Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Jayanti Ningrum

: Jayanti Ningrum
Class               : 3C
NPM               : 10211210034
Subject           : Writing in Profesional Context 2

Table of the vowel sounds in American Pronunciation

When you want to say something, you have to say it with pronunciation. In order that your responders know what you are talking about. To change your pronunciation is only, don’t stop practicing, when you’re tired, you can take a rest but don’t stop. It’s easy if you really go with the process, even if you have to repeat saying a sentences a hundred times just to make you get into the habit. Most of us, usually speak American English for it’s easier and lighter to be imitated. Beside s, there a whole bunch of enjoyable movies, hilarious TV series, beautiful song albums and even sophisticated audio books you can hear to learn to speak American way.
In American English, words are not pronounced one by one. Usually, the end of one word attaches to the beginning of the next word. This is also true for initials, numbers, and spelling. Part of the glue that connects sentences is an underlying hum or drone that only breaks when you come to a period, and sometimes not even then. You have this underlying hum in your own language and it helps a great deal toward making you sound like a native speaker. Once you have a strong intonation, you need to connect all those stairsteps together so that each sentence sounds like one long word.

The dime.
The dime easier.
They tell me the dime easier.
They tell me the dime easier to understand.
They tell me that I'm easier to understand.

The last two sentences above should be pronounced exactly the same, no matter how they are written. It is the sound that is important, not the spelling.

American English vowel sounds
What is a vowel? A vowel is a sound that is created without diverting or obstructing sound. The main vowels are A, E, I, O, U.* Think about these sounds and compare them to the consonants (all the other letters). For instance, B is made by closing the lips (obstructing sound). S is made by lightly pressing the tongue against the top of the mouth (diverting sound). When you speak the vowels, your mouth is open and fairly relaxed.
There are 15 vowel sounds in American English, but only 5 different vowels. That
means the problem with vowels is that they can be written in many different ways, so
the spelling often doesn’t tell us what the sound will be.
To help us know how to pronounce sounds, dictionaries use special characters called
phonetic symbols. Each symbol represents only one sound.
But another problem exists. Different dictionaries may use slightly different phonetic
characters. In this class we will be using the American English phonetic alphabet as
shown in the second column in the chart below.
/i/ as in seat
/ɪ/ as in sit
/eɪ/ as in cake
/ɛ/ as in met
/æ/ as in cat
/ɑ/ as in father
/ə/ as in bun
/ɔ/ as in law
/oʊ/ as in boat
/ʊ/ as in wood
/u/ as in two
/ər/ as in heard
/aɪ/ as in mine
/aʊ/ as  in mouse
/ɔɪ/ as in boy

Two things that all vowel sounds have in common are :
1. they all use the voice to make sounds, and
2. the tongue doesn’t touch any part of the mouth when the sounds are made.

When making vowel sounds we have to ask ourselves :
1. Is the tongue pulled back or pushed forward?
2. Is the tongue high or low in the mouth?
3. Are the muscles of the mouth tense or relaxed?
4. Is the jaw opened or closed?
5. Are the lips pulled back or pushed forward?
6. Is the sound long or short?
It is the combination of the above that makes each sound

English Vowel Sounds
A vowel letter can represent different vowel sounds: hat [hæt], hate [heit], all [o:l], art [a:rt], any ['eni]. 
The same vowel sound can be represented by different vowel letters: [ei] they, weigh, may, cake, steak, rain. 
Open and closed syllables
Open syllable: Kate [keit], Pete [pi:t], note [nout], site [sait], cute [kyu:t].
Closed syllable: cat [kæt], pet [pet], not [not], sit [sit], cut (the neutral sound [ə]).
Vowels and vowel combinations
The vowels A, E, I, O, U, Y alone, in combination with each other or with R, W represent different vowel sounds. The chart below lists the vowel sounds according to the American variant of pronunciation.

