Sunday, January 3, 2010

THE APLICATION OF INTERACTIVE LEARNING IN TECHING SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE







By
SITI SOFAH
07211210246


















ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM TEACHING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
IBN KHALDUN UNIVERSITY BOGOR
2010
INTRODUCTION

Learning in order to communicate is now commonplace. Recent trend in teaching English program show the growing concern among educator for the importance of communicative approach as applied in teaching English. Through communicative approach, students are supposed to have communicative competence in using English.
Teaching for communication mans teaching students to do things through language and mastering the grammatical structure necessary to achieve that and. Consciousness of correct grammatical forms and the way the forms are use is necessary to facilitate communication. It is the support system for all communication. Thought we may be concentrating on communication in our teaching. The ultimate source of accuracy in any language is grammar.
These statements above show hat grammar keep an important role in communication. But, in fact, learning English grammar is boring for the students. The technique use in teaching learning process in monotones here the student just memorizing style of expressing by making sentences base on the pattern of grammar without giving opportunity to express their own meaning in communicative rile life. To modify positively the situation of the classroom and to make the teaching learning process lively, the writer would like to propose an alternative approach rather than teacher centered approach that is the one which common know under the term “Interactive Learning”. This approach will give students opportunity to play an active role throughout the whole teaching learning process.
Most learners fine the form of the simple present tense that we use for expressing present time in English particularly complex. They often continue to make mistakes because the lack knowledge of using the –s, -es morpheme on the third singular person and using auxiliary present (do and does) that constitutes an asset of mastering the simple present tense.

THEORITICAL BACKGROUND

A. interactive learning
In the era of communicative language teaching interaction is, in fact, the heart of communication is all about. We sent message, we receive them, and we interpret them in a context. We negotiated meaning, and we collaborate to accomplish certain purposes. Interactive learning is one of the principled approaches of communicative language teaching. Interaction is viewed as significant because it is argued that only though interaction the learner can decompose the teaching learning structure and derive meaning from classroom events, interaction gives learners the opportunities ti in corporate structure into their own speech, and the meaningfulness for learner of classroom event of any kind, whether thought of as interactive or not will depend on the extent to which communication has been jointly constructed between the teacher and the learner.
The simple present tense is one of the discussions of grammar.
The English simple present tense is quite flexible. The flexibility of time reference should come as no surprise since in fact this tense has not limited by particularizing context. The speakers always have the option, though, of using this tenses in more specific contexts. By applying interacting learning in teaching simple pesent tense students not only know about the rule, and the meaning but also students can use present tense contextually.
B. patterns of classroom interaction
In less formal situation it involves imaginative planning with student input. In either case, the teacher has a number of options drawn from the experience of predecessors and Contemporaries. (for some, see rivers) how can teachers select judiciously from this great variety of proposed approaches and Techniques? What kinds of guidelines can they follow?
First, in all teaching, comes the student- the raison d’etre of teaching. The teacher needs to consider the age of the students, their scholastic background, their culturally absorbed ways of learning, and their objectives in studying the language (to communicate orally, for instance; to read specialized text; to learn about other peoples and cultures; or to prepare for study abroad) without engorging the political and social Pressures (including career opportunities) that are largely determining their motivation. Only after such matters have been taken into account and decision made about the kind of course that will meet the student’s needs in their particular situation will teacher begin to reflect on appropriate ways of selecting and presenting material, so that the objectives of the student may be achieve. At this point, approach, design, and Produce become of interest.
Furthermore, each teacher has a personality to express. Teacher are Individual who teach and interact most effectively when what they are doing conforms to what they feel most comfortable doing. Some teachers love play-acting and leading students out into expressive performance; other are indirect leaders, providing almost imperceptible encouragement for self-expression; still to others can orchestrate assure and vigorous Activity. We have all seen extremely successful language classes taught by teachers favoring most diverse approaches, where very different activates were taking place; et interaction was stimulated, event and quite unexpected ways.
Teachers should not be looking for the one best method for teaching Language or helping students learn language), but rather the most appropriate approach, design of material , or set of procedure in a Particular case. Teachers need to be flexible, with a repertoire of teach of technique they can employ as circumstance dictate, while keeping interaction central interaction between teacher and student, student and teacher, student and student, student and authors of text and student and the community that speak the language and in the future, student and computer program. Observation has shown that the most common type of classroom interaction is that known as ‘IRF’-‘Initiation- Response-feedback’: the teacher initiation an exchange, usually in from of a question, one of the students answers, the teacher gives feedback (assessment, correction, comment).initiation the next question-and so on (Sinclair and coulthard.1975).
DATA

