Sunday, February 13, 2011


Estika Rahmawati
English is an international language and used as the medium of information flow on science, technology and culture. As I understand that learning, a foreign language is more difficult than learning a national language or learning a mother tongue. It is because the foreign language has completely different aspects and systems, which should be understand by the students, such as pronunciation, spelling, and the cultural background of the language. In globalization era, technology is more developed time-to-time, day-to-day and more modern to facilitate people’s necessary in life and student’s necessary to fill up their skill to be intelligent and successful person. Technology development has extended in many countries in the world. By using technology tools, people will get information for their necessary life and they will add their insight. People must be up-to-date person in order to people do not be left behind with another people. I also remember that there are some important factors in foreign language learning, which will mostly influence students in mastering the language. According to Bustami Subhan (1990: 18), ―Some important factors in foreign language learning‖ explained that learning a foreign language involved five factors. The first is intelligence. It is a gate for knowledge. Secondly, motivation plays influential role in encouraging students to learn the language. It covers both intrinsic motivation which comes from the students themselves and extrinsic one which comes from outside. The third and fourth ones have close relation with each other that are students’ attitudes and strategy of language learning. Facilities of language learning are the last factor, which is not important less than the others are. Education Institute like school has to give the best facilities for foreign language learning. Such as classroom, the sport field, language laboratory, computer laboratory, chemist laboratories, library and other facilities. That purposes to motivation the students more active, creative, enjoy to study and intelligent. One of extrinsic motivations is facilities of language learning. Therefore, the writer tried to
find out ―Improving Students’ Speaking Skill in Telling Story through Pictures by Using Windows Media Player‖ to make student’s language skill more fluent and developed by using technology multimedia as media for language learning to faced their future.
Theoretical Background
Language is a set of sound (or in the case of sign language, sign) and sentence patterns that express meaning. In English learning, students learn four language skills are speaking, writing, listening and reading. Not forever, teaching the students in object or event actually or on the contrary. Imagine, when a teacher teaches the learning process about the moon eclipse. Therefore, teacher needs other sources to submit the message of material. By using model, picture, draft and film can submit message of material well. The students are introduced to some English vocabularies, how to pronoun, and how to spell. Vocabulary learning can give students a way to speak. In developing student’s spoken English vocabulary, it is the best to give students practice in being able to say a lot using small number of words by using English book. In English learning, students are not only gave the textbook to learn. A fast-moving area in recent years has been the developments of new technology, which blur on alter the traditional boundaries between spoken and written mode. However, technology development has extended in the world. Students can also get some knowledge through some technology media, such as a computer, a projector, a television, a radio, an internet, an email, a map etc, like using one of programs of a computer, which is windows media player. This media already heard by everyone who has a computer, which the computer has this media used to play the video, music, picture, and movie. The students can use it for English learning. I tried to the students learned English by using this media through stories of picture. Because, picture is one of interesting media learning for students in order they will not be boring with the material learning. Moreover, it makes students focused to the material learning in order to the students understood and develops their ability to speak English well. This media is interesting to use by the teacher to teach the students. Teacher is not only explaining the teaching material based on the textbook to the students. Teacher can improve student’s ability about material learning by using some
media as tools of learning, such as picture, map, a model, statue, newspaper, tabloid, magazines, a module, and photo. Technology media are a television, a radio, projector, a telephone, facsimile, phone cell, computer, radar, satellite, DVD and another technology. By using this media, students can see more information about material. For example, teacher teach the students about human’s internal parts of the body, such as a heart, flank, intestines, liver and another part of the body. Teacher can give a picture of those part of the body and explain it to the students in order to they know it. Teacher is not one of learning sources. Using technology media can give students more information.
