Thursday, January 26, 2012

Titin Sumiati


Titin Sumiati
                                                                                                Class : 3c
                                                                                                Npm  : 10211210354

PREFACE
Assalamu’alaikum warohmatullahi wabarokatuh
     Praise be to Allah SWT of his grace and gift that i can finish this work. This paper can be completed by way of summarizing from several sources. This paper discusses and reviews about “ TEACHING SPEAKING  
       This paper is presented simply and the purposes in this paper is guided the students to realize and understand clearly and accurately. Finally, over all of the preparation this paper, i realize tere are still many shortcomings in thgis paper. I hope that the criticisms and suggestions for the mistakes in other to repair and improve this paper.
       I hope this paper provides the benefits for me especially, and for the studentgenerally.

                                                                                    Bogor, 09 january 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Complie
ABSTRAC
       Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication. In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to speacific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation. The goal of teaching speaking skill is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make them selves understood, using their current profiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and culture rules that apply in each communication situation. The teaching speaking is one of the varieties of english language speech models will help to broaden your range of listening comprehension as well as aid in rounding out your pronunciation of connected speech elements. These are a slew of actors and actresses with noteworthy speech in english language that can have you speaking like a native in very short order. There are also, unfortunately, some whose speech is more reminiscent of something the cat drug in.

CHAPTER 1
       INTRODUCE   
       Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication. In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to speacific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation. The goal of teaching speaking skill is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make them selves understood, using their current profiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and culture rules that apply in each communication situation. The teaching speaking is one of the varieties of english language speech models will help to broaden your range of listening comprehension as well as aid in rounding out your pronunciation of connected speech elements. These are a slew of actors and actresses with noteworthy speech in english language that can have you speaking like a native in very short order. There are also, unfortunately, some whose speech is more reminiscent of something the cat drug in.
CHAPTER 11
TEORITICIAL BACKGROUND

a.       How to teaching speaking
A new teacher who has been observing some of my classes lately as part of her ESL teacher training asked me this question the other day: “How do I teach speaking?”
At first i thought it was a joke question, because to me the answer seemed so simple, but when i realized that is was a serious question, i had to stop and think about if for a second. At first glance, teaching speaking simply involves providing your students with as many chances to speak as is possible sometimes in a controlled context, ans sometimes in a free context.
The first thing to keep in mind is that when we are helping our language students learn to speak english, we are not actually teaching them to speak. Unless they are infants, they already know how to do that. What are really helping them with falls into the three categories.
1.      Improving fluency ( speaking smoothly)
2.      Improving pronounciation ( saying words properly)
3. improving enunciation (saying words/phrases clearly – i think this includes word and sentence intonation)
            Some would say that vocabulary, grammar, and cultural usage also fall into how we teach speaking, but i’d sat that while they are critical, they are not only in the domain of speaking. Speaking is about using our mouth and vocal cords to make sounds that people understand as languages. It certainly involves other elements like grammar and vocabulary, but they aren’t the core of it. So, back to the main question of how to teach speaking. Let’s look at each of the three elements i mentioned above
Improving Fluecny
            Fluency comes from practice – plain and simple. Hoe ever it needs to be practice that involves extended use of the languages and use extended sentences. You can not build fluency by repeating single words or short phrases. Fluency at its heart relates to being able to speak for longer periods of time in a smooth way. Broadly speaking, here are a few things that can help build fluency:
1.      Speeches or presentations
2.      Group discussions
3.      Role plays
4.      Negotiations and debates
5.      Interviews and meetings
6.      Chatting in small groups

Improving Pronunciation
            Pronunciation 1) tons of native speaker input and 2) tons of speaking b the learner with native speakers. However, practice and lessons that target specipic trouble areas an make a huge difference in a student’s ability to deal with issues in pronunciation.
1.      Working on specific vowels
2.      Working on trouble consonant  (e.g. th for french speaker)
3.      Working on understanding movement and location of mouth and tongue when making sounds

