ANALYSIS CONTRASTIVE CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN INDONESIAN AND ENGLISH IN WRITING SKILLS BY IN FOCUS The Lecturer Is Mr. Cunong N Suraja. Drs.M Created By : Tri Ilmia Amalia 07211210407 ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION BOGOR IBN KHALDUN UNIVERSITY 2009/2010
LIST OF CONTENT
Page CHAPETER I INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………….
1 1. Definition of writing ……………………………………………
2. Definition of instructional Media ………………………………
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL …………………………………………...............
4 Basic Principles of contrastive analysis ……………………………........
5 Conditional Sentences in Indonesia ……………………………………..
5 Conditional Sentences in English ………………………………………..
6 CHAPTER III ANALYSIS ………………………………………………………….
9 Contrastive analysis of conditional sentences Indonesian and English in Structural perspective ……………………………..….......
9 In Indonesian …………………………………………………….
10 In English ………………………………………………………..
CHAPTER IV SUGGESTING ……………………………………………...............
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background 1. Definition of Writing
Writing skills are specific abilities which help writers put their thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the message. Writing skills help the learner gain independence, comprehensibility, fluency and creativity in writing. If learners have mastered these skills, they will be able to write so that not only they can read what they have written, but other speakers of that language can read and understand it. In English writing skills a teacher is demand to able to encourage the students who get difficulties. Besides a teacher should be able to use suitable teaching method in accordance with the students need, material, situations, etc. 2. Definition of instructional media
In the world of education, often the term learning aids or media are used as teaching materials in order to facilitate teaching students in grasping the material. This of course requires a toughness of a lecturer / teacher in guiding students in the classroom, so that students more easily for quick response in dealing with problems in teaching and learning. In teaching and learning in the classroom, each student must have the intelligence of different - different from both men - men or women that are why the medium of learning is needed in the learning process. In this era globalization, the media would have more sophisticated learning, especially in the field of electronics. As a teacher of course should be aware of this, and do not let one teacher said outdated. In this case the projection of the media as a medium of learning that can be used as a tool for
teaching and learning activities, so students can see the shape / appearance of a picture / slide, such as the use of OHP / in focus. Before developing the technological world, media classroom teaching is commonly used chalkboard (blackboard) and lime. After it was replaced by a whiteboard blackboard and chalk is replaced with board marker. However, until now in many places the blackboard and chalk are still widely used in the classroom. In the 90s used new media complement the blackboard and chalk, example, OHP (overhead projector) in which the presentations or lessons written on transparent paper and then projected onto the screen in white with these tools. With this tool presentation activities (teaching) to be more effective because it does not need to write and erase the blackboard. With this tool also drawing charts, schematics, maps, etc. can be presented with accurate and much faster than drawing directly on the blackboard. OHP at the time was a powerful tool and modern in education so that not all schools have them. Along with the development of multimedia technology, electronics and computers, now we are introduced to an increasingly powerful in focus LCD performance. Similarly, the presentation application software program is also growing. A presentation application program most commonly used today are Microsoft Power Point. Accordingly, teachers should be required to master the use of this medium in classroom teaching and learning activities, ranging from operating the appliance to create a file of the presentation materials learning. Reality in the field showed that there are still many teachers who can not utilize this medium for teaching and learning activities for various reasons. Limitation of facilities is the main reason, because this multi media device is still relatively expensive, so very few schools which have these facilities. If there must be an amount not sufficient for the existing classes and teachers. Ideally, every class there is a set of multi-media device is. Fore the school and the government should, in this case the Education Department allocates budget for this facility supply. As a teacher who wants to always try to optimize the learning activity, it should start now to improve the skills and ability to use the media along with
the LCD in focus Microsoft Power point application programs. Skills include procedures for operation of the device from one device to connect with other devices such as power supply, LCD in focus, PC or laptop, set the screen (the screen) and so forth. This skill is very important because until now do not want to teach with this medium, teachers must call others to help prepare and turn on the equipment. This would be very cumbersome and time consuming. When the middle of the road there is little trouble with the use of tools, teachers must also be able to overcome relevant own. Imagine if the middle of the road there is little trouble, because he could not overcome his own teacher had to call someone else to help them. This is certainly very disturbing and makes learning and teaching tool at inhibiting activities. Next, more important is the skill to design and run the application program Power Point. Teachers should be able to create their own view of the presentation file is in accordance with the subject matter in teaching. By mastering these skills, teachers can freely choose the material according to the standards of competence and basic competencies and objectives to be achieved based on the teaching plan and syllabus have been made.