A. The principle of Interaction
According to H. Douglas Brown, interaction is the collaborative exchange of thought, feelings, or ideas between to or more people, resulting, in a reciprocal effect on each other. Theories of communicative competence emphasize the importance of interaction as human being use language in various context to “negotiate” meaning, or simply stated, to get an idea out of one person’s head and into the head of another person and vice versa.
Exercise puts communication on a par with correctness, turning the study of grammar into a social activity.
Teaching for interaction means teaching student to use the target language and mastering the grammatical structure is necessary to facilitated communication. When learner engaged in conversation, the grammatical structure in language is displayed more clearly and made more accessible. Interaction involves not just expression of one’s own ideas but comprehension of those of others. One listens to others; one responds; others listen and respond.
The interactive approach frees the instructor as well as the student. The instructor’s role is to act as a coach who organized, encourages, and guides student interaction. Teachers need to be flexible while keeping interaction central- interaction between teacher and students, student and teacher, student and student.
In structure a theory of interaction in the language classroom. Consider the following selected relationship:
Automatical : true human interaction is best accomplished when focal attention, Is one meaning and messages and not on grammar and other linguistic forms. Learners are thus freed from keeping language in a controlled mode and can more easily proceed to automatic modes and processing.
Intrinsic Motivation: As students become engaged with in other in speech acts of fulfillment and self actualization, their deepest drives are satisfied. And as they more fully appreciated their own competence to use language, they can develop a system of self reward.
Strategic Investment : Interaction requires the use of strategic language competence both to make certain decisions on how to say or writer or interpret language, and to make repair when communication pathways are blocked. The spontaneity of interactive discourse requires judicious us of numerous strategies for production and comprehension.
Risk taking : Interaction requires the risk or Filing to produce intended meaning, of failing to interpret intended meaning (on the part of someone else), of being laught at, of being shimmed or rejected. The reward, of course, are great and worth the risks.
Interlanguage : The complexity of interaction entails a long developmental process of acquisition. Numerous errors or production and comprehension ill be a part of this development. And the role of teacher feedback is crucial to the developmental process.
Communicative Competence: All of the elements of communicative competence (grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, and strategic) are involved in human interaction. All aspect must work together for successful communication to take place. At the end of the first and every other chapter, Brown provides "Topics for Discussion, Action, and Research" which encourage readers to interact both with the text itself, with classmates, and with their own beliefs, convictions, and ideas. In his chapter on "The Present: An Informed Approach" Brown offers topics which invite readers to compare their responses with a partner, to observe an ESL class, to share their ideas in a small group, to write out definitions of their own, and to think back -- with certain criteria and characteristics in mind -- on lessons that they themselves may have taught. He attempts, in other words, to bring as much reflection, discussion, and interaction as he can (within the confines of the printed word) into this enterprise of learning to teach by principle.

