Teaching Writing News Item text through the Television BY: ULFAH FITRI IKAYATI 07211210401 FACULTY OF TEACHING LEARNING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF IBN KHALDUN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
Prepare Bismillahirrahmanirrahim In the name of Allah SAW who has given the merciful and blessing. Because of his helps the writer could finish this paper. Shalawat and salam we sent to our prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, companions and followers who are loyal and committed to Islam. In this occasion, the writer is very much indebted to those who have helped her so kindly. The writer expresses the greatest gratitude to: My beloved parents who have given spirit and their love. Mr. Cunong N Suraja, as the lecture of “Writing For Academic Purpose ”, who has given me the knowledge in studying writing. All of my friends, who have given spirit, shared the knowledge and experience.
The writer realizes that this paper is still far from being perfect; therefore the writer welcome any suggestions and critics in order that the faults, mistakes and errors in this paper can be minimized. Finally the writer hopes that this paper can be useful and give a significant contribution for the writer especially and for the people who read generally.
Introduction The English language is the important language in the world for international communication. In Indonesia, English must be learned at schools as the first foreign language. For most student it is nor easy to learn English. They must pay attention in order to master it. There are four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. One of four skills that are used frequently beside the speaking skill is writing. Writing is a kind of expression media and a means of communication. That is why writing is very essential to be learned by student to make good relationship with other people. Writing is a language skill which used for communication indirectly. In writing learning, there are many kinds of English text. Those are recount, report, discussion, Explanation, Exposition, new item, anecdote, narrative, procedure, description, and review. Here, the writer shold try to explain one of the text. That is news items. And writer give the title of this paper is “Teaching news item text through the television”.
A news item text is a text which is grouped into the text genre of narration. The main function of narration is telling stories or informing about events in chronological order. The order in the narration can be based of time, place and the events them selves.
News item text should be completely studied in the first class with narrative and recount text. These three text types explore the way on how a story or event is retold to others. News item text is written for public information of what is the newsworthy of the day. Basically, a news item text tries to answer the 5Ws and 1H questions; what, who, when, where, why, and how relating to the newsworthy.
Theoretical Foundation Language is often interpreted as an instrument of communication. People need it to interact and to communicate each other because they are social human beings. The people need the other person to help in any condition and situation, to share thought, idea, concept and feeling, to extend massage, to explain anything and problem, to invite the other to do or don‟t do something and so on. In this case, language relates someone‟s massage and feeling to other people. They communicate using two main ways: spoken language or writing language. Definition of Language from the literature: Language is a means of cultural transmission. Language is what people use to talk about the things that are important to them, for example, occurrences in their everyday lives. Language is a set of sound or in the case of sign language, sign and sentences patterns that express meaning. 1. Definition of Writing Writing seems to parallel skill like bicycling in a number of ways. We are supposed to learn basic writing skill at the beginning of our college careers that we can use in our later work, much as we learn basic bicycling skill before we attempt to enter race.
Writing, more particularly, refers to two things: writing as a noun, the thing that is written; and writing as a verb, which designates the activity of writing. It refers to the inscription of characters on a medium, thereby forming words, and larger units of language, known as texts. It also refers to the creation of meaning and the information thereby generated. In that regard, linguistics (and related sciences) distinguishes between the written language and the spoken language. Writing is a central part of any design activity. Quality is improved since writing an explanation of the design, forces the designer to consider and explore it fully.
Writing is very powerful - and for this reason, it can be exploited in engineering. The power comes from its potential as an efficient and effective
means of communication; the power is derived from order and clarity. Structure is used to present the information so that it is more accessible to the reader.