Finding Data
Media is origin from Latin and the plural words from medium means mediator or introduction. Media is a mediator of message from communicator to communicant or from the teacher to the student. Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, creates, systems or methods of organization, or is a material product (such as clothing) of these things. The word technology comes from the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and -logía (-λογία), the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. The term can apply either generally or to specific areas. Examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology". Technology-enhanced learning has become the mainstream of educational and training innovation. Based on these fundamentals teacher will be able to develop new and innovative approaches for the next generation of Technology-enhanced Learning. Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media, which only use traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. It includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms. It is using in computer to provided and combining the texts, sounds, pictures, animations and video by tools and connection (link) so that the users can navigate, interact, create and communicate. Teacher is not only one source to learn by students, but the students can learn material from other sources. One of them is pictures by using technology is windows media player in a computer. Many kinds of tool used by teacher to convey a learning message to the students through heard and sight to avoid verbalism that still may be happen if only used visual medium. Therefore, teacher started to use technology media, which is multimedia. The teacher not only explains the material from the textbook. However, that teacher can explain a material through
audio, visual or audio-visual, picture, movie. It used in education as teaching media, in classroom, course room, or student’s house in order to develop students’ speaking skill. In globalization era, the world of education has development tools to teach student in order to the students will be competent person. One of them is computer. The students can use computer well just for browsing, chatting or played the game online. Nevertheless, they still not understand how to used computer well. Language skills have development material in learning. One of them is speaking skills. Speaking by using technology media will be easily students to learn. Because, media will helps students to speak English well. Students will know how to pronoun words, spelling, and know another vocabularies. Like, program of computer is Windows media player. Windows Media Player (abbreviated WMP) is a proprietary digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images. Speaking is a skill. Speaking is so much a part of daily life that student takes it for granted. Every time students are speaking to another people in their neighbors or their friends. That was one of people’s ability. Moreover, everyday students have to learn how to speak well in formal or informal meeting. Beside that, students always used Indonesian as media of communication. In globalization era, students had to learn another language beside Indonesian, like, English as international language and as a foreign language for us. When someone who wants to be teacher learning hot to speak, they must know, what skilled speakers can do before them looking at what they know? Students learn speech production, people can produces more than thousands of words a day. Moreover, students struggled to achieve their ability. Speech is produced utterance in form of words and produced to talking with someone else. Then, students learn articulation. That involves the use of the organs of speech to produce sounds. At the same time, as these articulatory processes are engaged, continual changes in loudness, pitch direction, tempo and pausing. Then, students tried to speak English fluently by practiced and practiced until they can do and the pronounced. Ability to speak fast is a good skill for speaking, but do not forget pronounce the words. Word has many kinds meaning.
Students must be careful to pronoun and understanding that mean. The next step, someone who wants to be language teacher knows about extra linguistic knowledge, linguistic knowledge and speech conditions. Commonly, recruit foreign language teacher learning about linguistic knowledge exhaustively. Speaking is like any other skill, such as driving or playing a musical instrument. The more practice you get, the more likely it is you will be able to chunk small units into larger ones. Speaking activities are often simply ways of refreshing pre-selected grammar items of functional expressions. In speaking learning not always learn about spelling, pronounce, and phonology. However, students learned grammar and add their vocabulary skills. In order to they will understand how to speak English well and not appear misunderstanding between them. Therefore, when students want to be language teacher, students must read and learn it. It will improve their speaking skill in order you will be a good speaker. Storytelling is universal function of language and one of the main ingredients of casual conversation. Through their stories, students not only practice an essential skill, but they can also get to know one another. It is the conveying of events in words, images, and sounds often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have shared in every culture as a means entertainment, education, and cultural preservation in order to instill moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters, and narrative point of view. Narration has always been one of means of practicing speaking in the classroom, although this used to take form of having students recount folk tales, or amusing or dramatic incidents based on a series of pictures. More recently, the value of encouraging students to tell their own stories has been recognized and coursebook now include personalized narrating tasks, whether monologic or dialogic, as a matter of course. Other ideas for storytelling-based activities are Guess the lie – students tell each other three short personal anecdotes, two of which are true in every particular and the third of which is totally untrue. The listeners have to guess the lie-and give reasons for their guesses. They can be allowed to ask a limited number of questions after the story. It helps if the teacher models this activity in advance of the students
