng words are paramount in reading development; neither can be reliazed without adequte background and systematic teaching. A major objective in all remedial teaching should be to provide the kind of intstruction that will result in balanced development of all the language skills. Since it is basic to all subsequent language improvement, vocaulary should head the list of critical factors in remedial instruction.
Many studies in educational reseach are equivocable and difficult to reproduce. However, the word frequenty studies are quite stable and easy to verify. The instant words are bsed on such exhaustive requency counts as the Throndike-Lorge word list,which is derived from counting millions of words in children’s and adult literature, and the Risland list, which is based on frequency count of words used by children in writing themes. Other studies were also consulted, such as those by Dolch and Buckingham, and Fitzgerald.
The first 300 instant words make up nearly one-half of all writen material. If, for example, a frequency count were made of the words, the result would be that about one-half of the words comes from this list of the first 300 Instant words. In children’s reading material the precentage is even higher. A study of reading material used in the first three grades reveald that the first 300 Instant words comprised approximately 63 precent of all words used. These words, of course, have a high overlap with the vocabularies used in basal reading series. If we examine the readers for the first three grades in several basal reader series we find that the first 300 words comprise between 58 and 77 percent of all the words.
There are 600 Instant Words in all, arranged approximatly according to grade level. The first 100 words are approximatly at first grade level of difficulty, the second 100 Instant words ta the second grade difficulty level, and the third 100 words at the third grade level of difficulty. The last 300 Instant Words are approximately at the fourth grade level of difficulty. By level of difficulty is meant , for example , are remedial reading student might be a fifth grade child with normal intelligence who was reading on the second grade or seventh grade boy who on the third grade level. These children have had a poor development of reading skills, and hence it is necessaryto determine their basic vocabulary development before starting to teach them basic vocabulary without necessarily having them go through are the basal reading books.
A further problem is that many olther children have learned their reading skills from different basal series. While there is a high degree of overlap of the basic words presented in different series, there is considerably less then complete agreement among them. Hence, the instant words are taken from the same sources as the vocabularies used in most basal reading series. By using the instant words as part of individualized or remedial instruction, the teacher can be assuredthat the student is progressing soundly in the area of basic vocabulary. This allows the teacher to use a wide variety of materials, such as basal readers and trade books and games.
A further advantage of using the instant words is the way in which they re divided into groups. They are arranged in groups of twenty-five. Groups follow in order of frequency of use. For this reason it is most important that children learn the first group of twenty-five instant words first, since these are the words used most frequently in the English language and also those that are used most often in all readers. The second groups twenty-five instant words include those used next most frequentely in English.

Data Finding
Of the many reasons why vocabulary is important, those discussed below are especially applicable to remedial reading.
1. Words knowladge is the basis for reading comperhension. Obviously, words must be recognized and understood before thought can be discerned and interpreted.
2. A wide vocabulary increases interestin reading.interest will be lost unless a student has a sufficient stock of words to understand the content of a selection.
3. An adequate understanding vocabulary increases the usefulness of the words attack skills. There is little value in being able to pronounce a words if its meaning unknown. Unless the understanding vocabulary is adequte, student s will be unable to use many of the wordsthey work out structuraly and phoneticaly.
4. An extensive vocabulary aids speed and accuracy in reading. It is not difficult to understand why an extensive vocabulary is an aid to reading speed and accuracy. Student who mastered a wide and varied selection words spends less time in analizyng induvidual meanings and more time in grouping ideas into meanining.
One of difficulty encountered in attempting to utilize other basic word lists is that they are not broken dwon into small enough teaching groups. For example, the Dolch Basic Sight Vocabulary is a list of 220 words plus 95 common nouns, but not indication is given as to which should be taught first. Richards’ Basic English Vocabulary of 850 words, or the Thorndike first 500 words involves the same problem. Richards’ list of 85 words suffers an additional disadventage in that it was especially designed for the teaching of English as a second language. The word have been edited, which means that they were selected not strictly on the basis of a frequency count but rather selected by the outhor who was compiling a list which he felt was most useful in basic English communication for the students who do not regularly speak English. On the other hand, the Thorndike list of commonest 500 words soffers from being unedited list which is determined stricltly according to frecuency principles. In this type of list we see such logical inconsistensies as inclusion of only five of the seven days of the week or failure to include several of the numbers from one to ten.
In using the Instannt words, the solid teaching maxim of first “ Finding out where the childs is “ should be followed before beginning instruction. To do this on an idividual basis is quite simple. The teacher asks a child to read loud the first five words he may then asked to read the entrie list. The teacher should write dwon the words that the student misses on a sheet of paper, preferabbly in neat manuscript writing, and then use the list of missed words for instruction. For example, these words might be put on individualized flash crds, or the student might merely study the list until he can read it without error. The list can be used for spelling or any of the other teaching methods which might be used.
Strangly enough, children seem to have difficulty in laerning the Instant words. This is partl due to the fact that some of then not subject matter words. Its mush easier to teach a child the defference between the words dinosaur and cowboy than it is to teach him the defference between this and that and these and those. Studies have shown that it is take the average six-year-old nearly a year of reading instruction to master the first 100 instant wirds and the average seven-year-old approximately a year to master the second 100 instan words. Adult and older children taking remedial reading instruction naturaly learn these words at a much faster rate. Nevertheless, the learning of the Instant words roughly parallels total reading development.
Teacher should not try to teach too much the Instant Words at one time. For young children, learning no more than two or three each lesson is quite enough. Teacher of older children should be more satisfied if a child masters an entrie group of twenty-five words in a week. Most children will learn these words at much slower rate than one group in a week. The denger is for the teacher to be in such a hurry that she rushes the child trough the instant words list too rapidly. Allow plenty of time for review. The use of games and a variety of teaching mehods makes the review both make interesting and profitable. The teacher should not be surprised if there is fairly high rate of forgetting of instant words. Instant words are hard to retain. On a given day, a child may read quite satisfactorily a list of ten difficult instan words; but three or four later they may be able to recall only five of the words. It takes patience, goods teaching methods, and persiatent review to remedy the difficulty.
The phonic approach may work well with some children in learning some of the instant words, but this approach may not give a student the instant recognition that is desired in theaching the instant words. Hence, the whole word methode of teaching is better for this list.
Origin specific reading disability identificated of cases of disability in reading not accompanied by general mental raterdation or serious visual deficiency appears to have been in England. In 1896, Morgan (112) noted the similarity between children experiencing a specifict difficulty in learning to read and adult who had lost the ability to read after demage the brain. It was he who first used the trem congenital word-blindness, the use of the label being predicated opun the theory of neirogical involment.
Twenty-ears later Hinshelwood (84) likewise, interpretedhis observations of cases to mean that the disability in dealing with vissual symbol was attributable to malfunctioning of certain brain areas. He assigned the causes of the disability to destruction or improper development of the visual memory center, the gyrus angularis and gyrus supramarginalis of the left hemisphare of the brain. He suggested the classification of reading disability cases into three groupand the use of three different terms to describe them: (1) Congental word-blindness—pura defect of yhe visual memory for wordsand left letters.(2) Congentl dyslexia---slighter degrees of defect, but characterized by much greater difficulty with learning to read han is encountered by the average child (3) Congential alexia---defect of the visual memory center as only one part of general cerebral deterioratio.