2. The Purpose of Writing
There are four purpose why people write: the first purpose in writing is “to inform” anything such as fact, data, event, suggestion and so on. By those are hopped that reader gets new knowledge and competency about all in this word. The second is “to persuade” the reader. By writing, a writer hopes that reader can establish his/her attitude whether he/she agrees or support the writer‟s persuasion. The third is “to educate” the reader. To educate is one of purpose in writing because by writing, someone knowledge will be added. Finally is “to entertain” the reader. There are many writing which can entertain someone when he/she reads them, such as: anecdote, short story, and funny experience. Writers need to consider both audience and purpose in writing because the two elements affect writing significantly, and decisions about one affect the other. When a person writes something, he or she has purposes for writing. The writer may have motivations of which he or she is unaware. The writer may also have mixed, and even contradictory, motivations for writing. 3. GENRE (text) Genre comes from a French word meaning 'kind' or 'type'. In general terms it applies to the kind of writing you are reading or producing. In your exams and for course work you will read writing from many different genres, both fictional and non-fictional. So you will be asked to analyze and discuss texts such as magazine and newspaper articles, leaflets and so on. You will also be asked to write in various genres, too - a story, an article, a letter, a speech, for example. In your writing, it's important to understand the specific requirements of the genre in which you are being asked to write or many marks will be lost. Make sure you know, therefore, how to write both a formal (business) and informal (friendly) letter, a leaflet and an article for example.
More on genre. The background to genre is interesting. When we meet something new, our mind already contains a set of existing ideas we have picked up over the years from experience and what we have read or been told of what that thing should be like. We become rather highly conditioned to expect certain things within a particular genre, such that we can be highly critical of or even reject or distrust something that does not follow what we expect to find, i.e. if it fails to follow what are called its genre conventions. Genre can affect the form (shape and layout), structure (the sequence of ideas), style and content of a thing. In your own writing for coursework and exams, you need to show you understand that different genres use styles that are familiar to your reader. For example, the narrative genre is built around a beginning-middle-end structure of linked events that build to a climax; the letter genre uses a particular layout with addresses at the top and so on. Genre can be very important, but can become very complex. If you need or would like to know more, read on... Genre becomes important when we realize that it means much more than just categorization. This is because our response to genres is deeply conditioned and creates the way we approach and respond to a text. The journalistic genre, for example, conditions us to expect to see a particular form of text: headlines, columns and blocks of writing. But this genre also conditions us to expect to be able to trust and believe in what we are reading in ways that might not always or necessarily be sensible. Such is the power of genre. Genre also conditions us to see as entirely natural and realistic certain aspects of what we read and see. Think about the kinds of characters that survive and those that end up mutilated in a horror story or film, for example or think how much sympathy you have with who is murdered in a gangster story or movie - some characters have your sympathy, others make you feel they deserve all they get!
4. Kind of the text Writing is not only conveys about our idea, knowledge, opinion, etc, in written text but also write our thoughts or ideas in many text types or kinds of text called genre. Genre is text types used in the process of teaching English subject; cope and kalantzis (1993:250) stated that, „genre is the types or kinds of text, defined in terms of its social purpose”. It means that genre is text types that have different social goals. English teacher have to master and apply genre in the process of teaching writing English there are many kinds of text such as narrative, recount, procedure, news item, anecdote, etc.
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining Orientation : provides
The setting and Introduces participants Events : tell what
happened, in what sequence Re-orientation :
optional-closure of events. Focus on specific participants Use of material processes Use of past tense Focus on temporal sequence
To describe the way thing are. with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment General classification :
tells what the phenomenon under discussion is. Description tells what
the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of (1) parts, (2) qualities, (3) habits of behaviors, if living; uses, if non-natural Focus on Generic participants Use of relational processes to
State what is and that which it is Use of simple present tense No temporal sequence
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To present (at least) two point of view about an issue. Issue: (a) statement
(b)preview Argument for and
against or statement of differing points of view.
(b) elaboration conclusion or
recommendation Focus on generic human and generic non-human participants. Used of:
(a) material processes
(b) relational processes
(c) mental processes Use of comparative: contrastive and consequential conjunctions. Reasoning expressed as verbs and noun (abstraction).
To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or sociocultural phenomena. A general statement to position the reader. A sequenced
explanation of why or how something occurs. Focus on generic, non-human participants. Use mainly of material and relational processes. Use mainly of temporal and causal circumstances and conjunctions. Some use of passive voice to get theme right.