Improving Enunciation
            Enunciation is speaking clearly – perhaps better understood by its opposite whice is mumbling or slurring words. Enunciation is a very important aspect of speaking in that poor enunciation can make someone almost imposible to understand. Again improvements in enunciation come from exposure to native speaker, and plenty of natural practice. Of course focused work targetting problem areas can help a grate deal as well. Things that can be done tu help with enunciation include:
1.      Focused work on trouble words combinations
2.      Working on reductions (want to -> wanna)
3.      Working on sentence level stress points
4.      Working on words level stress points (e.g. differences between noun/verb forms of same word record/record)
5.      Working on sentence level intonation patterns
            As you may have noticed i haven’t provided any specific lesson ideas on how to teach speaking. There are literally hundreds of different activities that you can use in myriad different situations. There isn’t one right way, or even one right sequences. Just be sure to give your students plenty of time for talking freely, suplement this with targeted exercise and practice, and actively encourage your students to listen to and speak with as many native speakers as they possibly can on a reg
b. Four Objectives for the Session:
1.                  Convincing the students that there is sufficient support and facilities available to complete their film project (they will be able to use the cameras that are available from the IATL Media Suite)
2.                  Show them how they can (and must) analyzed the feasibility of a proposed film. I played a series of films from the Media Suite show reel, demonstrating a variety of techniques and film making tricks. The complexity, required skills of spotting the small details that can make a big differences – for examples, techniques that can alleviate or avoid the problem of getting good quality sounds
3.                  I introduced the basic technique of storybosrding in power point (or keynote). I reomended that they onstruct their film as a storyboarding  built from a series of slides, with each slide representing a sequence (or sometimes with more granularity a shot) in the movie. The slides might initially contain lost of text informatio, out ling what the scene will achieve. The text then gets progressivelly replaced by or shifted into scripts and images. This can be used as a lo-fi prototype2 for the film. Scripth can be written and rehearsed using the slideshow. The movie can be analyzedfor sound construction, reative effect and feasibility, and turned into a workable project ( for example with a schedule). I recommended that they try to get on location, take representative still images, and add them to the slides in the storyboard. From having a good storyboard in power point, they could export this into iMovie or Screen flow and start replacing slides with edited footage and voice over (they may even wish to keep some of the slides)
4.                  Finally, after a short break, we did a pitching and catching session.
            This is all good fun, and perhaps developed the social – professional bonds within the Grid Advisor team further, but i also think it provides some very significant benefits to the capabilities of the advisors (as advisors and as students). The film making discipline (as described above, as well as further elements) provides an excellent and reliable framework in which we can manage risky, challenging and relatifely unpredictable activities.4 Both storyboarding and pitching provide effective means for generating ideas, testing them, and refleting upon the proess. For example, during the presentation of the pitches (itself a highly entertaining activity), at several points partiipant questioned the seriosness and appropiatenes of their responses to the brief. This was a metter of contention to which the whole groupe achieved a delicate consensus. The storyboards will go on to provide a tangible and testable point of reference in many ways (including the reality checks of feasibility, contention and reflection is, i belive, the most veluable use to which we can put a learning technology.
            In this particular case, there is a second level of benefit. Each of these students will advise many other students during their work at the Learning Grid. They will be able to cascade these skills and approaches. At two points during the session, i paused to encourage the advisors to reflect upon how these film making techniquesmay be of use in different creative activities, suh as essay writing and seminar presentations. I referenced work that i have done with Nicoleta Cinpoes of Worcester University, using similar techniques to help english departement undergraduates to write and improve presentation (using similar iterative power point storyboarding technique, but with them aim of creating a power point presentation). Hopefully, we will start to see these idease spreading.
            Using movies as a teaching aid: Wwe have all used movies or portions of them to anhance the learning of a particular historical era in our courses. Either we assign them as homework or we actulally show them in our getting the correct understanding and knowledge we belive that our students are getting the orrect understanding and knowledge but a recent study by Andrew Butler showsus that this strategy can be highly ineffective. Because some ideas and concepts are patently wrong in videos/movies, students learn the incorrect information and correcting these errors is very difficult. What are we to do ?
            A film, also called a movie or motion ficture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photograpich images by cameraas, or by creating using images by animation techniques or visual effect. The process of film makin ghas developed into an art form and industry.
            Film ara cultural actifats created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertaintmen and a powerfull method for educating – or indoctrinating – citizens. Teh visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have beome popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer.
            Film are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion thet motion is occurring. The viewer can’t see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, where by the eye retains a visual images for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewer perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.
            The origin of the name “film” come from the fact that photograpich film (also called film stock) has historically the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many oder terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photo –  play and flick. A common name for film in the united states is movie, while in Europe the ter m film is preferred. Additional term for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema and the movies.

