Saturday, February 12, 2011


Writing for Academic Purposes
Name : Ayum Hartini
NPM : 07211210082
Class : 5A
Word recognition, the ability to identify words by sight, analysis, and meaning, is one of the major aspects of reading. The other is comprehension. In the reading process, neither aspect can function properly with out the other. They are, for practical purposes, of equal value in the instructional program. A basic reading vocabulary is a list of words (several hundred words) which is absolutely essential for reading. The instant words, because these are the words a child must recognize instantly in order to have reading facility. These words are used over and over again, like the, is and man. They are used so frequently that the student can not make to stop and sound them out on he will lose the meaning of the sentence. The instant words are the commits words of the English language. They are based on frequency counts of words used in children‘s reading material and in their speaking and writing.
Theoretical Background
Independence and versatility in recognizing and using words are paramount in reading development; neither can be realized without adequate background and systematic teaching. A major objective in all remedial teaching should be to provide the kind of instruction that will result in balanced development of all the language skills. Since it is basic to all subsequent language improvement, vocabulary should head the list of critical factors in remedial instruction.
Many studies in educational research are equivocally and difficult to reproduce. However, the word frequently studies are quite stable and easy to verify. The instant words are based on such exhaustive frequency counts as the Throndike-Lorge word list, which is derived from counting millions of words in children‘s and adult literature, and the Risland list, which is based on frequency count of words used by children in writing themes. Other studies were also consulted, such as those by Dolch and Buckingham, and Fitzgerald.
The first 300 instant words make up nearly one-half of all writen material. If, for example, a frequency count were made of the words, the result would be that about one-half of the words comes from this list of the first 300 Instant words. In children‘s reading material the precentage is even higher. A study of reading material used in the first three grades reveald that the first 300 Instant words comprised approximately 63 precent of all words used. These words, of course, have a high overlap with the vocabularies used in basal reading series. If we
examine the readers for the first three grades in several basal reader series we find that the first 300 words comprise between 58 and 77 percent of all the words.
There are 600 Instant Words in all, arranged approximatly according to grade level. The first 100 words are approximatly at first grade level of difficulty, the second 100 Instant words ta the second grade difficulty level, and the third 100 words at the third grade level of difficulty. The last 300 Instant Words are approximately at the fourth grade level of difficulty. By level of difficulty is meant , for example , are remedial reading student might be a fifth grade child with normal intelligence who was reading on the second grade or seventh grade boy who on the third grade level. These children have had a poor development of reading skills, and hence it is necessaryto determine their basic vocabulary development before starting to teach them basic vocabulary without necessarily having them go through are the basal reading books.
A further problem is that many olther children have learned their reading skills from different basal series. While there is a high degree of overlap of the basic words presented in different series, there is considerably less then complete agreement among them. Hence, the instant words are taken from the same sources as the vocabularies used in most basal reading series. By using the instant words as part of individualized or remedial instruction, the teacher can be assuredthat the student is progressing soundly in the area of basic vocabulary. This allows the teacher to use a wide variety of materials, such as basal readers and trade books and games.
A further advantage of using the instant words is the way in which they re divided into groups. They are arranged in groups of twenty-five. Groups follow in order of frequency of use. For this reason it is most important that children learn the first group of twenty-five instant words first, since these are the words used most frequently in the English language and also those that are used most often in all readers. The second groups twenty-five instant words include those used next most frequentely in English.
Data Finding
Of the many reasons why vocabulary is important, those discussed below are especially applicable to remedial reading.
1. Words knowladge is the basis for reading comperhension. Obviously, words must be recognized and understood before thought can be discerned and interpreted.
2. A wide vocabulary increases interestin reading.interest will be lost unless a student has a sufficient stock of words to understand the content of a selection.
3. An adequate understanding vocabulary increases the usefulness of the words attack skills. There is little value in being able to pronounce a words if its meaning unknown. Unless the understanding vocabulary is adequte, student s will be unable to use many of the wordsthey work out structuraly and phoneticaly.
