Teaching Descriptive Text in Reading with Using Mind Mapping Software Subject of Writing of Academic Purposes Lecturer Cunong N Suraja By : Novita Sari Asmiaty NPM : 07211210461 Semester VI B ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION BOGOR IBN KHLADUN UNIVERSITY
MAY 2010 FOREWORDS In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise to Allah for the blessing given to the writer. So, we can finally complete this word. Peace and blessing be upon the lovely prophet Muhammad SAW, the family and follower. On this occasion, we would like to express our great honor and deepest gratitude to our beloved parents, who always give us support, motivation and the best wishes and the beloved brothers and sisters who have also given support to the writers. The writers also like to express the great honor to Cunong N Suraja as the lecturer of Writing of Academic Purposes, as advisor, for his time, kindness, guidance and patience in correcting and helping us in finishing this paper writing. This paper is written to fulfill one of the assignments of English Morphology course in English Education Program Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Bogor Ibn Khaldun University. The writers tried to do the best in writing this paper, but the writers realize that it is still far from being perfect. Therefore, the writers welcome any constructive criticism and suggestions to improve this paper. The writer finally hopes that this paper will be useful for the writers and the readers. Bogor, 16 June 2010
The Writer INTRODUCTION Mind mapping is a technique note created by is memory expert of English, Tony Buzan. This technique is constituted by result research into that way of brain process and information of keep information is not linearly, phase for the shake of phase, but brain of keep information and process information at random. From other side that, brain of keep information in the form of picture, and non in the form of article or letter.
This technique is very good for doing record-keeping, brainstorming, and to recollect items studied. Become, if someone wish to recollect items studied. Become, if someone wish to recollect entire or all items he which have study, hence he is only require to see map of mind he which have make, and he will remember altogether. The elements of a given mind map are arranged intuitively according to the importance of the concepts, and are classified into groupings, branches, or areas, with the goal of representing semantic or other connections between portions of information. Mind maps may also aid recall of existing memories.
What is a descriptive text? The definition of a descriptive text is a text which lists the characteristics of something. Description Text is a phrase used by very young English 'Teachers' whose poor education has not included the word 'expository'. Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience,
creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to be considered when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that "descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic". In this paper, I want compare it between them. Teaching reading with fun and enjoy using electric mind mapping. Although the student will get some experiences and more understand about reading text and then student can find mind idea or important part in text of reading. Electric main mapping is one of media that is easy and interestingly to using it. The student will improve they ability to open mind and creation with draw in computer.
THEORYTICAL Another useful listing technique is mapping or clustering. Instead of making a linear list as illustrated above, you start by writing your topic in the center of you page in a box. And then as you brainstorm for ideas, you write your ideas around the topic. As you write one idea down, you may think of another idea related to it, so you could write this second idea close the first idea in the cluster (a group of idea).
Mind maps are, by definition, a graphical method of taking notes. The visual basis of them helps one to distinguish words or ideas, often with colors and symbols. They generally take a hierarchical or tree branch format, with ideas branching into their subsections. Mind maps allow for greater creativity when recording ideas and information, as well as allowing the note-taker to associate words with visual representations. Mind maps and concept maps are different in that mind maps focus on only one word or idea, whereas Concept maps connect multiple words or ideas.
Mind maps (or similar concepts) have been used for centuries in learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking, and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists, and others. Some of the earliest examples of mind
maps were developed by Porphyry of Tyros, a noted thinker of the 3rd century, as he graphically visualized the concept categories of Aristotle. Philosopher Ramon Llull (1235 - 1315) also used mind maps.
The semantic network was developed in the late 1950s as a theory to understand human learning and developed into mind maps by Allan M. Collins and M. Ross Quillian during the early 1960s. Due to his commitment and published research, and his work with learning, creativity, and graphical thinking, Collins can be considered the father of the modern mind map.
