Sunday, February 13, 2011

Teaching Reading Argumentative Text Trough E-book to improve Student reading skill

Paper Teaching Reading Argumentative Text Trough E-book to improve Student reading skill Writing for general purposes, Lecturer Mr. Cunong N Suraja
Contents Contents……………………………………………………………………… i Introduction………………………………………………………………….. 1 Theoretical Background……………………………………………………… 1 Finding Data………………………………………………………………….. 4 Analysis………………………………………………………………………. 8 References……………………………………………………………………. 11
INTRODUCTION I.1 Theoretical Background Today there are many people, especially students in Indonesia less the motivation of reading. Most of them just spend their time with hangout and play some of game. Although some of them spend their time in the internet, to browsing anything. But, as I know they just use the non effective time. And then some time when they have some task from their school they just copying the file and they move into their file. Without read the file again, it means that the students and the people in Indonesia has been less their motivation in reading. Actually reading can add our knowledge and we can know anything in the world that we want. Teaching Reading Argumentative Text Trough E-book to improve Student reading skill, tells how very important reading for us. Besides that, there are many strategies to read very fast. We can use the modern technology, when we try to found out some material for our task. We just entered the site in the internet, and we can find the subject that we want. In this paper we can analysis how to find the argumentative text with e-book. We can find the kind of text. It means that there are another ways to make the students interest in reading again. Because they just browse in the gigapedia, without go to the bookstore. And then they can spend their time more effective.
Nowadays, at a time when information grows at an intense rate, it is vital that individuals learn how to appropriate such information in order to transform it. As stated by Roerden, the information age requires different skills. Students need to know how to think critically, synthetize large amounts of information, and apply concepts learned with a global perspective. For that purpose, it is essential to learn to interpret, select, organise and use such information as only in this manner will it be possible to produce knowledge. However, this does not seem to be the most common attitude within current education. In classroom contexts, students are frequently limited to collecting and storing the information which is
transmitted, without any degree of structuring or organising, and which they cannot assimilate correctly due to a number of lacks diagnosed, especially concerning reading and writing competences. Additionally, in many situations, the teacher is still a mere transmitter of the information which is perceived as being important for the students. And, in this evaluation of what is or what is not important, the students’ sensibility, the most important part of the process, is not taken into consideration. In this approach, the transmission and storage of information is preferred over the processing of the latter, a competence which, due to its complexity, requires a deeper and more extensive learning on the part of the student-writers. If one should add to this the growing massification of the student population, it is not difficult to conclude that the teaching model which has been implemented, in the majority of the classrooms within higher education, is no longer sustainable. On the other hand, in an increasingly global and competitive society, where persuasion takes on a relevant role, argumentative competence is one of the most valued competences not only for the purpose of school and academic assignments, but also in the most varied professional, political or economic scenarios. The information required for the purpose of argumentation. It is also worth noting that within higher education, learning is evaluated, especially, through expositive and argumentative reading. Despite that, many teachers fail to acknowledge that the ability to explore argumentative texts is better developed through reading than through oral discourse, which ends up having ruinous results at the level of academic reading too. Along the same line of thought, Brassart demonstrated that a didactic intervention at the level of more specific aspects of the argumentative text would contribute towards the promotion of a faster development of the argumentative competence, essential not only, but also, to academic succes.
Considering the commitment of higher education to promote the development of critical thinking, as far as possible, in each student, it takes on an unquestionably important role within this context. Hence, the teaching and learning of the argumentative text make come to play an essential and indispensable role, given its importance in the (re)construction of thought and of knowledge in general. Reading argumentative text with E-book can help the student improve their ability in reading to indentify the argumentative text in the internet. Besides that, student can find out the other knowledge beside from form their teacher. Student can learn new vocabulary in that argumentative text. The district used funds normally allocated for textbooks and instead purchased laptops with digital versions of the texts loaded on the hard drives. Students used the laptops every day in English class, were allowed to take them home to complete homework, and used them to complete group projects.
Finding data
Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols for the intention of deriving meaning (reading comprehension) and/or constructing meaning. Written information is received by the retina, processed by the primary visual cortex, and interpreted in Wernicke's area.
Reading is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Readers use a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding (to translate symbols into sounds or visual representations of speech) and comprehension. Readers may use morpheme, semantics, syntax and context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of knowledge or schema (schemata theory). The book of developing reading versatility is a book about problem of reading. During the English reading process some people has found difficulties. Usually the problems of the reader do not understand text, vocabulary and pronouncing the words. Meanwhile, reading is one of the components of the English language.