4. An extensive vocabulary aids speed and accuracy in reading. It is not difficult to understand why an extensive vocabulary is an aid to reading speed and accuracy. Student who mastered a wide and varied selection words spends less time in analizyng induvidual meanings and more time in grouping ideas into meanining.
One of difficulty encountered in attempting to utilize other basic word lists is that they are not broken dwon into small enough teaching groups. For example, the Dolch Basic Sight Vocabulary is a list of 220 words plus 95 common nouns, but not indication is given as to which should be taught first. Richards‘ Basic
English Vocabulary of 850 words, or the Thorndike first 500 words involves the same problem. Richards‘ list of 85 words suffers an additional disadventage in that it was especially designed for the teaching of English as a second language. The word have been edited, which means that they were selected not strictly on the basis of a frequency count but rather selected by the outhor who was compiling a list which he felt was most useful in basic English communication for the students who do not regularly speak English. On the other hand, the Thorndike list of commonest 500 words suffers from being unedited list which is determined strictly according to frequency principles. In this type of list we see such logical inconsistencies as inclusion of only five of the seven days of the week or failure to include several of the numbers from one to ten.
In using the Instants words, the solid teaching maxim of first ― Finding out where the child‘s is ― should be followed before beginning instruction. To do this on an individual basis is quite simple. The teacher asks a child to read loud the first five words he may then asked to read the entries list. The teacher should write down the words that the student misses on a sheet of paper, preferably in neat manuscript writing, and then use the list of missed words for instruction. For example, these words might be put on individualized flash cards, or the student might merely study the list until he can read it without error. The list can be used for spelling or any of the other teaching methods which might be used.
Strangely enough, children seem to have difficulty in learning the Instant words. This is part due to the fact that some of then not subject matter words. Its mush easier to teach a child the difference between the words dinosaur and
cowboy than it is to teach him the difference between this and that and these and those. Studies have shown that it is take the average six-year-old nearly a year of reading instruction to master the first 100 instant words and the average seven-year-old approximately a year to master the second 100 instants words. Adult and older children taking remedial reading instruction naturally learn these words at a much faster rate. Nevertheless, the learning of the Instant words roughly parallels total reading development.
Media in Using
According to the Gavin Dudeney and Nicky Hockly technology in language teaching is not new. They assumed technology has been around in language teaching for decades—one might argue for centuries, since the 1960s and 1970s, tape recorder, language laboratories and video have been in use, and are still used in classroom around the world.
Computer – based materials for language teaching often referred to as CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), appeared in the early 1980s.
As access to information and communication technology (ITC) has become more widespread, so CALL has moved beyond the use of the computer programs to embrace the use of the internet and web-based tools. The term TELL (Technology Enhanced Language Learning) appeared in the 1990s, in response to the growing possibilities offered by the internet and communications technology.
There is several reason in using internet or computer: Internet access – either in private homes or at internet café‘s – is becoming increasingly available to learners.
Younger learners are growing up with technology, and it is a natural and integrated part of their lives.
The phonic approach may work well with some children in learning some of the instant words, but this approach may not give a student the instant recognition that is desired in teaching the instant words. Hence, the whole word method of teaching is better for this list.
Origin specific reading disability indicate of cases of disability in reading not accompanied by general mental retardation or serious visual deficiency appears to have been in England. In 1896, Morgan (112) noted the similarity between children experiencing a specific difficulty in learning to read and adult who had lost the ability to read after damage the brain. It was he who first used the term congenital word-blindness, the use of the label being predicated upon the theory of neurotically insolvent.
