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Writing in Professional Context
FACULTY OF TEACHING LEARNING
ENGLISH AND EDUCATION PROGRAME
UNIVERSITAS IBN KHOLDUN BOGOR
A. Background of the Study
Language is the tools of communication to convey the information, thought, idea, feeling, and to distinguish a country with other countries or an other areas.
English is an international language, almost the whole countries in the world use it for communication in regional and international form. A few years ago although the goals of English subject in Indonesia was to get reading and to increase a knowledge from the reading matter and speaking was not the important skill. But, remember that “Language is speech and written form is merely secondary”. So that if we study of a foreign language, we will not be satisfied without use it for communication. Here, Paulstan and Bruder state the important thing of communicative competence. Generally communicative competence is taken to be the adjective of language teaching, the production of speakers competent to communicate in the target language”(1976:56).
It means that communicative competence is the ability to communicate. It includes the ability to identify when, how and whom the forms of certain language must be told, it also includes some of the following aspects. Like structure, functions, nations, themes, tasks, ordering will be guided by learner’s needs. Here, we use one aspect of the communicative competence, because article is one of this kind.
Communicative competence is a part of communicative approach in language learning. Because, communicative approach is an approach to foreign and second language teaching which emphasizes that the goal of language learning is communicative competence. There are a few characteristic of this communicative views of language, like language is system for the expression of meaning, the primary function of language is for interaction and communication, the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative use. Based on the characteristics above, the writer would like to offer it in the dialogue for teaching English articles a, an, and the.
There are three articles a, an, the. It is the statement of articles from Rober Krohn and their staff of the English language institute in their book:
The words a, an and the are called articles. In general we use the definite article the when the noun which follows names an identified specimen; that is, when we believe that hearer knows which person, place or thing the noun refers to. The identified article a/an can be used when an unidentified specimen is introduced. Another important use of a/an is in sentences of description or classification. (1986:54)
Based on the statement above, there are three article in English a, an and the. They have different function in using them. To make articles a, an and the easy to study, it is important for the teacher to find the technique or ways in teaching. So, the student are easy to understand the lesson.
Thus, the writer thinks that the use of dialogue in teaching learning process could create the real situation, the students are more interesting of their own learning and they can be participate actively. Besides, the writer expects that by teaching English article a, an and the through dialogue is one of the ways to avoid the boring situation to the students.
Through dialogue, the students try to pay good attention and look at the demonstration. Besides to practice it in front of the class. It any brief the rule of teaching dialogue as a tool to increase the ability of speech and to pay good attention before discussing dialogue further in chapter two, the writer would like to identify the meaning of dialogue according Richards. He said that “The dialogue is a model conversation used to practice speaking. Dialogues are often specially written to practice language item.(1985:80)
Based on the definition above, it is obvious that dialogue and conversation take possession take possession in similarity in one side. Dialogue is offered in written, before the participants speaks they must make or posses it in writing form. Conversation is offered orally and directly.
Both are exchange of thought and ideas about the topics between two persons or more speakers. They have two language activities, they are to hold a conversation and to pay good attention. The important function of dialogue is exchange of thought, to achieve agreement or to discuss something. Each participant must be active.
Dialogue can also be used as a way for presenting structure, like the use of article a, an, and the. The teacher should be able to introduce the words, sentences, and dialogue using articles. After that, the students practice the dialogue in front of the class. This way can help the students active, brave and create the easy of study. Besides, it can make them encourage to communicate and speak, to improve the ability in speaking skill, get more knowledge, information, etc, because the function of dialogue is exchange of thought, to achieve agreement or to discuss something.
B. Statement of the Problems
In teaching English, especially articles a, an, and the in the dialogue form, there are many problems, like the difficulties to distinguish the utilization of article a, an, and the, the way to read them when they meet vocal or consonant sound. So, based on the background above and to avoid misunderstanding of this research, the writer formulated the paper as follows:
a. How is the students’ ability of using articles a, an, and the without dialogue?
b. How is the students’ ability of using articles a, an, and the through dialogue?
c. Is there a significant difference on the ability of the students in using articles between those who were taught through dialogue and without dialogue?
d. Is teaching English a, an, and the through dialogue more interesting than without using dialogue
e. Does using dialogue in teaching English articles make the students active?
C. Limitation of the Study
To limit the study, the writer would like to discuss in teaching English articles a, an, and the at the secondary school.
In this case the writer would like to identify the students communication among the students who use the suitable article. The research was done at the English course in my boarding house of Cimanggu permai 1. There are five of students who followed the course in my boarding house and their school at SMP PGRI Budi Agung.
