Monday, January 30, 2012

Asri Khoerunisa


Asri Khoerunisa
Npm    : 10211210335
Class    : 3 evening
Sociolinguistics
Language is rules for communicate. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployedwithout awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently.
A consolidation of a number of possible definitions of language yields the following composite definition.
1.      Language is systematic.
2.      Language is a set of arbitrary symbols.
3.      Those symbols are primarily vocal, but may also be visual.
4.      The symbols have conventionalized meanings ti which they refer.
5.      Language is used for communication.
6.      Language operates in a speech community or culture.
7.      Language is essentially human, although possibly not limited to humans.
8.      Language is acquired by all people in much the same way language and language learning both have universal characteristics.
If we study about language we also known what are synonym, antonym, hyponymy, prototype, homophone and homonymy, polysemy, metonymy, and collocation.
v  Synonym is two or more words with very closely related meanings,
Examples: big-large, smart-clever
v  Antonym: two forms with opposite meaning. Antonym is the sense relation that exists between words which are opposite in meaning.
Examples: male-female, true-false
v  Hyponymy: is a less familiar term to most people than either synonymy or antonym, but it refers to a much more important sense relation. When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hyponymy.
Examples: colors (red, white, black), things (tables, chair, blackboard)
v  Prototype: the idea of the characteristics instance of a category.
Examples: apple of the fruits
                 Salmon of the fish
v  Homophone: is a word that sounds exactly like another word, but has a different meaning and a different spelling.
Examples: Briton-Britain, Hanger-Hangar, Hordes-Hoards
v  Polysemy: a word or phrase with multiple meanings.
Examples: foot (of person, of bed, of mountain)
Head (of body, on top of a glass or beer, person at the top of a company or department).
v  Metonymy: the relatedness of meaning found in polysemy is essentially based on similarity. (Hollywood : American cimena)
v  Collocation: is two or more words that often together.
Examples: have a holiday, waste time, come early etc..

Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.
Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.
It also studies how language
varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables, e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc., and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. As the usage of a language varies from place to place (dialect), language usage varies among social classes, and it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies.


Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.[1]
Social language codes
Basil Bernstein, a well-known British socio-linguist, devised in his book, 'Elaborated and restricted codes: their social origins and some consequences,' a social code system which he used to classify the various speech patterns for different social classes. He claimed that members of the middle class have ways of organizing their speech which are fundamentally very different from the ways adopted by the working class
The social aspects of language were in the modern sense first studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in the 1930s, and also by Gauchat in Switzerland in the early 1900s, but none received much attention in the West until much later. The study of the social motivation of language change, on the other hand, has its foundation in the wave model of the late 19th century. The first attested use of the term sociolinguistics was by Thomas Callan Hodson in the title of a 1939 paper.[2] Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK.



References
2.      ^T. C. Hodson and the Origins of British Socio-linguistics by John E. Joseph Sociolinguistics Symposium 15, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, April 2004
3.      ^ Paolillo, John C. Analyzing Linguistic Variation: Statistical Models and Methods CSLI Press 2001, Tagliamonte, Sali Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation Cambridge, 2006

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