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL Contrastive analysis is the analysis used in the search for a difference that often makes a second language learner has difficulty in understanding a language material. With this contrastive analysis is expected to understand the second language or foreign language more easily. Basically contrastive analysis can be divided into several parts. In grammatical or structural, and syntactic. For the analysis of grammatical analysis is based on the grammar of each of the first and second language, syntactic analysis is based on the analysis of the origin of the word or how to interpret the states language and pragmatic analysis is based on the analysis of language use is both formally and informally. With the above analysis is expected any teacher or learner language can be more easily in language learning and have no difficulty in understanding and using language to learn. Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences. The writer is interested to conduct the research with proposing an alternative of technique in the teaching structure. Learning basically conditional sentences is very easy if we look carefully. Then in our teaching will be successful. In this analysis, I compare between conditional sentences in English and conditional sentences in Indonesia. A student in Indonesia is very difficult to compare the conditional sentences in Indonesia and English. Therefore a teacher must teach in earnest so that students and understand of no errors in its use. The conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English.
Basic Principles of contrastive analysis According to Halliday, there are two principles in contrastive analysis, which describe before comparing and comparing specific patterns and not the language as a whole. In the first principle we can not compare the workings of the language before we describe how each language. If we want to use the mother tongue as a comparison of learning a foreign language, we are not enough mother spoke only but we also have to master the language we will compare it. In the second principle, we can not compare Indonesian with English language as a whole. Which can be compared is one or several elements or patterns contained in each language are compared supposition. And we can not draw conclusions from the comparison because each pattern is discussed separately. This is in accordance with this study, which compares the assumptions sentences in Indonesian and English. Conditional Sentences in Indonesia According to Gorys Keraf, the assumption in the Indonesian language marked by a conjunction that is if. There are two assumptions on the meaning of the Indonesian language, namely as requirements and assumptions. Modal condition for meaningful implementation of what is at the core clause. This relationship is clearly marked by the conjunction when and if. For examples: 1. The will to live will be there if a person inside there is a feeling that he was required by its environment. Sentence above consists of three clauses, namely 1) The will to live will be there as a clause nucleus, 2) A person in a sense,
3) He was required by the environment. Clauses two and three is a subordinate clause that states 'requirement' for the implementation of what is at the core clause. 2. If that happens too, I would condemn it in front of anyone regardless of language propriety. 3. If I can graduate from high school, I will continue my studies to the Faculty of Literature. Reservations meaning relations as a supposition occurs when a subordinate clause states a conditional if, a condition which can not be done for the core clauses so that what is stated by the clause core is also not conceivable. This supposition is marked with the words like if. Some of the sentences below are examples of sentences which is a presupposition Reservations in the Indonesian language. (1) Suppose that the girl does not like you, you should ensure him except when he objected. (2) If the lady went to court, surely this case will be heard and certainly the press and public attention had subsided it will warm again (3) If you did not attend that night, we will not get the money so much. (4) I can not think of what will happen is like he's not there. Abdul Chaer, conjunctions if (andaikata) a function to combine the requirements to declare in front of the clause is assumed to be a subordinate clause of a compound sentence story. 1. If you do not come, I will replace you lead this meeting. 2. I'll buy you a new car if I win the lottery 100 million. 3. Future generations will not know if Comodo rare animals that are not protected. Conditional Sentences in English In English, according to Azar Conditional Sentence has three kinds are: 1. Assumptions used for the event right on the present or future. Requirements for using this type of conditional sentences are:
a. Conditional sentences of this type is used for routine activities or routine situations. b. Used to estimate the facts that will happen in the present or the future. Using the present simple form:
Example: If I do not eat breakfast, I will always get hungry during class. (If I do not eat breakfast, I'm going hungry while on the class). If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will go on a picnic. (If the weather clears tomorrow, we'll go banc). 2 The assumption is not true in the present or future. Conditional sentences are used for events that did not happen at present and the future. Conditional sentences are used to express that something happened with the opposite or contrary to fact and is used in the present and future. Using form:
i. If I taught this class, I would not give tests. (If I teach this class, I'm not going to give the test, in fact I do not teach this class).
ii. If I were you, I would accept their invitation. (If I was you, I will accept the invitation the fact is I am not you so I do not accept the invitation).