doing it. Narration has always been one of the main means of practicing speaking in the classroom, this used to take the form of having students recount folk tales, or amusing or dramatic incidents based on a series of pictures. More recently, the value of encouraging students to tell their own stories has been recognized and coursebook now include personalized narrating tasks, whether monologic or dialogic, as a matter of course. Other ideas for storrytelling-based activities are guess the lie, insert the word, chain story and party jokes. Before the students learn how to describe english picture, students must learn vocabulary in order to they know the words to express their thought about the pictures. In developing students’ spoken English vocabulary it is best to give students practice in being able to say a lot using a small number of words. Using the vocabulary levels test will give an indication of students’ receptive vocabulary. Students with a good speaking vocabulary should be able to do this quite easily. When the students have mastered vocabulary, the teacher have give practice to show some pictures to know how far the students’ vocabulary skill. The teacher shows the students about one or more objects or pictures by using windows media player. The students already know the names in English. The students are taken away or covered with a cloth. Then, using their memory, the students must say all the things that they saw. When they become better at this, the teacher can ask them about the color and position of each object. Another way of doing this is to show the students about one or more object. These are puts in a box so that the students cannot see them. The teacher puts a box and holds one object, keeping that hand in the box so that the students cannot see which object is being held. The students try to guess which one it is. When they have guessed correctly, the teacher takes his or her hand out and shows them the object. About ten or twelve cards with pictures on them are put in a row so that the whole class can see them. The teacher points to the cards and students the names. Then the teacher turns some cards around so that the students can see only the backs of them. When the teacher points to a card, the students must say the name by remembering the position in the row. When all the cards turned around, the teacher changes the position of two of the cards. The students watch while this is
done. Then the teacher points and the students say the names. Then the position of two more cards is changed and soon. In these activities, the relevant vocabulary is usually explained briefly before the drill or is demonstrated during it using pictures or objects. The new vocabulary goes straight into the students’ productive vocabulary without spending times in their receptive vocabulary. By using picture as learning media, the students can improve and add their vocabulary skill to call the names of the picture and describe it.
English has had ambitious new developmental roles thrust upon it. In each case, it is intended that, through the adoption of English functions, communication between rival groups should become easier, thus helping to create a context that is more conducive to national development. Language is a means of communication among people. Through language, people can express their thought and ideas. In language learning, there have many kinds of media learning. There is technology media are Cellular phones, Compact discs, Digital video, Televisions, e-books, Internet, Minidisk, Video, games, e-Commerce, game consoles, computers and many interactive media. Technology changes what people do. More importantly, technology changes what people can do. People can teach and learn with technology (see, for example, Jonassen, 2006; Lowyck & Elen, 2004; Spector & Anderson, 2000). New technologies provide new opportunities to improve learning and instruction. However, in spite of significant investments in research and technology, education has not changed all that much. The promised dramatic improvements in learning have not realized. If one judges educational improvements by their impact on society, then one can see what led to the negative view about educational research to which Suppes (1978) referred. The integration of technology in teaching and learning can be closely link to systems-based approaches making use of such technologies as powerful and affordable computers, broadband networks, wireless technologies, more powerful and accessible software systems, distributed learning environments, and so on. Educational technologies provide many valuable affordances for problem-centered instructional approaches. The learning technology paradigm has appropriately shifted from structured learning from computers to one better characterized as learning linked with instructional uses of technology, or learning with computers (Lowyck & Elen, 2004). The emphasis is on (a) viewing technology as an ongoing part of change and innovation and Adventures and Advances in
Instructional Design Theory and Practice 7 (b) using technology to support higher-order learning in more complexes and less well-defined domains (Jonassen, 2006; Spector & Anderson, 2000). To demonstrate that specific instructional approaches and educational technologies are effective in improving complex problem-solving skills, a methodology to determine higher-order learning outcomes appropriate for such problems is required. I tried to use one of programs of computer to be media in teaching material and combine it with windows media player. That is windows media player, which can play an audio and visual are sound and picture or video. Commonly, windows media player only used for play music, video or movie. However, picture still used in language learning. Because, picture is one of media learning which give more information about a material to make students will be more active, creative, and motivation them. By using picture, teacher can improve students’ skill to interpret the story of picture. Cognitive psychology has established much about memory and its role in learning. There are limitations to what individuals can hold in short-term memory that do not seem to vary significantly with age, gender, experience, or other individual differences (Miller, 1956). The cognitive architecture developed by Anderson and colleagues (2004) is widely accepted and based on multiple types of representations in memory – textual and visual, primarily. Paivio (1986) and others argue that multiple perceptual cues can facilitate storing and retrieving specific items from memory. Cognitive psychologists have contributed much more in terms of Adventures and Advances in Instructional Design Theory and Practice 3 our understanding about learning, than these few items. When teacher explained material only by using textbook, the students have different imagination each other. Windows media player is suitable for students used in learning method. The material will be interesting students to focus and understand it. Before teacher use windows media player as media learning, teacher has to know characteristic of students. Because, every students have different interpret toward something and different skill to understand something. By using windows media player through picture in learning material, students can save the story of picture in their memory
