Monday, January 23, 2012

Ira Aprianti

Ira Aprianti
Class    : 3c
Npm    : 10211210374
Subject : writing in professional contex 2

Many children are who cope perfectly well with the world and school in every  other respect might show little progress in learning. Most of the teacher may come across the children who excel in dance or music or some other curricular activities. But on enquiring their academic performance, the teacher may complain about their poor performance in academic activities. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a language difficulties. This leads to learning disabilities.
Learning disabilities can be lifelong condition, that in some cases affect many parts or human’s life such as, work, daily routines, family life and sometimes even friendships and recreation in some people, many overlapping disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on other areas of their lives. However this paper deals about the writing disabilities among school children’s.

Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium throught the use of  a set of sign or symbols (know as a writing system). It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and non – symbolic preservation of language via non – textual media, such as magnetic tape audio. Writing most likely begin as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, (citation needed) and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transaction in a permanent form. In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica writing may have evolved through calendrics and a political necessity for recording histrocal and environment events. Writing more particularly , refers two things: writing as a noun, the thing that is written; and writing as a verb, which designates the activity of writing. It refers to the inscription of characters on a medium, thereby forming words, and larger units of language, know as texts. It also refers to the creation of meaning and the information thereby generated in that regard, linguistic (and related sciences) distinguishes between the written  language and the spoken language. The significance of the medium by which meaning and information is conveyed is indicated by the distinction made in the arts and sciences. For example, while public speaking and poetry reading are both type of speech, the formers is governed by the rules of rhetoric and the latter by poetics. A person who composes a message or story in form of text is generally known  as a writer or an author. However , more spcipic designation exist which are dictated by the particular nature of the text such as that of poet, essayist, novelist, playwright, journalist, and more.

A translator is a specialized multilingual writer who must fully understand a message written by somebody else in one language; the translator’s job is to produce a document of faithfully equipment message in a completely different language. A person who transcribes of produces text to deliver a message authored person is known as a scribe, typist or typesetter. A person who produces text with emphasis on the aesthetics’ of glyphs is known as a calligrapher or graphic designer.
Writing is also a distinctly human activity. Such writing has been spectaculatevely designated as coincidental. At this point in time, the only confirmed writing in existence is of human origin.
I.     How to teach creative writing to children
Crative writing involves more than putting words togheter to form sentences. A good writer carefully selects words, plan the storyline, developes strong characters and revises and edits his or her work. Teach creative writing with the use of the six traits, peer conferences, prompts, mini – lessons and graphic organizers.
a.       Start with  the six traits of writing : ideas, organization, voice, word choice sentence fluency and conventations. These six traits provide a way to assess students’ writing. When students understand the traits, they know what is expected of their writing. Using and teaching the traits gives you  a way to provide specific feedback  abouh each student’s skills and needs. Begin each class with an engaging prompt, these prompt could be used for short stories, journaling or oral stories.
Vary the types of prompts. You could us famous quetos painting photographs, comic strips, passages from novel, poems, story starters or anything else students migh relate to.
b.      Teach students how to hold peer conferences with each other during these evaluation, students read each other’s writing and give feedback. Model or script an effective, valuable conferences for the class to see. Vary ho the partners or groups are organized; choose a friend, techer’s choise, student to the left, etc. give students a sheet of question to ask each other and turn in for a greade or credit. Questions could include: what is your favorite part of this story? Is there anything that is confusing to you, if so what ?
II.   The material when teaching writing for children
Teaching creative writing to children is fun and rewarding . kids naturaly love to hear stories read to them. As parent many time our children fall to sleep while being read to.
Teacher can build a stimulating creative writing program in the classroom by giving the children a desire to write. Here are 3 steps to start a crative writing program.
a.       Small beginning. Start out by finding common topics to the children in the room. Parents. Grandparents and pets are usually good examples. Have the students write 5 sentences about the topic. These can fictional and in story form.
b.      Dictation. You can gets a tape recorder and one by one let the students dictate a story to you. You might find it easier to do without a tape recorder if you can write or type past enough. On another day you or the child can read the story out of loud to the class. This help the studens start to connection  with hearing stories and making themp up.
c.       Word processor. Kids take to computers very quickly and most of your student are probably already familiar with them. If you possible. Using a word processor is much easier than writing by hand and so the writing will be easier. At first do not be goo concerned with grammar, punctuation and spelling. After awhile you can graduality start showing the students how to make capital letter and use some of the grammar and spelling tools offered in most word processor.