D. The purpose of the Study
Based on the statement of the problems above the purposes of study are:
1. To know the student’s ability of using article through dialogue.
2. To know the student’s ability of using articles without dialogue.
3. To know a significant difference of the study ability of using articles.
4. To know the students’ interest of using dialogue.
F. Methodology of the study
The method in this research is the experiment and uses different analysis to study. The writer also collect the data taken from the field research and the library by using some books to support this paper.
b. Time and place
The research will be carried out at Cimanggu Permai 1, gang amil. Actually, this course is my friends own and they invited the student who still need of addition study that misunderstanding in their school. Especially in English subject. On 23 December, 2010.
A. TEACHING ENGLISH
1. Scope of teaching English
Teaching English in Indonesia is not an easy activity because it is a foreign language and it is not the second language through it is one of the compulsory subject at school. Therefore the English teacher should help the student to improve their knowledge and ability of English. Here one of the teachers tasks is they should know the technique and methods of teaching. It is important to get the target language in teaching-learning process.
Teachers is the important factor which influences the students English mastery, they have great function to success and failure of the students. Therefore teachers should be able to help students to master their knowledge and ability of English subject.
The purpose of teaching English is to get the four language skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. The teacher should have the students to be able to master the language skills.
Besides, the usage the elements of language are important in teaching English, the usage of language is related the ability of language and the elements of language which are used to support the abilities in language are sentence pattern, vocabulary, intonation and spelling. Those are used together in teaching English.
According to Adrian Doff in teaching English says that: “The ultimate aims of all English teaching is for student to learn English or at least enough English for what ever purpose they have in learning the language”. (Doff, 1988:50)
Based on the definition above, students expected to improve their ability of English and they should realize that English as one of the important subjects for them in the future, and Webster’s New Collegiate dictionary reveals that in general the majority of the teachers still reject most usages the published information tends to support as acceptable.
In spite of the resistance to change indicated above (which has probably not lessened greatly), language does change. Language is a living, growing, changing instrument – an instrument that is flexible and adaptable to modern life social acceptance will always determine usage, regardless of resistance and regardless of grammatical. According GBPP Bahasa Inggris, 1994:1 state that:
Bahasa adalah alat untuk memahami dan menyampaikan gagasan, pikiran, pendapat dan perasaan secara lisan maupun tulisan. Bahasa inggris adalah bahasa asing pertama di Indonesia yang dianggap penting untuk tujuan penyerapan ilmu pengetahuan, tekhnologi, segi budaya dan pembinaan hubungan dengan bangsa-bangsa lain di dunia.
Therefore English is the important subject and it is something useful for the students and people in the future. The most vital point in developing English, or little good will result from teaching efforts. Teachers must utilize every possible device to relate the activities of the classroom to the basic goals of each student. A student must be made to feel that improving his English usage will benefit for his personally. He must be convinced that his communication is more affective when he uses good English; that most people actually do use correct English, and that these are the people with whom he will be associated. Efforts of the teacher to motivate students will of course be geared to each student individuality.
Those of us who teach English as foreign language today are faced with essentially some problems. We are aware of variety in language usages, and we want to teach the most effective or most useful variants to our students. We have mostly abandoned the perspective tradition, because the most important function of the teacher in a foreign language classroom: to supply a model and to provide guidance for the students. Every time a student utters a sentence or asks for a established standard for the class. If necessary she must prescribe corrections, modifications and additional
2. Improving English usage
Much study has been given in recent years to the problem of developing functional programs in oral and written language usages. Few question have aroused more bitter controversy than those dealing whit what constitutes acceptable English usage, would grammar should be thought in the schools, and the relative merits of formal and meaningful methods of teaching English usages.
To developed an effective language program, the teacher in school use what he has learned about acceptable. English usage and about the growth and development of children. He realizes that it is impossible to teach the pupil in secondary school all the specific language items he will need through out his life; that growth in language is a part of child’s general pattern of maturation; and that they key to language growth is enriched experience.
