Writing in Professional context 2
Language for Deaf and Dumb People
Since the very beginning of formal approaches to deaf education, this development of literacy has been a priority issue. The history of educational initiatives in this area is entwined with the history of prevailing attitudes and practices toward the impact of deafness on the development of deaf children more generally. In particulars, arguments about whether a visual input (reading) can take the place of a diminished auditory input and whether educators should accommodate or seek to ameliorate the effects of the special linguistics characteristics of deaf learners-readers have resulted in a wide variety of practices and perspectives. These varied practices and perspectives continue to have impacts on current educational debate and practice.
Since the very beginning of education of deaf people, a strong view has been held that reading and writing can substitute for diminished capacity to hear and speak.
People who cannot communicate verbally can use other devices, the signal language. These languages use the hands and fingers to form words and sentences. Deaf people can use signals to communicate. Language signal itself there are several kinds, including the well-known American signal language and English language signals. because hemisfir superior right to handle tasks associated with the design and visual patterns, then we expect that also take care of this hemisfir discuss the signal. However, the research has been done, this seems not true. hemisfir deaf people who left had a stroke was also experienced language problems as experienced by people with aphasia Broca or Wernicke's normal. Those who suffer from aphasia Broca difficulty in signaling what you want otherwise. They may be signaling that word or grammatical function of a mess. Of symptoms like this can be concluded that the problem is not with motor function, but on their inability to access the grammar correctly. According Poedjosoedarmo (2001: 169), language is a verbal symbol system the arbitraris, by which community members communicate with each other. Meanwhile, according to Dardjowidjojo (2005: 16), language is a symbol system oral arbriter. Typically used by a language community to communicate and interact between each other, the cultural based on they shared. According Kridalaksana (in Abdul Chaer, 2003: 32), language is a system of sound symbols arbriter. Used by the members social groups to cooperate, communicate, and identify themselves.
Mastery of vocabulary allows a person to speak with correct and well too. In other words, the quality of one's language skills obviously depends on the quality and quantity of its vocabulary. More and more rich vocabulary, the greater the likelihood we are skilled at speaking. Vocabulary is an important element of the language and need to be studied, understood, and understood to be used well and properly. Language acquisition is the process of language acquisition by children naturally on when he learns his mother tongue (native language). Mother tongue is English equivalent for the term native language. Language mother is the first language a child-held or acquired. English for children and the English is the mother tongue. So also when the child was born Indonesia and raised in Boston, and from childhood he wore English, the language English is the language of his mother. Dardjowidjojo, (2005: 243-244) mentions that in general, most experts now view that the child where His first language was also obtained using the same strategy.
The similarity is not only based on human biology and neurology same, mentalistic view but also by stating that the child has been provided with a natural lunch at birth H.R. Myklebust (in Buwana and Cecilia, 2000: 40), suggests that the language acquisition of children who heard came from the experience or situation with the baby with her mother and other people who mean him in its immediate environment. Children are not taught the words and then were told it means, but through experience he learns to connect between experience and language symbols batini (inner language). Only after that, children begin to understand the relationship between language symbols with objects or events that happened, and formed receptive language of children. After the language formed somewhat receptive, children begin to express themselves through the hearing. In general, children with hearing impairment have a difference with children to hear. The cause is physical, emotional tendencies, and intellectual characteristics.
Children with hearing impairment in its development get constraints that affect personal and adjustment especially the effects of self-less state hearing. Lack of hearing influence the process of communication, understanding, speaking, reading and language. As a child with normal intelligence and speech organ, although impeded his hearing, they can speak. In acquiring language good vocabulary, morphological structure, and syntactic structure, they have own characteristics than children who have normal hearing. Deaf Children will learn to understand speech through the media read speech. Reading the speech is a basic element or inner language system. Inner children with hearing impairment consists of the words as it appears in motion and style as a substitute for language in the form of vowel sounds, consonants, and intonation the child's hearing. Just like the situation of children to hear, in children Deaf expressive language skills (speaking) may only be prosecuted after a receptive language development. Experiences or situations along with parents (Mother) are the first requirement. It could be argued that the input language in large numbers is a requirement before children with hearing impairment are required expresses them through talk. In implementing the social interaction related to language, children never again think about whether words it meets the requirements of phonology, morphology, and syntax.Top of Bottom of Form
In general, children with hearing impairment have a difference with children to hear. The cause is physical, emotional tendencies, and intellectual characteristics. Children with hearing impairment in its development get constraints that affect personal and adjustment especially the effects of self-less state hearing. Lack of hearing influence the process of communication, understanding, speaking, reading and language. As a child with normal intelligence and speech organ, although impeded his hearing, they can speak. In acquiring language good vocabulary, morphological structure, and syntactic structure, they have own characteristics than children who have normal hearing.
SO often deaf people are sidelined even by groups trying to reach out to people with disabilities because of the language barrier. Children living with deafness have been the most affected as it has affected their education. Most deaf adults in Zimbabwe today have poor literacy skills due to late diagnosis, lack of consistent education and poor resources.
Sign language has not yet been officialised and is not taken as one of the formal languages like Shona and Ndebele. It is reported that in every three children who are out of school in Zimbabwe, one is a child with a disability. Although there is no school for the deaf, the Ministry of Education Sport and Culture, in 1990, started Resource units for deaf children at Primary and Secondary schools around the country. These are special classes in ordinary schools where deaf children can learn in small groups with their own teacher. The Government has set up structures to provide education to all children with disabilities.
At a time when alternative communication technology means that, for many people, access to recreational and interpersonal communication is less dependent on literacy skill, specific literacy skills have became even more salient for deaf people. Indeed literacy skills have became central to the daily information and recreation recruitments of this group.
It has also been suggested that the reason for deaf students failing to achieve literacy levels commensurate with their hearing (or even hard of hearing) counterparts relate to inappropriate educational practices or at least to poor teaching.
Thus we have seen about the best way to develop literacy in deaf student are complex and without controversy over the best method of approach. The continuing development of the issue discussed here and in the other articles in this issue and the accommodation of new evidence about the relative efficacy of the different models and approaches to literacy.