Sunday, January 22, 2012

Iim Rohimah ;

Name : Nur Amaliah Kamil Class :3 B NPM : 10211210826 How to distinguish between Countable noun and Uncountable noun Every statement is a combination of words, and every statement says something to communicate information. The simplest possible kind of statement, for example, Dogs bark - has two kinds of words in it. It has a what word, dogs, and a what happens word, bark. These kinds of words are the most basic parts of any statement. If a person only says dog, no statement is made, and no information is conveyed. A sound is made that calls to mind a common, four-footed animal, but nothing regarding it is learned. The what words are called nouns. They tell what is being talked about. They are identifying words, or names. Nouns identify persons, places, or things. They may be particular persons, places, or things: Michael Jackson, Reykjavik, World Trade Center. Or they may be general nouns: singer, town, building . Concrete nouns indicate things that can be seen such as car, teapot, and potato. Abstract nouns denote concepts such as love, honesty, and beauty. Besides nouns and verbs there are other kinds of words that have different functions in statements. They are pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, articles, prepositions, and a very few words that can be called function words because they fit into none of the other categories. All of these kinds of words together are called parts of speech. They can just as well be called parts of writing because they apply to written as well as to spoken language. Nouns can be particular or general: the house, a house. The words the and a articles, or, in more technical terms, determiners. A house can be any house, but the house is a quite definite building. When a noun begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u, and, occasionally, y) the indefinite article a becomes an for the sake of easier pronunciation - an apple, an elephant, an orange. Sometimes an is used before words that start with h, especially if then is silent: an honorary degree. If the h is sounded a is the standard form: a hotel. Nouns can be singular or plural in number: cat, cats. In some cases -es is added to make nouns plural: dress, dresses. Some nouns change their forms in the plural, without adding an s but by changing or mutating a vowel: foot, feet; man, men; mouse, mice; goose, geese. Some nouns do not change at all in the plural: sheep, fowl. There are also group nouns, called noun phrases. This means that two or more nouns, or a noun and an adjective, are put together to form what amounts to, or works like, one noun: football stadium, rock concert, orange tree. In each case certain nouns - football, rock, orange - are attached to other nouns, and each modifies or describes the second noun in some way to convey a different kind of object. A football and a football stadium are two entirely different things, though they both have to do with the same game. Some nouns are one-of-a-kind names: Suez Canal, Elvis Presley, Empire State Building. Also called proper nouns, they are capitalized to set them off from general nouns. Sometimes adjectives (words that describe nouns) are also capitalized. This normally happens when the adjective is made from a proper noun, especially a place or person:American literature, English countryside, Elizabethan theatre. Many introductions to English grammar for schoolchildren are to blame for presenting this common-proper distinction as if it were very straightforward - by referring only to well-behaved kinds of proper noun, such as personal names or the names of cities, rivers and planets. In such introductions the distinction is introduced chiefly to lead onto instruction about the use of capital letters in writing such nouns. Nouns are used in different ways: The dog barks. The man bit the dog. In the first case, dog is the actor, or the one that initiates the action of the verb. In the second, dog is acted upon. In The dog barks, dog is the subject of the verb. In the other sentence, dog is the object of the verb. Sometimes a noun is the indirect object of a verb: He gave the dog a bone. Bone is the direct object; it is what was given. Because it was given to the dog, dog is considered the indirect object of the action. Nouns can also be objects of prepositions - words like to, in, for, and by - so the above sentence could read: He gave a bone to the dog. The words to the dog are called a prepositional phrase. Some verb forms take nouns as objects: Drinking milk is good for you. In this sentence, milk is the object of the verbal form drinking. Such a combination of verb and noun is called a verbal phrase. Nouns can show possession: The dog's collar is on the table. The collar is possessed, or owned, by the dog. All possession does not indicate ownership, however. In The building's roof is black, the roof is on, but not owned by, the building. Adding an apostrophe and an apostrophe a noun shows possession ('): the cat's tongue, the woman's purse. If the noun is plural or already has an s, then often only an apostrophe need be added: the mothers' union (that is, a union of many mothers). The word of may also be used to show possession: the top of the house, the light of the candle, the Duke of Wellington. In linguistics, a noun is a member of a large, open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition (or put more simply, a noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing or abstract idea). Lexical categories are defined in terms of how their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language. In English, nouns may be defined as those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase. Types of Nouns There are many different types of nouns. In fact, grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types, including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun (also called the count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common, abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or collective. Countable nouns are nouns which can be calculated, which may indicate the quantity or amount, for example noun pen can be counted one, two, or three pens. Examples of nouns that can be calculated: cat, dog, man, baby, person, animal, bottle, box, coin, cup, plate, table, chair, bag, glass, books, house, etc. Objects