B. The Principle of Practice
At appropriate points throughout the book, Brown includes opportunities for the reader to try to put into practice some of the ideas or principles which he has been discussing. In the chapter on "Techniques and Materials," for example, he reproduces a few pages from a typical course book and then asks his readers to think about the kinds of lesson plans they might draw up from such materials or the kinds of techniques and exercises they might employ to best effect with their students. Elsewhere he talks about the exciting but complex task readers would have before them if their teaching situation allowed them to actually choose the textbook themselves. He refers to extensive and comprehensive textbook evaluation checklists and then provides an abridged form of such a checklist for illustration. He invites readers, as they read through this form, to "think of an ESL textbook that you are reasonably familiar with and ask yourself how well that book meets the criteria" (p. 149). He provides, in other words, opportunities to practice and to make practical application even within the confines of the book itself.
C. The Principle of Accessibility
The book is written and formatted in such a way that the content is easy to follow and retain, and additional information appears close to hand. This is accomplished in part by the usual conventions of headings, subheadings, and bold typeface, but also by Brown's frequent use of numbering systems, categories, and lists. It is especially useful to have the annotated suggestions "For Your Further Reading" at the end of each chapter (rather than collected at the end of the book), and also it is useful to have supplementary illustrations or materials appended to the chapter itself (for example, charts of English vowels and consonants attached to the chapter on teaching oral communication skills). Brown includes, where appropriate and in the appropriate place, sample excerpts from ESL textbooks for practice tasks or for questions and thinking. Another factor which contributes to this "sense of accessibility" is that Brown makes specific references throughout the book to particular sections of his Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (1994) so that a reader who wishes an expanded or theoretical explanation of a point can easily find it.
D. The Principle of the Integrated Whole
Implicit in much of Brown's discussion of the interactive approach is the integrated nature of language itself and of the language learning classroom. Reading does not exist separately from writing, or listening from speaking; the students do not exist separately from their social or educational contexts, from their teachers, families, friends, classmates. He talks further about the various aspects of lesson planning and the importance of each aspect to the overall whole. Likewise, the book itself can be viewed overall as an integrated whole. The principles do not exist separately from the pedagogy or the practices; the ideas for classroom activities do not exist separately from what lies outside the classroom door; the theories do not exist separately from the practical realities of whether or not there is an overhead projector available to the teacher or a supply of chalk for the blackboard (or markers for the whiteboard!) The book itself proceeds from its foundations what the principles are and how they were derived over long years of experiences by language teachers through the contexts in which we teach language to the designing and implementing of classroom techniques and the practicalities of the language classroom. Brown does all this without losing either his "train of thought" or his facility with words. And he concludes with a reminder that for all of us, continuing our teacher education is a matter of lifelong learning.








ANALISIS

Looking back over these twelve principles of recommendation, it becomes apparent that experienced teachers too can benefit from reading this book. It would serve them well as a review and as an opportunity: a review of their own beliefs about effective language teaching and an opportunity to reflect on their own practices in the classroom. It serves too, perhaps, as an articulate and coherent reminder: that we are, in Brown's words, "not merely" language teachers but "much more than that. " We are agents for change "in a world in desperate need of change: change from competition to cooperation, from powerlessness to empowerment, from conflict to resolution, from prejudice to understanding, and while that in itself may seem overwhelming to many of us, we can take reassurance from Brown's notion of classroom energy. By understanding what some of the variables are in classroom management, you can take some important steps to sharpening your skills as a language teacher. And then, as you improve some of those identifiable, overtly observable skills, you open the door to the intangible, to art, to poetics, to the invisible sparks of energy that kindle the flames of learning and perhaps that is something all of us language teachers can do, whether we are teachers in training or teachers with many years of classroom experience. We can be "energetic" in the classroom; we can sharpen our skills; we can improve on identifiable, overtly observable things; we can open the door to the intangible.

A. Initiating Interaction through Questioning
The most important key to create an interactive classroom is initiation of interaction by the teaching, mainly within initiation-response-feedback pattern described before. Raymond F. comeau has divided instructor-to-student interactive oral grammar activities into: physical demonstration, choral responses, creative completions, and contextual cues.

1. Reasons for Questioning
- To provide a model for language or thinking.
- To find out something from the learners (facts, ideas. opinions
- To check or to test understanding. Knowledge or skill.
- To get learners to be active in their learning, etc.
Appropriate questioning in an interactive classroom can fulfill a number of different functions (adapted from christenbury & Kelly 1983 and kinsella 1991)
a. Teacher’s questioning gives the students opportunity to produce language comfortably without having to risk initiating language themselves. It is very scary for students to have to initiate conversation or topics for discussion.
b. Teacher’s question can serve to initiate a chain reaction of student interaction among themselves. One question may be all that is need to start a discussion; without the initial question, however, student will be reluctant to initiate the process.
c. Teacher’s question give the instructor immediate feedback about the student comprehension. After posing the question, a teacher can use the student response to diagnose linguistic or content difficulties. Grammatical or phonological problem areas, for examples, may be exposed through the student response and give the teacher some specific information about what to treat.
d. Teacher question provide student it opportunities o fine out what they think by hearing what they say. As hey are nudged into responding to questions about say, reading or a film, they can discover what their own opinion and reaction are. This self discovery can be especially useful for prewriting activity.
2. Student to student interaction
Student to student interaction is base on peer relationships, which allow the maximum degree of communication. Any instructors who have witnessed the lively personal interchange between student working together in small groups and experience the excellent results know the value of fostering small group dynamics in the classroom. The following is a way in which instructor can interact with their student.
B. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Form of the simple present tense
a. The Verb Be in the Simple Present Tense
The verb be has three forms in the simple present tense (am, are, is ). These forms are usually contracted in spoken informal written English (I-am/’m, you/we/they-are/’re, He/She/It-is/’s). and add not or n’t after be to negative form.
Question Word Be/be+not Subject be Not
Affirmative Mary is a Student
Negative You Are/Aren’t not There
Question