CHAPTER III
FINDING DATA

a.      Avtive Teaching Speaking
            These ativiting may include imitating (repeating), answering verbal cues, interative convertation, or an oral presentation. Most speaking activities inherently practice listening skill as well, such as when one student is given a simple drawing and sits behind another student, facing away. The firts must be give instruction to the second to reproduce the drawing. The second student asks questions to clarify unclear instructions, and neither can look at each other page during the activity. Information can gaps also commonly used for speaking practice, as are surveys, discussions, and role – plays. Speaking ativities abound: see the ativities and further resources sections of this guide for ideas.

b.      Conversation
Interaction desribes a range of processes. A previous “on modeling” article presented models of interaction based on the internal capacity of the systems doing the interacting. At one extreame. There are simple reactive system, such as a door that open when you step on a mat or a searh engine that return result when you submit a query at the other extreame in conversation. Conversation is a progression of exchanges a mong participants. Each participant is a “learning sysytem”, that is, a sysytem that changes internally as a onsequence of experience. This higly complex type interaction is also quite powerfull, for conversation is the means by wich existing knowledge is conveyed and new knowladge is generated.
We talk all the time, but we’re usually not aware of when conversation work, when it doesn’t, and how to improve it. Few of us have robust models of conversation. This article addresses the question: what is conversation ? How can conversaaation be improved ? And, if convesrtation is important, why don’t consider conversation explicitly when we design for interaction ? this article hopes to move practice in that direction. If, as this forum has often argued, models can improve design, we further ask, what models of conversation are useful for interation design ?
We begin by constrasting “conversation” with “communication” in a specific sense. We then offer a pragmatic but not exhaustive model of the process of conversing and explore how it is usefull for design.


















CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION

Speaking english is the main goal of many adult learners. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. Those who are risk – takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkative, but with many errors that could become hard – to – breaks habits. Conservative, shy student may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their english often contains fewers errors and they will be proud of their english ability. It’s a matter of quantity vs. Quality, and neither approach is wrong. However, if the aim of speaking is communication thate does note require perfect english, then it makes sense to encourage quantity in your classroom. Breake the silece and gate student communicating with whatever english then can use, correct or not, and selectifelly address errors that block communications. Speaking lesson often tie in pronuciation and grammar (discussed elsewhere in this guide), which are necessary for effective oral communication. Or a grammar or reading lesson may incorporate a speaking activity. Either way, your students will need some preparations before the speaking task. This includes introducing the topic and providing a model of the speech they are to produce. A model may not apply to discussion – type activities, in which case students will need cleare and specific instructions about the task to be accomplished. Then the student will practice with the actual activity.

Refeerences

1For a good oferview of the Learning Grid approach to collaboration, see: Conaghan and Watts, “5 Steps to Greate Collaborations”, knowladge centre web site, http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/alumni/knowledge/themes/01/collaboration/ [accessed 16/01/2011]

2Kelley, David “Prototyping is the Shorthand of Design” in Design Management Journal, Vol 12, No. 3, Summer 2011.

3Elsbach, Kimberley “How to Pitch a Brillian Idea” in Hardvard Business Review, October 2003.

4Morley, E & Silver, A “Film Director’s Approach to Managing Creativity” in Harvard Business

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