The history of reading dates back to the invention of writing in Mesopotamia during the 4th millennium BC. Although reading print text is now an important way for the general population to access information, this has not always been the case. With some exceptions, only a small percentage of the population in many countries was considered literate before the Industrial Revolution. Some of the pre-modern societies with generally high literacy rates included classical Athens and the Islamic Caliphate. In the latter case, the widespread adoption of paper and the emergence of the Maktab and Madrasah educational institutions played a fundamental role.
Currently most reading is of the printed word from ink or toner on paper: a book, magazine, newspaper, leaflet, or notebook. Handwritten text may also be
produced using a graphitepencil or a pen. More recently, text is read from computer displays, television, and other displays, such as mobile phones or ereaders. Short texts may be written or painted on an object.
Often the text relates to the object, such as an address on an envelope, product info on packaging, or text on a traffic or street sign. A slogan may be painted on a wall. A text may also be produced by arranging stones of a different color in a wall or road. Short texts like these are sometimes referred to as environmental print. There are multiple principle goals of reading, which are determined by the end the reader has ordained the activity to obtain. The general goal of reading is the acquisition of meaning from the ordered arrangement of symbols. Each word is a collection of symbols that expresses a term or some meaning, which taken in conjunction with other words ordered to each other in a predetermined syntax, conveys some general meaning that the author intends the reader to acquire. The second goal of reading is the "reading to obtain understanding". The reader wishes to receive illumination of some discipline or set of facts from the author. The reader usually approaches a given work with a dissimilitude of understanding compared to that of the author. He wishes to increase his understanding by coming to terms with the author of a given book, and subsequently reach an equal level of understanding. The final goal of reading is "reading to obtain information". The reader attempts to gain knowledge of facts or knowledge about the author himself. If a reader is reading a book with the third goal in mind, he may not be as concerned with understanding the the arguments and parts of the book and the way these parts relate to the whole. He may spend less or even no time reading a book analytically, but simply systematically inspect a book in order to obtain knowledge. Word reading is one of the bases for developing reading skills. Daily facts stated that without adequate mastery of the vocabulary will be difficult and a long
time in understanding a passage. So that we understand what we read, it is important to know the definitions of the words but more importantly how it is used in context. The first step for the development of reading skills in this regard will train us in the five word attack skills are sight, sound, structure, context and dictionary. Mastery of vocabulary is a long process and requires patience with method developing sight recognition. Teachers can use discussion methods by using media like to present a reading text and then search for a difficult word or words that are not known. There is a method that will help us to control it completely and generate a respond to it instantly upon sight to learn a new word should be through to the end, if not we will forget even more so when not in use. This approach assumes that students learn to read a language by studying its vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure, not by actually reading it. In this approach, lower level learners read only sentences and paragraphs generated by textbook writers and instructors. The reading of authentic materials is limited to the works of great authors and reserved for upper level students who have developed the language skills needed to read them.
The field of visual word recognition studies how people read individual words. A key technique in studying how individuals read text is eye tracking. This has revealed that reading is performed as a series of eye fixations with saccades between them. Humans also do not appear to fixate on every word in a text, but instead fixate to some words while apparently filling in the missing information using context. This is possible because human languages show certain linguistic regularities. The process of recording information to be read later is writing. In the case of computer and microfiche storage there is the separate step of displaying the written text. For humans, reading is usually faster and easier than writing.
Reading is typically an individual activity, although on occasion a person will read out loud for the benefit of other listeners. Reading aloud for one's own use, for better comprehension, is a form of intrapersonal communication. Reading to young children is a recommended way to instill language and expression, and to promote comprehension of text. Before the reintroduction of separated text in the late Middle Ages, the ability to read silently was considered rather remarkable. See Alberto Manguel (1996) A History of Reading. New York: Viking.
Reading Purpose
Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose(s) for reading guide the reader's selection of texts. The purpose for reading also determines the appropriate approach to reading comprehension. A person who needs to know whether she can afford to eat at a particular restaurant needs to comprehend the pricing information provided on the menu, but does not need to recognize the name of every appetizer listed. A person reading poetry for enjoyment needs to recognize the words the poet uses and the ways they are put together, but does not need to identify main idea and supporting details. However, a person using a scientific article to support an opinion needs to know the vocabulary that is used, understand the facts and cause-effect sequences that are presented, and recognize ideas that are presented as hypotheses and givens.
