Sunday, January 22, 2012
Name : Syifa Choirurrizkiyah Class : 3B NPM : 10211210645 Determining the Direct Object English is currently one of the most widely spoken and written languages worldwide, with some 380 million native speakers. Through the global influence of native English speakers in cinema, music, broadcasting, science, and the Internet in recent decades, English is now the most widely learned second language in the world. Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields and occupations, education ministries around the world mandate the teaching of English to at least a basic level. English sentences consist of prediction-something is said, or predicated, about a subject. The sentences may be futher divided according to the function each word has in the subject-predicate relationship. Each of these functions is classified as different part of speech. The words that form the central core of the sentence-around which all the other words “cluster” are the parts of speech known as noun (or pronoun) and verbs; the words that modify the central core are the parts of speech called adjectives and adverb; the words that show a particular kind of connecting relationship between these four parts of speech are called prepositions and conjunctions. The noun is one of the most important of part of speech. Its arrangement with the verb helps to form the sentence core which is essential to every complete sentence. In addition, it may function as the chief or “head” word in many structures of modification. There are six types of nouns to consider: (1) The subject: the person, place, thing or idea that is doing or being something in the clause or sentence (2) the direct object: the noun that receives the action of the transitive verb (3) the indirect object: the noun or pronoun that receives the direct object (4) the predicate nominative: the noun following a linking verb that restates or stands for the subject (5) the object of the preposition: the noun that follows the preposition (6) the object of the verbal: the noun that follows the verbal and "receives" it. When you are learning about sentence structure, one of the first concepts you will need to understand is that of direct and indirect objects. Knowing the object(s) of a sentence will help you identify what the sentence is about and will lay the foundation for you to identify other parts of the sentence. Before talking about direct object, we have to know what the object is. The object is the person or thing affected by the action described in the verb. A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. For example: • He wrote the book. * "book" is the object, created by the action of writing. • I saw the film. * "film" is the object, sensed by the subject seeing it. Types of object Two kinds of objects follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects. • Direct object: Refers to a person or thing affected by the action of the verb. • Indirect object: Refers to a person or thing who receives the direct object So, the definition of direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a "transitive verb" in an active sentence or shows the result of the action. It answers the question "What?" or "Whom?" after an action verb. A simple direct object is only the noun or pronoun, whereas a complex direct object consists of that noun and pronoun and any modifiers that accompany it. For example: • Mary burnt the toast and the eggs. What did Mary burn? - She burnt the toast and the eggs. "toast" and "eggs" are the direct objects Useful method for determining direct objects Another useful method for determining whether a noun or noun phrase acts as the direct object is to attempt to rephrase the sentence in the passive voice. If you can turn the sentence into the passive form, then the direct object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. If the noun or noun phrase is not a direct object, then the sentence will not convert into a passive form. For example: • Active: Todd sang a song. => Passive: A song was sung by Todd. * The direct object, "a song," of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive one. • Active: Ashley became a track star. * "A track star" is not a direct object and thus cannot become the subject in a passive sentence. Examples • She closed the door. * "door" is the direct object because it is directly affected by her action. • Mail the letter and call him * "letter" and "him" are direct objects • King Arthur grabbed his sword. * King Arthur is the subject, because he performs the verb. "Grabbed" is the verb; "his" is a possessive pronoun; the sword is the direct object because the grabbing is performed upon it. Recognize a direct object when you see one. - A direct object will follow a transitive verb [a type of action verb]. Direct objects can be nouns,pronouns, phrases, or clauses. If you can identify the subject and verb in a sentence, then finding the direct object—if one exists—is easy. Just remember this simple formula: SUBJECT + VERB + what? or who? = DIRECT OBJECT Here are examples of the formula in action: • Zippy and Maurice played soccer with a grapefruit pulled from a backyard tree. Zippy, Maurice = subjects; played = verb. Zippy and Maurice played what? Soccer = direct object. • Zippy accidentally kicked Maurice in the shin. Zippy = subject; kicked = verb. Zippy kicked who? Maurice = direct object. Sometimes direct objects are single words like soccer and Maurice; other times they are phrases or clauses. - Direct objects can also follow verbals—infinitives, gerunds, and participles. Use this abbreviated version of the formula: VERBAL + what? or who? = DIRECT OBJECT Here are some examples: • To see magnified blood cells, Gus squinted into the microscope on the lab table. To see = infinitive. To see what? Blood cells = direct object. • Gus bought contact lenses because he wanted to see the beautiful Miranda, his lab partner, more clearly. To see = infinitive. To see who? The beautiful Miranda = direct object. That’s all about how to determine object especially direct object. Keep in your mind that detemining direct object is one of the important things When you are learning about sentence structure cause knowing the object(s) of a sentence will help you identify what the sentence is about and will lay the foundation for you to identify other parts of the sentence.