Sunday, January 22, 2012
Name : Silvi Yanti Class : 3B NPM : 10211210332 Writing In Professional Context 2 Responder : Restu Pratiwi Subur Primary Auxiliary Verb “Be” A. Be as a Main Verb Be is the basic form of the verb wich is usually used in the forms of is, am, are, was, were. Was and were are the past tense form of be. Was is used for the singular form and were is used for the plural form. For example: I was at work before 8 o’clock this morning. Mr. Ruis was planning to take his vacation in July. You and I are best friends. As a main verb, be- the copula- is the most important copula verb in English. Every English sentences must have a verb and it is true even for short sentences. In this case, be has function as the “main verb” in a sentence not as an auxiliary verb. These are some functions of be as a main verb, they are: 1. Be is the verb normally used to denote the existence of, or to give information about a person about a person or thing For example: Gold is metal Rina is student. The dog is in the garden. The roads were rough an narrow. Peter was tall 2. Be is used to express the physical or mental condition For example: He was exited. I am very sad. They are unhappy. 3. With certain adjectives, e.g quite/noisy, good/bad, wise/foolish, it is possible to use the continuous tense form of be, e.g. Mira is being foolish, to imply that the subject is showing this quality at this time. Similarly, “the children are being quite” means that they are playing quietly now, but “the children are quite” might mean that they usually play quite. Other adjectives include: Annoying generous/mean Clever/stupid helpful/unhelpful Difficult Difficult Formal polite Funny optimistic/pessimistic With some of those, the continuous form may imply that the subject is deliberately acting in this way: For example: She is just being polite probably means that she is only pretending to admire you. You are being stupid may mean you are not trying to understand. He is being funny usually means he is only joking. Don’t believe him. 4. Be is used for age For example: How old are you? I am 21 years old. How old is the tower? It is 200 years old. 5. Size and weight are expressed by be For example: How tall are you? What is your weight? How high are you now? 6. Be is used for prices For example: How much is this melon? How much are these shirts? B. Be as an Auxiliary Verb As an auxiliary verb, be has some grammatical functions, they are: 1. To make Present Progressive (be+ing – participle) The present progressive tense is formed by two verbs; BE (is/am/are) and the verb -ING. In present progressive, BE is an auxiliary verb and its has no meaning, but it must be used in present progressive describes activities or events in progress at a particular time, ususally for a limited amount of time. It describes events that are currently in progress, or event that are going to take place in the future and about which the speaker feels quite certain. • Present progressive describing an event For example: I am looking for an employee. She is studying English grammar. • Present Progressive with future time For example: She is coming back tomorrow. I am going with him next week. 2. To make passive voice (be + past – participle) Most passive constructions are formed with the auxiliary be and a past – participle, but some past participles are irregular verbs. The form of passive: be + PAST PARTICIPLE. For example: He is appointed as a head of departement. The package was mailed by Maryam. We are helped by the teacher. This class is thought by John Smith. (Irregular Verb) 3. Be + Infinitive Be + infinitive construction is extremly important and can be used in the following ways: a. To convey orders or instructions. For example: No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police. (No one must leave). He is to stay here till we return (He must stay). b. To convey a plan. For example: She is to be married next month. The experition is to start in a weeks time 4. Was/were + infinitive can express an idea of destiny . For example: They said goodbye, little knowing than they were never to meet again (were destined never to meet) He received a blow an the head. It didn’t worry him at the time but it was to be very troublesome later. 5. Be about + infinitive expresses the immediate future. For example: They are about to start. (they are just going to start/they are on the point of starting). Just can be added to make the future even more immediate. For example: They are just about to leave. He was just about to dive when he saw the shark. 6. Be on the point of + verb-ing has the same meaning as be about + infinitives, but is a shade more immediate. For example: They are on the point of buying the tickets She is on the point of doing her homework.