Analysis Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people haven’t realized the importance of reading Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows the world. He or she will understand what he doesn’t see by himself or herself. The lines of the paragraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improve the quality of human’s life. Technology transformation from other country can only be done by reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstores mean nothing if they are not read. Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we know that something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try to get or do the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information or news, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make a transaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or reading and they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks, people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge and inspiration. The student can improve their ability in learning English with reading. But nowadays, there are many people in Indonesia just have a little time to reading, especially for the student. Actually, there are many ways that we can try to find when we want to read. As I know read is very important thing, because we can find and we can know anything. There are several types and methods of reading, with differing rates that can be attained for each, for different kinds of material and purposes:
 Subvocalized reading combines sight reading with internal sounding of the words as if spoken. Advocates of speed reading claim it can be a bad habit that slows reading and comprehension, but other studies indicate the reverse, particularly with difficult texts.
 Speed reading is a collection of methods for increasing reading speed without an unacceptable reduction in comprehension or retention. It is closely connected to speed learning.
 PhotoReading is a collection of speed reading techniques with an additional technique of photoreading to increase reading speed and comprehension and retention.
 Proofreading is a kind of reading for the purpose of detecting typographical errors. One can learn to do it rapidly, and professional proofreaders typically acquire the ability to do so at high rates, faster for some kinds of material than for others, while they may largely suspend comprehension while doing so, except when needed to select among several possible words that a suspected typographic error allows.
 Structure-Proposition-Evaluation (SPE) method, popularized by Mortimer Adler in How to Read a Book, mainly for non-fiction treatise, in which one reads a writing in three passes: (1) for the structure of the work, which might be represented by an outline; (2) for the logical propositions made, organized into chains of inference; and (3) for evaluation of the merits of the arguments and conclusions. This method involves suspended judgment of the work or its arguments until they are fully understood.[citation needed]
 Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) method, often taught in public schools, which involves reading toward being able to teach what is read, and would be appropriate for instructors preparing to teach material without having to refer to notes during the lecture.
 Multiple Intelligences-based methods, which draw upon the reader's diverse ways of thinking and knowing to enrich his or her appreciation of the text. Reading is fundamentally a linguistic activity: one can basically comprehend a text without resorting to other intelligences, such as the visual (e.g., mentally "seeing" characters or events described), auditory (e.g., reading aloud or mentally "hearing" sounds described), or even the logical intelligence (e.g., considering "what if" scenarios or predicting how the text will unfold based on context clues). However, most readers already use several intelligences while reading, and making a habit of doing so in a more disciplined manner—i.e., constantly, or after every paragraph—can result in more vivid, memorable experience.
 Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) reading involves presenting the words in a sentence one word at a time at the same location on the display screen, at a specified eccentricity. RSVP eliminates inter-word saccades, limits intra-word saccades, and prevents reader control of fixation times (Legge, Mansfield, & Chung, 2001). RSVP controls for differences in reader eye movement, and consequently is often used to measure reading speed in experiments.
Reading speed requires a long time to reach adult levels. The table to the right shows how reading-rate varies with age [15], regardless of the period (1965 to 2005) and the language (English, French, German). The Taylor values probably are higher, for disregarding students who failed the comprehension test. The reading test by the french psychologist Pierre Lefavrais ("L'alouette", published in 1967) tested reading aloud, with a penalty for errors, and could, therefore, not be a rate greater than 150 wpm. According to Carver (1990), children's reading speed increases throughout the school years.
Nation K (December 2009). "Form-meaning links in the development of visual word recognition". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 364 (1536): 3665–74.doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0119. PMID 19933139.
Powell D, Stainthorp R, Stuart M, Garwood H, Quinlan P. (2007). An experimental comparison between rival theories of rapid automatized naming performance and its relationship to reading. J Exp Child Psychol. 98(1):46-68. PMID 17555762.
Borowsky R, Esopenko C, Cummine J, Sarty GE (2007). "Neural representations of visual words and objects: a functional MRI study on the modularity of reading and object processing".Brain Topogr 20 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1007/s10548-007-0034-1. PMID 17929158.
Sanabria Díaz G, Torres Mdel R, Iglesias J, et al. (November 2009). "Changes in reading strategies in school-age children". Span J Psychol 12 (2): 441–53. PMID 19899646.
Banai K, Hornickel J, Skoe E, Nicol T, Zecker S, Kraus N (November 2009). "Reading and subcortical auditory function". Cereb. Cortex 19 (11): 2699–707. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp024.PMID 19293398.
Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A.; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard (2008). Robust Recognition of Reading Activity in Transit Using Wearable Electrooculography. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. pp. 19-37. 10.1007/978-3-540-79576-6_2. ISBN 978-3-540-79575-9.

1 comment:

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