British popular psychology author Tony Buzan claims to have invented modern mind mapping. He claimed the idea was inspired by Alfred Korzybski's general semantics as popularized in science fiction novels, such as those of Robert A. Heinlein and A. E. van Vogt. Buzan argues that while 'traditional' outlines force readers to scan left to right and top to bottom, readers actually tend to scan the entire page in a non-linear fashion. Buzan also uses popular assumptions about the cerebral hemispheres in order to promote the exclusive use of mind mapping over other forms of note making. The mind map continues to be used in various forms, and for various applications including learning and education (where it is often taught as 'Webs', 'Mind webs', or 'Webbing'), planning, and in engineering diagramming.
When compared with the concept map (which was developed by learning experts in the 1970s) the structure of a mind map is a similar radial, but is simplified by having one central key word.
A mind map is often created around a single word or text, placed in the center, to which associated ideas, words and concepts are added.
Mind maps have many applications in personal, family, educational, and business situations, including note taking, brainstorming (wherein ideas are inserted into the map radically around the center node, without the implicit prioritization that comes from hierarchy or sequential arrangements, and wherein grouping and organizing is reserved for later stages), summarizing, revising, and general clarifying of thoughts. One could listen to a lecture, for example, and take down notes using mind maps for the most important points or keywords. One can also use mind maps as a mnemonic technique or to sort out a complicated idea. Mind maps are also promoted as a way to collaborate in color pen creativity sessions. Mind maps can be used for:- Problem Solving Outline / Framework Design Anonymous collaboration. Marriage of words and visuals. Individual expression of creativity. Condensing material into a concise and memorable format. Team building or synergy creating activity. Enhancing work morale.
Mind mapping can be drawn by hand, either as 'rough notes' during a lecture or meeting, for example, or can be more sophisticated in quality. Examples of both are illustrated. There are also a number of software packages available for producing mind maps.
4. Effectiveness in learning
Buzan claims that the mind map is a vastly superior note taking method because it does not lead to a "semi-hypnotic trance" state induced by other note forms. Buzan also argues that the mind map uses the full range of left and right human cortical skills, balances the brain, taps into the apocryphal 99% of your unused mental potential, as well as intuition (which he calls "super logic"). However, scholarly research suggests that such claims may actually be marketing hype based on misconceptions about the brain and the cerebral hemispheres. Critics argue that hemispheric specialization theory has been identified as pseudoscientific when applied to mind mapping.
Scholarly research by Farrand, Hussain, and Hennessy (2002) found that the mind map technique had a limited but significant impact on memory recall in undergraduate students (a 10% increase over baseline for a 600-word text only) as compared to preferred study methods (a −6% increase over baseline). This improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group (actually it was 'spider diagrams' not Mind Maps used in this study) and there was a significant decrease in motivation compared to the subjects' preferred methods of note taking. Farrand et al. suggested that learners
preferred to use other methods because using a mind map was an unfamiliar technique, and its status as a "memory enhancing" technique engendered reluctance to apply it. Nevertheless the conclusion of the study was "Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users." Pressley, VanEtten, Yokoi, Freebern, and VanMeter (1998) found that learners tended to learn far better by focusing on the content of learning material rather than worrying over any one particular form of note taking.
5. Advantages of mind mapping compared to technique note habit.
Way of noting linear is such as those which used during the time, very graceless and drag on to our brain. Ability of brain to process information by multi sensory cannot be used maximally if we note linearly. Besides will be doing plenty activity and tire. On the contrary, with map of mind, time note to become much more brief. Process or activity note to become more interesting and please. Needed to time study again what have been noted to become much briefer, and level of recall (recollecting) very good.
Mind mapping software can be used effectively to organize large amounts of information, combining spatial organization, dynamic hierarchical
structuring and node folding. Software packages can extend the concept of mind mapping by allowing individuals to map more than thoughts & ideas with information on their computers and the internet, like spreadsheets, documents, internet sites and images. Here is an example of a mind mapping: And one of the example mind mapping of electric:
- Instructions to Make Mind Mapping
Increase your students' reading speed and comprehension with mind maps. Reading that students who learn the principles of speed reading correctly become better and more satisfied readers. Mind maps enhance the learning of speed reading by encouraging students to quickly take in many words at once rather than one word at a time. The steps below explain how you can create mind maps quickly and effectively. Difficulty: Moderately Challenging Instructions
1. Step 1
Start the mind map on a blank sheet of paper or blank document in a word processing computer program. Select a book or article to focus on. Place the title of the book or article within the text box in the top center of the document.