Data Analyzing
Methods used in teaching the instant words vary with the teacher, pupil, and the educational situation. Any approach that is successful is acepptable, and any methode that works is a good method.
Good methods to use in teachinng the instant words include card games, easy reading, flash card, and spelling lessons augmented by lavish praise, stren talks, competition, ar a play- teraphy climate. The pupil can learn to read words in books, on flash cards, in his own compositions, or from a screen on which words are flashed at 1/25th of a second. Children are taught singly and in large groups, in the classroom and under the trees. However all the while the student is also beiong taught three things by word and deed: (1) We care about him. (2) We want him to read. (3) These instant words are important.
EASY REDING is one of the best methods of teaching the instant words. These means, simply, that if a child can read second grade level material (whether fluently, hestatingly, or with help) for him easy reading is reading frist grade material. Betts gives an exellent definition of easy reading: a child cand read easly when thay can pronounce 99 precent of the words. Another betts rules-of-thumb is that when a child averages fewer than one mistake for every twenty words, the material is “easy” for him. Easy reading is especially beneficial because it is certain to content the instant words, and a child who barely knows these words gets practice in tecognizing them. Easy reading gives a child a feeling of success and encourages him to try to learn more.
FILMSTIPS some primary children become discouraged at the siht of a wholr page of print. And children in remedial reading classes have sometimes learned to hate a page of print. For these pupils it is often better to teach them reading in completely different setting. We have had success with reputedly “hopeless cases’ by having them do a fair amount of reading for filmstrips projected on the screen. There is something about a partly darkened room with its illuminated image that focuses attention, much as the television screen does for us all. We try to induce a sort of games atmosphere by flashing the words on the screen as quickly as an aye blink (tachistoscopically) and daring child to see it. If he does cathc the word he can write it dwon, paying attention to proper spelling. When called upon, he can tell the teacher the word and earn the reward of proving his accuracy. In case he does not know how to read the word, the theacher or another reads it aloud so that he can hear it and assocate with visually ritten image with sound. In any event, the student sees the word in the screen again and corrects his written response or writes it for the first time if he has missed it altogether.
Filmstrips are also an excellent large group methode. Inexperienced teachers with an unruly class often get excellent cooperation and attention when using filnstrips as described above.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES Reshowing each word and pronoucing it immediately after the student has seen it and attempted to write and say it (we can assume that most students will try to say the word them selves, even if not called on) gives what psychologist call the knowlage of result, a very effective tool in learning and motivation. In addition to knowladge of results, some of the leaning principles involved in the process are (1) learning set, i.e., paying attention to the right things; (2) multysenory approach, i.e., the use of eyes, ears, speecg, fingers, with their correspondings areas of the brain; (3) learning small units which increase the frequency of the rewarding effect of knowladge of result; and (4) the shear novelty of the use of the screen which is unlike other reading experiences.
Another interesting aspect of using filmstrips in a partly darkened room is the learning of distraction. This is particulary recommended with brain damaged chldren who are characterized by esy distractability.
To some extent the group filmstrip procedure provides for individual differences in reading ability and learning rate in that the better students can try to write and say all the words corectly and the poorer students cam merely observe the words, try to copy, and listen carefully when they are told what is. However, teacher may devisde the class group so that the more advanced students ma work on harder words. Slower students who need more practice can often receife help fron a better student who is asssigned to work with a small group of slower students.
Hence we see how other important learning principles are involved in these suggested methods of teaching a sight vocabulary, namely that a certain amount of practice, or repetition, is necessary. Boh experienced teacher and phsycological experimenters have found that duller children need more reptition, practice, and even overlearning (practice after mastery) I order to really learn. Spacing out the practice is also desirable, since too much at one time not only causes boredom but is infencient because a point is reached where little or no learning takes place.
FLASH CARDS It is not necessary to have a tachistoscope to take advantage of many of these learning principles. Flash cards such as those shown accomplish many of the same things. Both flash cards and the tachistoscope can be used to present words to large groups or the individuals. In fact, either can be self-administratration often makes correction a problem. Flash cards are used frequently with small groups. The teacher flashes the word as quickly as pisible. The students who says the word first is allowed to hold the card. The point of the game is to see who holds the most cards. Inequities in reaction time or ability can be offset partially by giving each student a turn at recognizing the word; if he misses, the next student takes his turn.
BINGO is an excellent game for teching the Instant words to large groups, and it is equally useful for use with small groups. Twenty-five words can be placed on a card (five rows and five columns) in random order; each ‘player” is given a card. The teacher calls of the words at random or may be take the precuation of drawing the word cards out of that. Markers can be small squares of cardboard. The foirst student to cover the complete row, column, or diagonl line wins. Even though there has been a winer, the class often likes to continue playing until every word is vovered. If the game is played until the board is filled, the teacher can sometimes spot poor readers by the number of words which remain uncovered. In a teaching situation in which some of the students do not know all of the words, an excellent opportunity for instruction can ensue, and the teacher can show the card or write the word on the board after saying it; this present the desirable opportunity of giving poor readers an equal chance at winning. Sample BINGO card:
the of it with at
A can on are this
is will you to and
your that we as but
be In not for have