Twenty-year later Hinshelwood (84) likewise, interpreted his observations of cases to mean that the disability in dealing with visual symbol was attributable to malfunctioning of certain brain areas. He assigned the causes of the disability to destruction or improper development of the visual memory center, the gyros angular is and gyros supra marginalize of the left hemisphere of the brain. They suggested classification of reading disability cases into three group and the use of three different terms to describe them: (1) Congenital word-blindness—pure defect of the visual memory for words and left letters.(2) Congenital dyslexia---slighter degrees of defect, but characterized by much greater difficulty with learning to read hand is encountered by the average child (3) Congenital alexia---
defect of the visual memory center as only one part of general cerebral deterioration.
Data Analyzing
Methods used in teaching the instant words vary with the teacher, pupil, and the educational situation. Any approach that is successful is acceptable, and any method that works is a good method.
Good methods to use in teaching the instant words include card games, easy reading, flash card, and spelling lessons augmented by lavish praise, stern talks, competition, or a play- therapy climate. The pupil can learn to read words in books, on flash cards, in his own compositions, or from a screen on which words are flashed at 1/25th of a second. Children are taught singly and in large groups, in the classroom and under the trees. However all the while the student is also being taught three things by word and deed: (1) We care about him. (2) We want him to read. (3) These instant words are important.
EASY REDING is one of the best methods of teaching the instant words. These means, simply, that if a child can read second grade level material (whether fluently, hesitatingly, or with help) for him easy reading is reading first grade material. Betts gives an excellent definition of easy reading: a child can read easily when they can pronounce 99 percent of the words. Another bets rules-of-thumb is that when a child averages less than one mistake for every twenty words, the material is ―easy‖ for him. Easy reading is especially beneficial because it is certain to content the instant words, and a child who barely knows these words
gets practice in recognizing them. Easy reading gives a child a feeling of success and encourages him to try to learn more.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES Reshaping each word and pronouncing it immediately after the student has seen it and attempted to write and say it (we can assume that most students will try to say the word them selves, even if not called on) gives what psychologist call the knowledge of result, a very effective tool in learning and motivation. In addition to knowledge of results, some of the leaning principles involved in the process are (1) learning set, i.e., paying attention to the right things; (2) Multysenory approach, i.e., the use of eyes, ears, speech, fingers, with their corresponding areas of the brain; (3) learning small units which increase the frequency of the rewarding effect of knowledge of result; and (4) the shear novelty of the use of the screen which is unlike other reading experiences.
Another interesting aspect of using filmstrips in a partly darkened room is the learning of distraction. This is particularly recommended with brain damaged children who are characterized by espy distractibility.
To some extent the group filmstrip procedure provides for individual differences in reading ability and learning rate in that the better students can try to write and say all the words correctly and the poorer students cam merely observe the words, try to copy, and listen carefully when they are told what is. However, teacher may devise the class group so that the more advanced students ma work on harder words. Slower students who need more practice can often receive help
front a better student who is assigned to work with a small group of slower students.
Hence we see how other important learning principles are involved in these suggested methods of teaching a sight vocabulary, namely that a certain amount of practice, or repetition, is necessary. Both experienced teacher and psychological experimenters have found that duller children need more repetitions, practice, and even over learning (practice after mastery) I order to really learn. Spacing out the practice is also desirable, since too much at one time not only causes boredom but is inefficient because a point is reached where little or no learning takes place.
FLASH CARDS It is not necessary to have a stachistoscoupe to take advantage of many of these learning principles. Flash cards such as those shown accomplish many of the same things. Both flash cards and the tachistoscope can be used to present words to large groups or the individuals. In fact, either can be self - administration often makes correction a problem. Flash cards are used frequently with small groups. The teacher flashes the word as quickly as possible. The students who says the word first is allowed to hold the card. The point of the game is to see who holds the most cards. Inequities in reaction time or ability can be offset partially by giving each student a turn at recognizing the word; if he misses, the next student takes his turn.
Free flash cards
Sets I used to design curriculums for children ages 3-9 and 6-10. However, I use most of them up through to high school students and some with adults. I'm trying to get them up as quickly as possible.