To persuade the reader or listener that some things the case Thesis
Position: introduces topic and indicates writer‟s position. Preview : outlines the main arguments to be presented Arguments
Point : restates main arguments outlined in preview. Elaboration : develops and supports each point/ argument Focus on generic human and non-human participants. Use of simple present tense Use of relational processes Use of internal conjunction to state argument Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization
To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case. Thesis : announcement of issue concern. Argument : reason for concern, leading to recommendation. Recommendation : statement of what ought or ought not to happen. Focus on generic human and non-human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self. Use of :
(a) mental processes
(b) material processes
(c) relational processes Use of simple present tense
To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. Newsworthy events: recounts the event in summary form. Background events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities experts on the event. short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline use of material processes to retell the event (in the next below, many of the material processes are nominalized) use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage Focus on circumstances.
To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident. Abstract : signal the retelling of an unusual incident. Orientation : sets the scene Crisis : provides details of the unusual incident Reaction : reaction to crises Coda : optional-reflection on or evaluation of the incident. Use of exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers (really, very) to point up the significant of the events Use of material processes to tell what happened Use of temporal conjunction
Orientation : sets the scene and introduces the Focus on specific and usually individualized participants.
To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways; narratives deals with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.
participants Evaluation : a stepping back to evaluate the plight. Resolution : the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse. Re-orientation: optional Use of material processes (and in this text , behavioral and verbal processes Use of temporal conjunction and temporal circumstances Use of relational processes and mental processes Use of past tense
To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps. Goal Materials ( not required for all procedural texts) Steps 1-n (i.e goal followed by a series oriented to achieving the goal) Focus on generalizec human agents. Use of simple present tense, often imperative. Use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence) Use mainly of material processes.
To describe a particular person, place or thing. General statement Explanation Closing
Focus on specific participants use simple present tense Use of attributes and identifying processes Frequent , use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups.
Every research needs the data, which describes about something. The data is in the form of information and evidence. Research is not incidental or trial and error activity, which collects data by chance or coincidentally, but research is purposeful activity, which intentionally looks for data or material determined first in the research program. The collected data and information must be related to the statement problem. So all activities in the research can work purposeful and carried out effectively and efficiently.
Genres are not systems: they are processes of systematisation' (Neale 1980, 51; my emphasis; cf. Neale 1995, 463). Traditionally, genres (particularly literary genres) tended to be regarded as fixed forms, but contemporary theory emphasizes that both their forms and functions are dynamic. David Buckingham argues that 'genre is not... simply "given" by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change' (Buckingham 1993, 137). Nicholas Abercrombie suggests that 'the boundaries between genres are shifting and becoming more permeable' (Abercrombie 1996, 45); Abercrombie is concerned with modern television, which he suggests seems to be engaged in 'a steady dismantling of genre' (ibid.) which can be attributed in part to economic pressures to pursue new audiences. One may acknowledge the dynamic fluidity of genres without positing the final demise of genre as an interpretive framework. As the generic corpus ceaselessly expands, genres (and the relationships between them) change over time; the conventions of each genre shift, new genres and sub-genres emerge and others are 'discontinued' (though note that certain genres seem particularly long-lasting). Tzvetan Todorov argued that 'a new genre is always the transformation of one or several old genres' (cited in Swales 1990, 36). Each new work within a genre has the potential to influence changes within the genre or perhaps the emergence of new sub-genres (which may later blossom into fully-fledged genres). However, such a perspective tends to highlight the role of authorial experimentation in changing genres and their conventions, whereas it is important to recognize not only the social nature of text production but especially
the role of economic and technological factors as well as changing audience preferences. Another key term to understand alongside genre is narrative as the two are closely linked. Genre 'tells' what kind of setting, characters and events to expect in a particular narrative. This engages us all the more in the narrative because we are able to guess more accurately what might happen next - an important part of the entertainment and enjoyment of the narrative form is the ability to predict what might happen next. The interaction between genres and media can be seen as one of the forces which contributes to changing genres. Some genres are more powerful than others: they differ in the status which is attributed to them by those who produce texts within them and by their audiences. As Tony Thwaites et al. put it, 'in the interaction and conflicts among genres we can see the connections between textuality and power' (Thwaites et al. 1994, 104). The key genres in institutions which are 'primary definers' (such as news reports in the mass media) help to establish the frameworks within which issues are defined. But genre hierarchies also shift over time, with individual genres constantly gaining and losing different groups of users and relative status.
