Sunday, February 13, 2011


Arranged to fulfill one of the writing subject tasks
By :
Name : Eni Purbowati
NPM : 07211210208
Faculty of Teaching and Education
Bogor Ibn Khaldun University
Contents Page Content .......................................................................................................................... i Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 Theoretical Background ................................................................................................. 2 Finding Data .................................................................................................................. 4 Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 10 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 13
References ..................................................................................................................... 14
Introduction Learns to write is not automatically. We can not write even a single letter of the alphabet without a conscious effort of mind and hand, and to get beyond the single letter we must be shown how to form words, how to put words together and into sentences and how to punctuate those sentences. That‘s why writing is communication we must consciously learn. In writing we have to communicate without facial expressions, gestures, or body language. We have to speak with words and punctuation alone. Furthermore, writing is a solitary act. When we talk, we normally talk to someone who talks back, who raises questions, who lets we know whether or not we are making ourselves clear. But when we write, we work alone. Even we are writing a letter to a friend, he or she will not suddenly to prompt us into a speech, to help us fill in the gaps that so often occur when we try to tell a story or give an explanation off the top of our head. To write well, we have to anticipate the reactions of a reader we can not see or hear. So that, knowing more about spelling is one of the most important things we have to do to be a good writer.
Theoretical Background
In recent years, psychologists have begun to define the human brain as a combination of two halves or hemisphere- a left brain and the right one. The left brain, they say, is verbal, analytical, logical and systematic, taking things one step at time, the right brain is visual synthesizing, imaginative and intuitive, making one big picture from many details. The hemispheres theory of the brain is not yet proves and it will probably be debated for years to come. But whether or not the two different ways of thinking actually originate from separate halves of the brain, we all know from our own experience the difference between one kind of thinking and the other and we can use the words ―right‖ and ―left‖ to name the difference. The left brain then is what tells you now that should read. That writing an essay is a sequence of step that we must systematically move. The right brain however can goad you to leap ahead to see the germ of a whole essay in just one potent analogy or to imagine all of its parts as the branches of a tree. Because of its power to visualize connection in this way, to see a pattern all at once, the right brain has sometimes solved problems that have stumped the systematic left one. It has broken through obstacles that could not be surmounted by any sequence steps. This does not mean that the best way to write or solve any problem is to abandon all sequence. It means that the best writing, like the beast thinking comes from a brain in which both halves can freely talk to each other. If you tried to write with a right brain that never listed to the left you would never learn how to put one word after another. But when the left brain silences to the right one by refusing to look at its picture or tolerate its sudden intuition, the
writer‘s world become a flat, gray map. To turn that map into a full colored globe, you must to put your right brain to work. The first step is to turn down the voice of the left brain so that the voice of the right one can be heard. Turning down the voice of the left brain means forgetting for a time all the rules you ever learned about writing correctly. It‘s arranging your thoughts in a systematic orderly way. If you try to make each sentence perfect before moving on to the next one, if you stop after every few words to correct your spelling or grammar or punctuation, you will never tap the full creative power of your brain. But if you can temporarily silence the voice of analysis and correction, another kind of will begin to speak.
Finding Data It‘s true that some people are more natural spellers than others. It may be that these students read often, so have more experience with certain words. It‘s also possible that those students who are more visually based learners are able to remember patterns in word structure. Either way, the truth is that spelling can be tricky—even adults have trouble spelling certain difficult words. There are ways for those who struggle to learn better spelling skills and to gain a basic understanding of how word structure works. Auditory learners may benefit from saying the letters in sequence, and then pronouncing the word. Those students who are kinesthetic learners—who learn best by doing—may benefit from writing the word out on paper several times, allowing it to ―sink in‖ better. Letter blocks can also be helpful for these types of learners, as they can ―build‖ words letter by letter and gain better grasp of the sequence of and combinations of letters that result in different sounds. You can also work with a combination of learning styles, where students first observe the word, say and then spell it out loud, then cover the word and try to spell it again on paper on their own.
Learning spelling doesn‘t have to feel like drills; it can also be playful and take on a more natural course. For example, rhyming is sometimes helpful for children to recognize patterns in words and sounds. If the student has a difficult time remembering that ―night‖ is spelt with the ending ―ght‖, it might be helpful for them to consider other words like ―sight,‖ ―fright,‖ and ―right.‖ A lot of words in English share similar structure in this way, so learning this from an early age makes it easier to spell other, more difficult words in the future.