that are all around us generally are objects that can be calculated. Examples of countable nouns in the sentence: - We Could see a ship in the distance. - I have two brothers, John and Mark. - I've got a problem with the car. - Do you like these photos? - I'm going out for five minutes. Uncountable nouns is (also called mass nouns) the opposite of countable nouns, nouns that can’ be calculated, for example noun water. Noun can’t be said to be a water or water two, but more appropriately used in conjunction with other nouns that can be calculated, for example a glass of water or two glass of water. The concept of a "mass nouns" is a grammatical concept and is not based on the innate nature of the object that the noun refers to. For example, "seven chairs" and "some furniture" could refer to exactly the same objects, with "seven chairs" referring to them as a collection of individual objects but with "some furniture" referring to them as a single undifferentiated unit. However, some abstract phenomena like "fun" and "hope" have properties which make it difficult to refer to them with a count noun. Classifiers are sometimes used as count nouns preceding mass nouns, in order to redirect the speaker's focus away from the mass nature. For example, "There's some furniture in the room" can be restated, with a change of focus, to "There are some pieces of furniture in the room"; and "let's have some fun" can be refocused as "Let's have a bit of fun". In English, some nouns are used most frequently as mass nouns, with or without a classifier (as in "Waiter, I'll have some coffee" or "Waiter, I'll have a cup of coffee"), but also less frequently as count nouns (as in "Waiter, we'll have three coffees.") Examples of nouns that can’t be calculated: sand, water, rice, sugar, cheese, tea, coffee, advice, assistance, fun, money, music, art, love, etc. Examples of uncountable nouns in the sentence: - Can I have some water? - Shall We sit on the grass? - The money is much better in my new job. - I love music. - Would you like some coffee? Consider a few notes about countable and uncountable nouns below. Much and many equally mean a lot, commonly used to express the amount of the countable and uncountable nouns. Many are used for countable nouns and is preceded it, while much is used for uncountable nouns. Example: - How many years have you lived in Surabaya? - She did not have much fun at the Tunjungan Plaza. - I have not got many pens. - I have not got much rice. Number and amount have the same meaning as the amount or number. Number is used for countable nouns, while the amount for uncountable nouns. Example: - My teacher Gives me a large number of assignments. - My teacher Gives me a large amount of homework. - We have been friends for a number of years. -They give us an amount of money. Few and little has the same meaning is a little bit. Few used for countable nouns, whereas little is used for uncountable nouns. Example: - The party has A Few Attended by men. - There is only a little milk on the table. - I've got A Few dollars. - I've got a little money. - Few people Understand the difference. Fewer and less have the same meaning is a little bit. Fewer is used for countable nouns, while less is used for uncountable nouns. Example: - This kind of job you give Will Fewer dollars. - He pays me less money than I thought. - Fewer birds CAME this year. - Doctors recommend eating less salt. Some and any have the same meaning ie some, commonly used to denote the number of indeterminate on countable nouns (plural) or uncountable nouns. Example: - I've got some money. - Have you got any rice? - I've got some dollars. - Have you got any pens? Countable nouns can be singular or plural form. - My cat is playing. - My cats are hungry. Countable nouns are singular can be preceded by the words this, that, every, each, either, and Neither, whereas the plural is usually preceded by these words, Those, some, any, enough, and the zero article. See also notes and examples above. Generally, uncountable nouns can not be made into a plural, unless it is accompanied by other types of words. - There are new wines being introduced every day. - The waters of the Atlantic are much warmer this time of year. - The Dutch are famous for Their cheeses. Countable nouns can be preceded by a, an (indefinite article) for the singular and the (definite article) for the singular or plural. If the form is singular countable nouns, then the use of words like a, an, the, my, this, etc.. should be used. - I want an orange. (Can’t say I want orange.) - Where is my bottle? (Can’t say Where is bottle?) However, if the plural form of countable nouns, the noun it can stand alone: - I like Oranges. - Bottles can break. Sometimes uncountable singular nouns which eventually also be treated using a singular verb. - This news is very important. - Your luggage looks heavy. Indefinite article a, an is not commonly used in uncountable nouns. - A piece of news (not a news) - A bottle of water (instead of a water) - A grain of rice (not a rice) So, should be given descriptive words in front of him. Consider these other examples. - There has been a lot of research into the Causes of this disease. - He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview. - They've got a lot of furniture. - Can you give me some information about uncountable nouns? Uncountable nouns are often used without the article (zero article) - Poetry is beautiful. - Sugar is sweet. - Experience is the best teacher. Uncountable nouns can be preceded by the words some, any, enough, this, that, and much. And because it is not countable nouns which can’t be preceded by these words, Those, every, each, either, and Neither. In studying the grammatical structure countable noun and uncountable noun is Very important , because by knowing the meaning we can find a continuation of what we are going to write next, like deciding to be who will be in use, verbs or words that fit the sentence structure. There are, of course, many additional uncountable nouns in English. If you are unsure of any particular noun, you can use a dictionary for learners of English. For instance, both Longman's Dictionary of American English and Longman's Dictionary of Contemporary English use the symbols [C] and [U] to identify countable and uncountable nouns. The source

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