If + subject + verb 1 object, subject + will + verb 1
If + subject + verb 2, subject + would + verb 1
3 The assumption is not true in the past. Use of this supposition and the use of Certain terms. This phrase is used to express something that never happened in the past. The formula of this sentence is:
Examples of sentences are: If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you. (If you say it, I will help you, the fact that you did not say that and I'm not going to help you). If they had studied, they would have passed the exam. (If they learn, they will pass the exam, the fact that they do not learn and they do not pass the exam). If + subject + had + verb 3, subject + would have + verb 3
CHAPTER III ANALYSIS Contrastive analysis of conditional sentences Indonesian and English in Structural Perspective Structurally, conditional sentences have similarities and differences. Similarity lies in the particular words used in sentences, while the difference is the assumption in the Indonesian language there is only one type of conditional sentences in English and there are three types of conditional sentences which relies heavily on pronunciation time. A conditional sentence in Indonesian has only one requirement in the manufacture of the sentence. In Indonesian grammar only uses the words if (jika, seandainya, andaikata, jikalau, sekiranya, asalkan, apabila, dan manakala). In English the words of the above is only marked with the word 'if' which has the same meaning with the word 'if''. So there are similarities conditional sentences in Indonesian and English is by the special words used in sentences of this assumption, in Indonesian to use if ( jika, seandainya, andaikata, jikalau, sekiranya, asalkan, apabila, dan manakala ) in English using word 'if ' in making this conditional sentence. The difference is in Indonesian did not know the difference in pronunciation time. As the following examples: I would buy a new car if I can lottery 100 million. Conditional sentences are pronounced the same above, although this sentence uttered now (present), future (future), or the past (past). In English sentences must be viewed over time in saying it. I will buy a new car for you, if I get 100 millions lottery (present and future, but this is real events occurred). I would have bought a new car for you, if I had got a lottery, 100 millions. (Past, this event is not really happening in the past).
Nevertheless there are differences in the use of modal sentences in Indonesian and English is related to a matter of time. In Indonesian, no use the time. all the same whether used in the present, future or past. There is no change in the verb. If you change the time the sentence will be added assumption of time adverbs. For examples: In Indonesia
Jikalau aku dapat lulus dari SMA tahun depan, aku akan melanjutkan pelajaranku ke Fakultas Sastra. In English
If I graduate from senior high school next year, I will continue my study to literature faculty. If time pronunciation changed in the past, and then there is a change in the sentence, becomes: Jikalau aku dapat lulus dari SMA tahun lalu, aku akan melanjutkan pelajaranku ke Fakultas Sastra. If I graduated from senior high school last year, I would continue my study to literature Change is happening is that the verb changes: Graduating next year : graduate Graduated last year : graduated Change the second is the change of will (future) would be (past).
CHAPTER IV SUGGESTING This supposition sentence used to express an event that does not happen in reality. Having analyzed and found equivalent and the comparison of Conditional Sentences in Indonesian and English. Both similarities and differences can be seen as structural and pragmatically. Structurally there are similarities conditional sentences in Indonesian and English is by the special words used in this conditional sentences, in Indonesian to use if, and while (jika, seandainya, seumpama, dan apabila) in English using word 'if ' in a sentence assumptions it. While the difference is in Indonesian did not know the difference in pronunciation time. Conditional Sentences are pronounced the same above, although the sentence was uttered present, future, or past. Due to the time difference is a verb used in each of the different tenses, whereas in the Indonesian language there is no difference in the verb. Learning disabilities is a generic term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions.
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