Some children would rather learn spelling with a more rigid structure so that they can use logic and reasoning to determine spelling. These students may benefit from learning the concept of word etymology. By understanding root words and how to build off these—for example, in the words symbolic and symbolism you can find an even simpler word: symbol. Of course, etymologies of words can become complicated the further you delve into them. This may be a little ambitious for some students, but even learning some of the basics of word etymologies can help students become better spellers. Other students may prefer to work with certain sounds, and looking at the different forms these sounds can take. For instance, the sound ―f‖ can be produced with different letter combinations: wife, lift, and phone, tough. Looking at groups of words that are similar to the word a child is struggling with can also help him or her get a better idea of the big picture. For example, words with silent letters can be confusing to some children, so practicing a group of them at a time can help to better drive the lesson home—comb, bomb, numb, and thumb all share the same combination of an ―m‖ sound with a silent ―b‖ immediately following it. Lastly, some students work best in linear methods, so making a list of some special rules and some examples can go a long way in building a better spelling foundation. ―I before E, except after C, or when it says ‗ay‘ as in neighbor or weigh‖ is one of those rules found in spelling that can be confusing at first.
Spelling, while not fun for everyone, is certainly one of those skills that students will continue to use throughout their schooling and life, regardless of
what subject they prefer to study, or what profession or industry they eventually enter as an adult. It‘s important to help your child develop steady spelling skills in whatever manner works best for him or her—whether it‘s basic practice and repetition with a spelling book, more time spent reading and therefore more exposure to words in print, or reviewing spelling with the help of a trained tutor. The common errors in spelling It is necessary to take a look at the common errors in spelling that students make. Then, strategies for addressing each error can be developed and applied. Based on the National Curriculum for English study, the most common errors fall roughly into the following categories: •20% omission, leaving out letters or parts of words that should have been included, for example "acknowledgment" •6% endings, errors with suffixes such as –ful or –ly •28% sound-based with homophonic words substituted for each other, such as "I didn't no the correct spelling." •42% miscellaneous errors such as inverting letters ("relief"), doubling consonants, or dividing words incorrectly
Spelling errors are divided into two categories: plausible and implausible. Implausible errors follow no particular pattern; they may simply be due to a mistyped word or a random guess on the part of the student. A high percentage of implausible errors mean that the student is probably using words that are very unfamiliar and outside of his/her vocabulary comfort zone. This is not a bad
trend to encourage; however, as the time taken to improve spelling is a small price to pay for the new knowledge. Plausible errors imply that the student both knew the correct word and was applying some known rule of lexicon to it in order to attempt the correct spelling. One of the more frustrating aspects of teaching the English language is the number of exceptions and the lack of phonetic consistency. For this reason, decreasing plausible errors may be the most difficult part of trying to improve spelling. Hyper-media Hyper-media essentially means with hyper text with multi-media content. Constructivists, as their name perhaps implies, seem keen on getting children to construct things. Jonassen (2000, p.211) argues that making hype-media products ―allows children to construct their own understandings rather than interpreting the teacher‘s understanding of the world‖. However, some sort of dialogical engagement with a teachers perspective is rather important in education and the voices expressed through media are not simply individual voices but part of dialogues. Designing multimedia products, for example web sites, is clearly a complex process that engages many skills. (Jonassen, 2000) list what they see as the major thinking skills that learners need as designers of multimedia presentations. Computer games as mind-tools
Whitebread (1997) claims that playing computer games can develop thinking skills even a game such as Lemmings, often considered purely as an entertainment game. He claims has the potential to develop skills such as:
 Understanding and representing the problem including identifying what kinds of information are relevant to its solution.
 Gathering and organizing relevant information.
 Constructing and managing a plan of action or a strategy.
 Reasoning. Hypothesis-testing and decision making.
 Using various problem solving tools.
In a review of the literature concerning games and learning, Kirriemuir and McFarne (2004) suggest that some games have the potential to support the development of strategic thinking, planning, communication, application of numbers, negotiating skills, group decision making and data-handling but that, for various reasons, there is little evidence that they are having much impact on education. Kirriemuir and Mcfarlane are interested in the flow experience of games and wonder how this can be produced in the designed of educational activities. However, others, for example Steve Higgins in his account of using the logical journey of the zombinis, support my argument that, for the emergence of general thinking skills, pedagogy is needed to, in a sense, disrupt the flow and challenge users to consciously reflect upon and discuss the strategies that they are using (Higgins, 2000).