PAIR CARD GAME Another game played with great success is called pairs. This is rummy-type of card game for two to five players. First a dect of fifty cards is purchased or made by the teacher or by an able child. The fifty-card deck contains twenty-five pairs of identical cards (using exactly one group of twenty-five instant words). Each player is dealt five cards. Th first player ask one other player if he has a specific card (the asking player must hold the mate in his hand). If the asking player secures he card, he has a “pair” and may lay it down, if not, he draws from the deck. The object is to get as many pairs as posible. For most efficient reading instruction, the players should know some, but not all, of the words used in a given deck. If the asking player does not know how to read a card, he ma show I and player r the teacher may read it for him. Likewise, the player asked may request to see the card being asked for, so that he may cmpare it with the cards in his hand.
The other ways for getting success in reading skills the students must be able to recognize important or key words in sentences, understnd basic organizational patterns of written material, draw conclusion, and make inferences. Hovious’ tchnique of sending telegram is used the concept of keywords as the important words.
Students should then move on to undrlining the key words in sentences taken from conversation. A tipycal sentence might bt,”please be very careful that you do not damage the brand—new desks”. Essentially student will underline “do not damage” or “not damage” “new desks”. Once proficiency is esthablished at this level, and students are beginning to realize that they are finding the main ideas of sententes, much more practice should be initiated using sentences from content are mterials. Some students who finf it difficult to let go of details may need the individual attention of theteacher of the while. Other students may be given more comlex sentences to figure out. During this step, however, all sentences should be isholated and not presented parts of pragraph.

Developing vocabulary is a presistent problem in the remedial reading. Regadles of the progress made in remedial work, vocabulary development will continue to need attention. Few of any pupils reach a point where ferther work in vocabulary.
The importance an adequate understanding and recognition vocabulary is rarely questioned. Among the many constributions made by vocabulary, the following are basic to remedial instruction: (1) provides the basis for interpreting thought (2) increases interest in reading (3) extends the usefulness of the word attack skills and (4) aids speed and accuracy in reading.
Once in while it is a good idea to review easy words already mastered, just for fun; but, generaly, instructional games should follow the same rules as the sellection of instructional reading material.
We have suggested only a few of many possible specific methods for teaching the instant words. Experienced reading teachers know and use many more. In remedil reding especially, a variecy and inter change of methods is desirable.

Alexander, L.G.1975. Practice and progress. London. Longman Group Ltd.
C.Kennedy, Eddie. 1977. Classroom Approaches To remedial reding. San francisco. F.E. Peacock Publishers, NC.
B, Fry, Edward.1972. Reading Instruction For Classroom and Clinic. McGraw-Hil, Inc. USA.
Karlim Robert.1968. Teaching Reading. New York. Sea Clif.
Wiengarten, Samuel. 1969. Response In Reading. Random House. New York.
Wright, Andrew. Reading For A cademic Purpose (Games For Language Learning).

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