Where Is
Isn’t
Is John
Mary
john In the library
b. use the –s form with third person singular subjects (He, She, It) in the simple present tense. And add does not or doesn’t to negative form.
Question word Does or Doesn’t Subject Does not or Doesn’t Base Form Base form +s
Affirmative The Race Starts In Paris
Negative She Doesn’t Get up early
Question


Why Does
Doesn’t

Does This machine your plane she Make

Leave

come a
Noise?
at
three?
late
C. The usage of the Simple Present Tense
The simple present usually doesn’t refer to a particular time. Use the simple present for facts and general statements that include the present and are true at any time.
Summer follows spring. Gases expand when heated
My cousin lives in Oregon
He owns a truck
My father works in a bank. My sister wears glasses
In the preceding examples, the facts are true at any time. Because the simple present is sometimes using for an unspecified time, it sometimes contrasts with the present continuous tense. The simple present refers to a relatively long or permanent period, whereas the present continuous refers to a relatively short or temporary period.
a. The simple present is used you indicate a habitual action, event, or condition, as in the following sentences.
My grandmother sends me new letters each spring
How often do you go to the dentist? I go every sick month
Do you ever eat meat? No, I never eat meat.
b. The simple present can also be used to refers to a future events that are schedules or expected.
The premier arrives on Tuesday afternoon.
Classes and next week.
The publisher distributes the galley proofs next Wednesday
The lunar eclipse begins in exactly 43 minutes
When events are no schedules or expected, use the will or going to future tense
Our team will win (not wins) on Sunday
It will probably rain (not rains) this weekend
When a future tense (will or going to) is use in the main clause of a sentence, the
Verb in the dependent clause use the simple present to express future meaning
MAIN CLAUSE DEPENDENT CLAUSE
The band will play before the game begins
She’ll work while he studies
c. The simple present tense is also use for proclamations and announcements.
The xyz Department Store announces a sale of floor samples
d. The most common use the simple present is in technical or scientific writing or other types of “non-fiction” or factual writing.
A perfect verb phrase consists of a form of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle of the main verb.

Taste This food Tastes good The chef is tasting the sauce
Small These flowers smell good Don is smelling the roses
See I see a butterfly. Do you see it? The doctor is seeing a patient
Feel the cat’s fur feels soft Sue is feeling the cat’s fur
Look she looks cold. I’ll lend her my coat I’m looking out the window
Appear He appears to be asleep the actor is appearing on the stage
Weigh a piano is heavy. It weights a lot the grocer is weighing the bananas
Be I am hungry Tom is being foolish








CONCLUSION SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
The variables can be defined as whole objects that will be observe. Variables can be classified into two kinds: independent and dependent variable. Independent variable is variable selected by the researcher to determine their effect or relationship with dependent variable and dependent variable is observed to determine with effect. The independent of this study is the application of interactive learning and the dependent variable is teaching simple present tense.
Operational definition of variable is a researcher’s change to explain how each variable is being define with respect to the construct in question.
B. Suggestion
There are some suggestions that can be given in relation to the writer’s conclusion.
The suggestions are as follow:
1. The English teacher should promote interactive learning in English teaching learning process.
2. The English should have the comprehensive knowledge about all sort of teaching methods to get teaching more effective.
3. The English teacher are encourage to have their lesson to be will prepare well organized, so that the lesson running well.
4. The English teacher should be creative in developing the teaching learning activities in classroom to make the class alive.
5. The English teacher should encourage the student to be active participating in teaching learning process and drawing student into discussion.
6. The English teacher should try using small group discussion that would be make students active
7. real live of materials are needed in the presentation of the lesson

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Azar, Betty Schrampfer.1993.Understanding and Using English Grammar. Jakarta. Binarupa aksara & Prentice-hall. Inc.
Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by principle; an Interactive approach To language Pedagogy. Second Edition New York. Longman Group Ltd.
Byrne. Don. 1987. Techniques For Classroom Interaction. London. Longman
Bing, Jannet Mueller. 1989. Grammar Guide; English Grammar in context. London. Macmillan Publisher.
Martin, Parrot. 2000. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press. New York.
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