3. suggestion for teaching English usage
Curriculum guides teachers, manuals accompanying language texts, and professional book on teaching of language arts provide many useful suggestions concerning material and methods. The suggestions that follow are among those most commonly listed. It is according to William B. Ragan in his book:
a. Growth in language is facilitated by stimulating materials and by an informal, relaxed classroom atmosphere; it is inhibited by rows of desk screwed to the floor, by formal teaching procedures, and by drill on rules and formal grammar.
b. The unique characteristic of the pupil, the type of language used in his home and his social and emotional adjustment at school should be taken into account in the language usage program.
c. Informal conversation, story telling, dramatic play, choral speech creative writing, writing summaries and reviews are emphasized along with practice on sentence structure, punctuation, and capitalization.
d. The time needed for drill on mechanics is lessened by providing frequent opportunities for use in meaningful situations, when practice is needed, it is provided in connection with significant speaking and writing situations.
e. Remedial work in usage is based on a record of the pupil’s own usage errors.
f. A great deal emphasis should be placed on teacher-pupils set realistic goals towards which to work; pupils should become aware of what makes a written or oral report interesting
g. Language is a tool for expressing meanings; children should not be forced to write or speak the thoughts of other do not understand. (196:136-137)
B. ARTICLES A, AN, AND THE
There are three articles in English: a, an, and the. Each articles has different function which depend on situation. Those articles are divided into two categories, first is indefinite article and the second is definite article. Robert Krohn and et all staff in his book “English sentence Structure” defines that:
The indefinite article is a and an. They can be used when an unidentified specimen is introduced. The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound. The form an is used before words beginning with vowel or words beginning with a mute h or individual letters spoken with a vowel sound. (1986:54)
1. A / AN (The Indefinite Article)
The form a is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound.
A man a hat a university a dog
The form an is used before a word beginning with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) or word beginning with a mute h
An apple an uncle an orange an hour
An Iraqi an egg an hour an eel
a/an is the same for all genders
a man a woman an actor
an actress a table
a. Use of A / An
a/an is used:
1. Before singular noun which is countable:
• He found a ring in the street
• I saw a cat
• She ate an apple
• He wrote a letter
• He read a book yesterday
2. Before hundred, thousand, million and etc:
• A hundred piaster make a pound : One hundred piaster make a pound
• A hundred cents make a dollar : One hundred cents make a dollar
• A thousand man : One thousand man
• A million dollars was spent : One million dollars was spent
3. In the certain expression: make a mistake and the other expression:
• I told them not to make a noisy
• To make a mistake
• To make a scene
• To make a name for herself
• To make an experiment
• To make an impression
4. After to be (Indefinite article a/an must be used for the statement of noun complement from to be of verb):
• He is lawyer
• I am a student
• He is an American
• You are an employer
• It is an umbrella
5. After the word of half
• I gave the beggar half a piaster
• Half a dozen
• Half a pound
• Half a loaf
• Half a hour
• Half in inch
6. Before the word of half, a or an its used in expression “one and a half months” etc.
• One and a half months
• One and a half piaster
• One and a half dozen
• One and a half miles
• One and a half pounds
• One and a half days
• One and a half loaves
• One and half glasses
• One and half hours
• One and half inches
7. In the first expression or sentence of the story legend:
• Once upon a time
• Once there was a good king
• Once there was a king
• Once there was a giant
• There was once a good king
• There once lived a man in Cairo
8. Before uncountable noun that sometimes used as the countable noun:
• It’s a hard language
• He is had a hard life
• She had a good life
• A farmer’s life isn’t a science
• Physics is a science
• We have a nice conversation
9. In certain expression of quantity:
• A lot of
• A couple
• A great deal
• A great many
b. Omission of a / an
a / an is omitted:
1. Before uncountable nouns:
• Business language
• How’s life treating you?
• What’s that actor in real life
• He taught science
2. Before nouns such as: work, fun, health, permission, etc.
• He tired without success to find the work
• Swimming is great fun
• Sunshine is necessary for good health
• Have you asked permission of your teacher?
3. Before the words such as: furniture, luggage, baggage, thunder, lightning etc:
• Furniture is often made of wood
• Luggage (or baggage) is searched at the customs-house
• There was thunder and lightning
• Lightning struck the house
a) If one thing that mean, we said:
• A piece of furniture
• A piece of luggage
• A piece of thunder
• A piece of lightning
b) Furniture, luggage (British English), baggage (American English),
thunder and lightning are noun of singular form and always used verb and the singular pronoun.
c) There was thunder and lightning. ( no: There were thunder and lightning)
4. Before nouns that always in plural form, such as scissors, spectacles, shears, trousers, pliers, etc.
• I don’t use bad scissors
• She wear spectacles
• Shears are large scissors
• Many boys wear trousers now days
• Pliers are used bending wire, holding small object etc.
5. Before countable nouns in plural form:
• Tiger are fierce animals
• Roses are beautiful and fragrant flowers
• Girls and woman wear “dresses”; boys and men wear “suits (of clothes)”.
• He who would search for pearls must dive below
6. After kind of or sort of:
• What kind of book do you want?
• What kind of man is he?
• What kind of whether is it?
• What sort of man is he?