Cartoons I get great reactions from the children, especially the first time around. It really helps to break up the monotony of drilling. For the most part the pictures very clearly express the language, but there may be times when gesturing to help convey the meaning might be appropriate.
Vocabulary, this is a personal preference as my experience has led me to believe it is more of a distraction than a benefit. I want the students to see the Images associate the words they are producing with the concepts or objects they are studying. With the words on the cards, they become reliant on reading.
File. You will need to print out 12-15 copies of that sheet, place it back to back with each flash card and then laminate it (if you want to use it.) It isn't necessary but it looks really sharp. If you don't use it, I would suggest putting a single blank sheet behind the flash card before you laminate it. It is sturdier and easier to handle that way. It will also stop s each card set contains a set of large flash cards for introduction and drilling purposes (one card per sheet - you can chose B4, A4, B5 etc. when printing,) a set of (it is example when your need to copy or download from the internet game‘s).
BINGO is an excellent game for teaching the Instant words to large groups, and it is equally useful for use with small groups. Twenty-five words can be placed on a card (five rows and five columns) in random order; each ‗player‖ is given a card. The teacher calls of the words at random or may be taking the precaution of drawing the word cards out of that. Markers can be small squares of cardboard. The first student to cover the complete row, column, or diagonals line wins. Even though there has been a winner, the class often likes to continue playing until every word is covered. If the game is played until the board is filled, the teacher can sometimes spot poor readers by the number of words which remain uncovered. In a teaching situation in which some of the students do not know all of the words, an excellent opportunity for instruction can ensue, and the teacher can show the card or write the word on the board after saying it; this present the desirable opportunity of giving poor readers an equal chance at winning. Sample BINGO card:
Online Bingo
Online bingo has become one of the biggest scenes on the internet. Bingo players enjoy sitting and talking to their fellow bingo players, online bingo halls
have made it their goal to make internet bingo simulate the social experience of live bingo parlors.
Online bingoes halls include state of the art chat room and instant messaging software, allow players to chat with their fellow contestants and make friends while they play bingo. A lot of online bingo players make friends in their favorite internet bingo parlor. Often, these bingo players are quite loyal to their favorite online bingo site.
Online Bingo Software
Some of the big names in online casino software power online bingo halls. Not all of them were in on the ground floor, but because of the profits available in the online bingo industry, all the big companies have begun to produce their own bingo software.
The big names like Cryptology, Micro gaming, Real-time Gaming (RTG) and Playtech power internet bingo websites with their gaming software Outfits like Boss Media and Proprietary Software are also big names in the online bingo industry.
Developing vocabulary is a persistent problem in the remedial reading. Regardless of the progress made in remedial work, vocabulary development will continue to need attention. Few of any pupils reach a point where farther work in vocabulary.
The importance an adequate understanding and recognition vocabulary is rarely questioned. Among the many contributions made by vocabulary, the following are basic to remedial instruction: (1) provides the basis for interpreting thought (2) increases interest in reading (3) extends the usefulness of the word attack skills and (4) aids speed and accuracy in reading.
Once in while it is a good idea to review easy words already mastered, just for fun; but, generally, instructional games should follow the same rules as the selection of instructional reading material.
We have suggested only a few of many possible specific methods for teaching the instant words. Experienced reading teachers know and use many more. In remedial reading especially, a variety and inter change of methods is desirable.
Dudeney, Gavine. 2007. How TO Teach English with Technology. England. Pearson Education Limited.
Lust, Barbara. 2006. Child Language Acquisition and Growth. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
Saville, Mursel. 2007. Introducing second Language Acquisition. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
Wall, Patricia.. 2006. Say it naturally second edition. M.E Aselt Corporation. USA.
Wiengarten, Samuel. Response in Reading. Random House. New York.
Wright, Andrew. Reading For A cademic Purpose (Games For Language Learning).

1 comment:

  1. It's very useful for me. Please send me some more information about teaching reading skill especially using mind maps. Thanks a lot