2. Step 2
Tell students you are going to flash the mind map in front of them for a second or two before taking it away. They must read the entire title of the book or article within that brief moment.
3. Step 3
Ask the students to write down the titles they read. Review their responses for accuracy. Continue practicing with reading titles only on the mind maps until students' perception is correct each time.
4. Step 4
Move on to using complete sentences on the mind maps. Select one or two sentences from the same book or article. Split the sentence into two or three text boxes on the mind map. Flash the mind map in front of the students, now instructing them to read the words within each text box as if they were just one word.
5. Step 5
Test students' comprehension of the sentences by having them explain in writing what they read. Encourage them to anticipate, also in writing, what they believe the following text they read might say.
6. Step 6
Advance to creating mind maps with text boxes that contain entire sentences. Have students practice reading the sentences all at once, trying to assimilate the separate words into one main idea.
7. Step 7
Complete the speed reading lessons with the most advanced mind maps. These have text boxes holding several sentences, clustered
around one main idea. Encourage students to quickly read the text within each box, looking for the one main idea the text contains.
- How to Writing a Descriptive Paragraph:
1. Examine the photograph below.
2. Create a list of descriptive characteristics from the picture (graphic organizer).
3. Weave your descriptive list into a full paragraph of no less than six sentences.
- Some Instructions to make Descriptive Text:
1. Select one picture from the four options provided on the reverse in order to write a description of at least twelve sentences in length.
2. Create a title page, and use correct first page formatting.
3. Use at least one simile.
4. Use at least one metaphor.
5. Use at least one personification.
6. Use imagery that appeals to the senses in order to create mood and a sense of place.
7. Apply knowledge learned from previous instruction this year.
Example Text Descriptive Text
Mekar Sari Garden Fruits
Garden fruit of Mekar Sari is another kind of national park. One of them is
near Puncak in Bogor. It is wide and an opened area. It is much wider. It has much
kind of fruits. Fruits does not we get in market or fruit of tree itself. There we can
see a lot of fruits and we can pick much kind of fruits. There are apples, grape,
watermelon, strawberry, banana, papaya, durian, mango, pineapple, oranges, etc.
We enter area by special bus covered that will accompany us to go there. We can
The example of mid mapping
CONCLLUSION Mapping can be very useful for showing important events ideas in relation to each other. In the example below, a student has drawn a map of her life. We can easily see the high points and the low points of her life from this map; also we can see which events stand out in some way for her because she has circled them. If you are telling a story or recounting an experience, mapping can help you organize the material in order. Additionally, it will help you see which events are the most important ones and thus need to be emphasized in the telling or writing. It does not matter what form your brainstorming takes-linear lists, mapping, and it does not matter what you make your notes on-a clean piece of paper, the back of an old envelope, a paper napkin, many kind of scrap paper. This is just an activity for your eyes only-to help you explore your own thoughts and feelings relating to the topic as the first step in writing about the topic.
Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to be considered when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile
to arrive at a dominant impression. One university essay guide states that "descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic".
1. Buzan, Tony. (2000). The Mind Map Book, Penguin Books, 1996.
2. Farrand, P.; Hussain, F.; Hennessy, E. (2002). "The efficacy of the mind map study technique". Medical Education 36 (5): 426–431.
3. Nast, Jamie. 2006. Idea Mapping. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken. New Jersey
4. Pressley, M., VanEtten, S., Yokoi, L., Freebern, G., & VanMeter, P. (1998). "The metacognition of college studentship: A grounded theory approach". In: D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in Theory and Practice (pp. 347-367).