• What sort of clothes does he wear?
c. Omission of The
The definite article is not used:
1. Before names of places excepts as shown above, or before names of people.
2. Before abstracts nouns except when they are used in particular sense:
Mean fear death but
The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader.
3. After a noun in the possessive case, or possessive adjective:
The boy’s uncle = the uncle of the boys
It is my (blue) book: the blue book is mine
4. Before names of games:
He plays golf
Dialogue is a form of communication activities and one of the techniques which can be used in teaching language. By using it, the student will get more knowledge, information and skills, of the lessons, besides they will use it in a real situation.
One of the goal in teaching English for the students is to communicate in spoken or written from. Dialogue is used to master the four language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking and its use to create the students active. Furthermore dialogue can be used to teach language function, structure, conversation and vocabulary.
Based on the statement above L.G. Alexander said on his book that:
We might call these special-written passage multi purpose texts, since they are used as the basis for a variety of exercises which aim at developing a number of skills simultaneously” (practice and progress, 1989: xi)
Besides L.G Alexander state in his book about skills and language components which influenced in dialogue. Here Jack C. Richards and John Platt in Longman dictionary of Applied linguistics that:
Dialogue is a model conversation to practice speaking, dialogue are often specially written to practice language items contain simplified grammar and vocabulary, and so may be better different from real-life conversation.(198580)
The purpose in teaching English through dialogue is to make student active, creative to mastering the ability of communication and make them interest furthermore to avoid the boring situation.
The function of dialogue are exchange of thought, to achieve agreement and help the students to communicate because it can motivate the students to participate actively in language learning.
Dialogue can also be used for presenting the articles a, an, and the, because it will help the students active, brave to speak especially in the classroom. Here, the writer presents some example of use dialogue in learning-teaching process.
Read the following dialogue carefully, while reading by attention to the underlined words.
Situation : John is a new student in English class. He meets Helen for the first time, then they speak about English book and their English teacher.
John : Good morning. Is this the English class?
Helen : Yes, it is
John : whop is the teacher?
Helen : It’s Mr. Graham
John : Is he a good teacher?
Helen : Yes, he is excellent. He is an excellent teacher
John : Is this an English book
Helen : Yes, it is. It is the text book
John : Is it difficult?
Helen : No, it is an easy book
John : Is Margaret Newman in this class?
Helen : No, she is in the art class
Example 11 :
Read the following dialogue carefully, while reading pay attention to the underlined words.
Situation : Mr. Collins and Miss. Hill are speaking about their student and the classroom.
Mr. Collins : Is John a good student?
Miss. Hill : Yes, he is. He is an excellent student
Miss. Collins : How is the English class?
Miss. Hill : It’s interesting. It’s an interesting class
Mr. Collins : Is the book difficult?
Miss. Hill : No, it’s not. It’s an easy book.
To gain the data, the researcher carried out one way, it was post test. In this case, post test was conveyed to know the differenced of students in improving articles a, an, and the which was taught using dialogue was applied of two students and three students which was taught without using dialogue. Finally, The result of post test of them is the students who were taught using dialogue was better than those who were not taught using dialogue. So, I also have asked to the students about teaching English in article a, an, and the through dialogue, what is it can made them interesting? They said, yes teaching through dialogue is help us become active, brave to speak English and dialogue is one of the ways to avoid the boring situation to the students.
Language is the tools of communication to convey the information, thought, idea, feeling, and to distinguish a country with other countries or an other areas. Teaching English in Indonesia is not an easy activity because it is a foreign language and it is not the second language through it is one of the compulsory subject at school. Therefore the English teacher should help the student to improve their knowledge and ability of English. One of the goal in teaching English for the students is to communicate in spoken or written from. there are three article in English a, an and the. They have different function in using them. To make articles a, an and the easy to study, it is important for the teacher to find the technique or ways in teaching. So, the student are easy to understand the lesson. Dialogue is used to master the four language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking and its use to create the students active. Furthermore dialogue can be used to teach language function, structure, conversation and vocabulary. Teaching through dialogue is help the students become active, brave to speak English and dialogue is one of the ways to avoid the boring situation to the students.
Allen and Campbal.1972. Teaching English as Second Language. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, Inc.
Doff, Adrian. 1988. Teach English a Training Course for teachers: Teacher work book Cambridge university Press.
Krohn, Rober and the Staffs. 1986. English Sentence Structure. USA: The University of Michigan.
Murphy, Raymond. 1985. English Grammar in Use. Melbourne-Sydney: Cambridge University Press.
Richard, Jack, C Platt John 1985 Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistic. Great Britain Longman Group.
John, Koentjoro and Manaf. 2003. Accurate, Brief and Clear English Grammar. Surabaya: Indah Surabaya