As with every other ―mind-tool‖, research suggest that collaboration around games has a positive effect on the learning of thinking skills. Inkpen (1995) found that when children played the incredible machine (TIM) a problem
solving game, together on one machine that they ―solved significantly more puzzles than children playing alone on one machine‖. They were also more motivated to continue playing when they had a human partner.
Analysis Writing is the highest level in language aspect. It‘s higher than speaking. Everyone can speak but not everyone can write. When we are speaking, we can communicate easily. Without thinking whether the listener understand or not. Because if the listener doesn‘t understand what we are talking about, we can see their response directly and it will be two line communication between the speaker and the listener. On the contrary when we are writing, we will be very concerned to think whether the reader understands or not. We will concern about the chosen words, punctuation, the idea, the word structure, the spelling and the sentence structure. That‘s all for making the message from the writer can be accepted by the reader well. When the reader reading the book. The writer is not in always in front of the writer. It means them just doing one line communication. Spelling is one of the most important writing aspects. As a language learner especially in Teaching English as Foreign Language (TEFLIN), we must master this aspect. It‘s not an easy matter to introduce the English vocabulary to the student. There‘s very different pronunciation between English and Indonesia. That‘s why as a creative teacher, we have to find out the best and the effective learning method and learning media in doing to make the learning process going on well.
Scrabble: An Entertaining Way to Improve Your Child's Vocabulary and Spelling Skills
Scrabble is a fun way to improve your child's English, vocabulary, reading, and overall grammar skills. Read on to learn more about Scrabble and how it can benefit you and your child. Scrabble may be the most popular word game around. It's designed for two to four players and the object is to score points by forming words from lettered tiles on a game board. Everyone starts out with a seven letter tiles and builds off the word constructions set out as the game progresses.
How to Play
The words are formed across and down like a crossword puzzle and you have to be able to find the word in a standard dictionary. For more advanced and competitive players, official reference works which provide a list of words you can use are also available. Each letter is worth points, the number of points depending on the letter's frequency in standard English writing. For example, a commonly-used letter like E or O is worth one point and less common letters like Q and Z each are worth ten points. There are other details that add scoring possibilities, like the premium squares that multiply the amount of points awarded for a letter, but basically, the better use you make of your letters, the better.
Scrabble as Educational Tool
It's easy to see why Scrabble is not only a fun game, but also a fantastic educational tool. Scrabble makes learning fun. Obviously, it requires and builds strong vocabulary and spelling, but it also requires math (players need to see what plays are worth what) and strategy (players need to see what plays are
worth the most and what plays might keep their opponents from scoring), even spatial relations and probability. And if you play in teams, you have to work together. It's a great opportunity for kids to teach and learn from each other. There's even a version of the classic word game devoted to mathematics, using formulas and equations instead of words.
It's a Social Game
Even kids who are not strong spellers can catch the bug. Scrabble gives them a chance play with letters and develops their interest in words. If a student is good with strategy, he stands a chance. The skills he lacks will grow, watered by his success. And the competition not only makes it fun, it provides incentive for strengthening vocabulary and spelling skills. The dictionary is the weapon of choice in Scrabble, so it requires a student to gain facility with using that otherwise dreaded book. The improvement of information and communication technology should be the element in improving the student‘s capability.
Conclusion For some years now the idea that we all have different emphases in the way we perceive and learn has become part of teachers‘ life. Learning styles are not considered to be exclusive. For example, the same person may sometimes want to be analytical and at other times may want to be creative. However, each person will probably have preferences. In any one class there can be many different preferences. The teacher is like a gardener responsible for many different types of plant, some requiring a lot of sunshine and others shade, some requiring pruning and others to be left alone. We can treat all our plants in the same way and watch some die while others flourish, or we can try to offer a range of different approaches and give succor to teach and all of them. Be a fair teacher.
The improvement of information and communication technology can be used to help us as the teacher in making the learning process is better and more effective. Using electronic scrabble can be one of the learning methods and learning media to make the student‘s spelling vocabulary skill better.
References A.W.Heffernan, James and John E. Lincoln. 1990. Writing A College Handbook. New York London : W. W. Norton & Company. Bruwsan, Charles T, Gerald J. Alred and Walter E. Oliu. 1987. Hand Book of Technical Writing. New York : St Martin‘s Press. Wegerif, Rupert. 2007. Dialogic Education and Technology. Switzerland: Springer Science. W. Gunawan, Adi. 2007. Born To Be A Genius. Jakarta : Gramedia. Wright, Andrew, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby. 2006. Games for Language Learning. New York : Cambridge University Press. www.

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