American English vs British English

American English is the form of English used in the United States. It includes all English dialects used within the United States of America. British English is the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Differences between American and British English include pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary (lexis), spelling, punctuation, idioms, and formatting of dates and numbers.
What is it?: American English and British English
American English is the form of English used in the United States. It includes all English dialects used within the United States of America.
British English is the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom.
Pronunciation differences:
Some words pronounced differently in the languages are Methane, Interpol
Some words pronounced differently in the languages are Methane, Interpol
Spelling differences:
flavor, honor, analyze etc.
flavour, honour, analyse etc.
Title differences:
Mr. , Mrs.
Mr, Mrs
Different meanings:
ace, amber etc.
ace, amber etc.

History of British vs American English

The English language was introduced to the Americans through British colonization in the early 17th century and it spread to many parts of the world because of the stength of the British empire. Over the years, English spoken in the United States and in Britain started diverging from each other in various aspects. This led to two dialects in the form of the American English and the British English.

American vs British accent

Prior to the Revolutionary War and American independence from the British in 1776, American and British accents were similar. Both were rhotic i.e. speakers pronounced the letter R in hard. Since 1776, the accents diverged but English accent in America has changed less drastically than accents in Britain.
Towards the end of the 18th century, non-rhotic speech took off in southern England, especially among the upper class; this "prestige" non-rhotic speech was standardized, and has been spreading in Britain ever since.
Most American accents, however, remained rhotic.
There are a few fascinating exceptions: New York and New England accents became non-rhotic, perhaps because of the region's British connections. Irish and Scottish accents, however, remained rhotic.
To be fair, both American and British English have several types of accents and there is no one true American or British accent.

Differences in use of tenses

In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example: I've misplaced my pen. Can you help me find it? In American English, the use of the past tense is also permissible:I misplaced my pen. Can you help me find it? In British English, however, using the past tense in this example would be considered incorrect.
Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in American English include the words already, just and yet.
British English: I've just had food. Have you finished your homework yet? American English: I just had food. OR I've just had food.
I've already seen that film. OR I already saw that film.


Differences in Vocabulary

While some words may mean something in British English, the same word might be something else in American english and vice versa. For example, Athlete in British English is one who participates in track and field events whereas Athlete in American English is one who participates in sport in general
Rubber  in British English: tool to erase pencil markings. Rubber in American English: condom.
There are also some words like AC, Airplane, bro, catsup, cell phone etc. which are common in American English and not used very often in British English. Some words widely used in British English and seldom in American English are advert, anti clockwise, barrister, cat's eye.

Differences in Spelling

There are many words that are spelt differently in both forms of English. Some examples are:
American English spelling
British English spelling

Differences in the use of Prepositions

There are also a few differences between British and American English in the use of prepositions. For example: While the British would play in a team, Americans would play on a team. Another example: While the British would go out at the weekend, Americans would go out on the weekend.

Differences in Verb usage

American and British English may also use a base verb in different manners. For example: For the verb " to dream", Americans would use the past tense dreamed while the British would use dreamt in past tense. The same applies to "learned" and "learnt". Another example of differing past tense spellings for verbs in American and British English is "forecast". Americans use forecast while the British would say forecasted in simple past tense.

Differences in Pronunciation

Some words that are pronounced differently in American vs British English are controversy, leisure, schedule etc. There are also some words like Ax (Axe in British) and Defense (Defence in British) which have the same pronunciation but different spellings in both languages.

Time telling in British vs American English

Both languages have a slightly different structure of telling the time. While the British would sayquarter past ten to denote 10:15, it is not uncommon in America to say quarter after or even a quarterpast ten.
Thirty minutes after the hour is commonly called half past in both languages. Americans always write digital times with a colon, thus 6:00, whereas Britons often use a poin


S.a Puthut,English Garage I ACCESS, Modya Karya, Pare –Kediri, 2009.
PDF. Vowel Sounds English Part I. The American Accent Workshop.

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