and the students can describe it and try to retell the story to other students in classroom. That will do students by individual, pairs or groups in discussion. In order to maximize speaking opportunities and increase the chances that students will experience autonomous language learning, the following conditions need to be met productivity – a speaking activity needs to be maximally language productivity in order to provide the best conditions for autonomous language use. Purposefulness – language productivity can be increased by making sure that the speaking activity has a clear outcome, especially one which requires students to work together to achieve a common purpose. Interactivity – activities should students to take into account the effect they are having on their audience. Challenge – the task should stretch the students so that they are forced to draw on their available communicative resources to achieve the outcome. Safety – while students should be challenged, they also need to feel confident that, when meeting those challenges and attempting autonomous language use, they can do so without too much risk. Moreover, the last, authenticity – speaking tasks should have some relation to real-life language use. The teacher has applied this method in classroom for the second time in speaking class. First, teacher demonstrates to play a story of movie by using windows media player and the teacher asked the students to watch and attention it. Teacher can show the students a picture of someone or draw something and the teacher gives an instruction to attention the picture, and asked the students to describe picture to another student. In addition, another way teacher gives an instruction how to play the movie and asked them to retell again story of movie one by one by presentation to another student in front of the class. Moreover, asking and answer the question related to the story of movie. In describe picture by using windows media player, where one student describes a picture to another, who has to retell it, in a breakdown in communication should normally force some kind of repair process. The students are equipped with the language which to initiate repair. The students will used to speaking English to another student. The teacher is asking students to talk and answer questions about an object or picture of special significance in windows media player to them works well
for all age groups or individual. The teacher shows the students about one or more pictures by using windows media player. The students have know the names something of the picture in English. The students are watched the picture for several times. Then, using their memory, the students must say all the things that they saw and tried to describe the picture. When they become better at this, the teacher can ask them about the color and position of each object. Show-and-tell can be established as a regular feature of lessons, with students taking turns and knowing in advance when their turn is due. The talk itself need be no more than two or three minutes and unscripted, although the use of notes can be permitted. In advance of practicing these skills in class, it may help to discuss the formal features of such genres as well as identifying specific language exponents associated with each stage. When the students learn the story of picture by using windows media player supposed the students will response with good feedback on their attention to the teaching material. The teacher gives students correction their error and students can hardly to study hard. In addition, give a reward to students who can answer question well. Story telling use, when teacher taught students by using windows media player to play the static and dynamic picture. Teacher gives them a chance to watch it and students thought what will they express related to picture. Moreover, the students described the picture, began the story, position and the shape. This technique can develop students’ self-esteem to express their thought and students will be active in classroom.
In era globalization, technology is more and more develop to fill up people necessary life. Since technology development, people make technology as life-style such as telephone, a computer, laptop or notebook, internet and many soon. In education, also use technology as media in learning. It will add teacher and students’ knowledge. Many schools, universities and another education institution already use computer and as learning media. This technology media presents a pedagogic rationale for the use of windows media player for learning in higher education, examining motivation, engagement and learn the theory in relation to the use of computer. Windows media player is one of media in language learning. That is included multimedia has many function such as playing audio and visual. The audio shows sound and music. The visual shows picture, movie and video. Those media can use by teacher taught students the language skills, especially in speaking skill. English learning by using windows media player through stories of picture can add students’ skill. Because, picture is one of interesting media learning for students in order to they will not be boring with the material learning. Moreover, it makes students focused to the material learning in order to the students understood and develops their ability to speak English well. This media is interesting to use by the teacher to teach the students. This media shows dynamic picture and it can add new knowledge to them. This method is good to apply in school because it is interesting media for the students. They will get new condition in learning language more enjoyable, active and improve the students’ speaking skill. By using technology media has many advantages are instructional process more interesting, convey a learning material will be various, learning process more interactive, economical of time to teaching and learning material, increasing qualities of study, increase student’s positive attitude towards process and ingredient learns, teach can be prepared previous so that can be more accustomed with a purpose to study. The
students can improve their knowledge about technology and they can develop their self-esteem to speaking English to another student in front of class or, show their talent. Besides, the students can use technology as learning media to help their insight and improve their speaking skill. This method can use by language teacher as one of learning method to develop students’ skill to their future.
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