A. News Item Text Social function : to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
Generic structures :
1. Newsworthy events: recounts the event in summary form.
2. Background events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
3. Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities experts on the event. Significant Lexicogrammatical features :
1. short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. use of material processes to retell the event (in the next below, many
of the material processes are nominalized)
3. use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage
4. Focus on circumstances.
B. Television ( TV)
Television (TV) is a widely used telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, usually accompanied by sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (τῆλε), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person).
Commercially available since the late 1930s, the television set has become a common communications receiver in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a source of entertainment and news. Since the 1970s the availability of video cassettes, laserdiscs, DVDs and now Blu-ray Discs, have resulted in the television set frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material.
Although other forms such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) are in use, the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television, which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s, and uses high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers.
Broadcast TV is typically disseminated via radio transmissions on designated channels in the 54–890 megahertz frequency band. Signals are now often transmitted with stereo and/or surround sound in many countries. Until the 2000s broadcast TV programs were generally recorded and transmitted as an analog signal, but in recent years public and commercial broadcasters have been progressively introducing digital television broadcasting technology.
A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits, including those for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is properly called a monitor, rather than a television. A television system may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-definition television (HDTV). Television systems are also used for surveillance, industrial process control, and guiding of weapons, in places where direct observation is difficult or dangerous.
Amateur television (ham TV or ATV) is also used for experimentation, pleasure and public service events by amateur radio operators. Ham TV stations were on the air in many cities before commercial TV stations came on the air. About the International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Founded in 1969, the International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences is the largest organization of global broadcasters, with over 600 members from nearly 70 countries and over 400 companies. The Academy was chartered with a mission to recognize excellence in television programming produced outside of the United States, and it presents the International Emmy® Award to programs in fifteen categories: Arts Programming; Best Performance by an Actress; Best Performance by an Actor; Children & Young People; Comedy; Current Affairs; Documentary; Digital Program: Children & Young People; Digital Program: Fiction; Digital Program: Non-Fiction; Drama Series; News; Non-Scripted Entertainment; Telenovela and TV Movie/Mini-Series. The Academy is a unique, independent organization comprised of the world's leading media and entertainment professionals and media leaders who come together to exchange ideas, discuss common issues and promote new strategies for the future development of quality global television programming.
Example of the news item text:
1. Continuing News Week‟s collaboration with the world economic forum, our latest special edition – which is a double issue – focuses on the future television. In it, we look at how technological leaps are not only changing the way we watch TV (why sit on the couch at home when you can have programs beamed to your mobile phone?) but also presenting new challengers to broadcasting industries from the United States to China. We hope you enjoy the show. 2. Town Contaminated
WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM
Newsworthy events: Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Background Events: Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostok. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a „thermal‟ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Source Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.
Conclusion Language is vested in culture and the origin of spoken language is as old as humanity itself. We could well imagine people from the distant past living in families with a particular spoken tongue clustering together to form a clan. Geographically together in security and subsistence they would harmonize as a culture, protecting it with all their power to survive in a world as it was known to them and not very much different from the same principles philosophized today. Language is a way to communicate ideas comprehensibly from one person to another in such a way that the other will be able to act exactly accordingly. The transportation of such ideas could be acquired by either verbal expression, signing in alphabet (written word) and perhaps if we can imagine two parties with different tongue, signing with gestures and images. Written language is an easy way to enhance the inheritance of culture, standards and uniformity, to accumulate and bequeath knowledge and skills and the profit is belonging and the realization of accomplishment.
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