III.        The problem of teaching writing for the children
Sometimes the reason children dislike writing isn’t abouth penmanship. And the problem for teacher is jmost kids at an early age jug don’t like to write. How excited can you be when you know your entire class is going to dislike the assignment? Ehre are a varety of reason kids don’t write well. Perhaps we should clarify that statements because writing well and writing legiby are different thing. Writing well is … well… not easy. Writing legibly – that’s just takes times and patience.
Writeen language is a highly complex form of communication. It is both skills and a means of self expression. It integrates visual, motor and conceptual abilities and is a major means throught which student’s demonstrate their knowledge of advanced academic subjects. The writing skill includes competence in writing, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization, and studying, making sound – letter correspondences knowing the alphabet and distinguishing ane leteer from another;
In school, the writing skill usually begins in kindergarten or first grade. Written expression reflect a person’s level of comprehension, concept development, and abstraction. It is how we organize our ideas to convey a point.
Written expression requires skills in three major areas such as handwriting, misspelling, grammatical inaccuracies, and r organization can make it difficult for a reader to understand the meaning of a written piece. Thus, and effective writers and skilled enough in these three major areas or written expression to communicate with minimal misunderstanding.
The learning disabled stdents are deficient in writing skills. Moran (1981) found that learning disabled and low achieving children in primary schools are performed on formal features of writing; however, the low achieves made fewer spelling error . smith (1981) notes that learning disabled children need direct, concentrated instruction to become proficient in written communication. Hence, writing problem of the children have to be consired by the teacher as well as parents, since the writing problem’s affect their learning process and academic achievements.
IV.        The exercise of teaching writing or children
Student may be stalled by other language arts skills, such as vocabulary, penmanship, spelling, or grammar. Sometimes holding a pencil is difficult or actually hurts. These type of skills often get confused with learning to write fiction, non – fiction reports, and crative writing. All the other lessons are important to learn as well, but perhaps at a different time kids may learn to like storytelling, character development, and inventing plots with a little encouragement.
v  Here are 5 easy games to teach non –writers to think like writers. Try them with potential writer and get the ideas flowing
Play a story – go – round game to learn language plot skills
Play this little game with two or more players.
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One player starts a story with one sentence. The next add another sentence. The story keeps building until everyone is laughing hysterically or the story comes to an end.
For example :
(1st person) “Once upon a time a lion was walking along and saw a banana.”
(2st person) “A monkey was about to leaps to grab it, but the lion decided he wanted it more.”
Read on:
·         Writer synonyms for the word said
·         Homeschooling with thematic units
·         Holiday writing & drama for kids
(3st person) “All at once, they both jumped and conked heads” and so on what happens next? Anything !
2.    Improvisation And Skils For Theater Arts Fun To Teach Dialog, Plot, And Characters
Putting on impromptu skills encourages creative thinking in fun way. This is a common theater arts game. Pick two characters and an item or situation (for instance, a clown, a grumpy man and a bucket). The kids make up the (imaginary) setting and the dialog and act out a scene. More characters may be added for more students.
3.    Read an unfamiliar book aloud to teach storytelling skils
Stop at some point and see what the student(S) think might happen  next. Encourage thinking of logical and crazy ideas, alike
4.    Make cool journals or blank books to encourage writing
Ofter lots of types of paper, sticker, glue, or whatever there is at hand. Having a special book made all on their own many encourage a child to write, draw. Or use theit imagination in their creative way.
5.    Play a character inventing game to learn characters skills
This will work with any number of students.
The first person a trait (“he’s a boy) and each students or turn adds number description (“he’s purple hair”) (“he’s rarely talks to anyone.”) …. Keps going for a while until a character develops. For extra fun, have each child draw  what he or she thinks the character looks like.
For more ideas, see synonym for the word “said”, tech writing without handwriting and getting kids writing published.

6.    Newspaper story – a great way to get your kids writing is to make use of your daily newspaper;
·         Find a newspaper article or magazine article that may be or interest to your children. Get them to write more about the caracther of the artcle. What happned to them ? what didi they do afterwards?
·         Or try the same thing just using headlines cut from the newspaper.cut out some headlines and stick them at the top of blank (or lined) sheets of paper. Keep an eye out for realy funny headlines thet you think the kids will like. Ask the childrento write a story to go with the headlines. And don’t forget that all good newspaper need to pictures too.
·         Cut photograph of people from magazine and ask the children to pick two or three of them.
·         Write about who the people are, what their lives are like, and how they might know each other. It would also be fun to place the pictures of people in a geographics location and ask the children to write about what they are doing there,
·         A variation on this themes would be go to go out a park or café and do some people watching. Pick some people and make quick notes about them when you get home.
·         Comic books – these are fun to write (remember to let them read lots of comics as research!) there are several online program for making comic book.

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