Thursday, January 26, 2012

Sri Wulan Sari

Sri Wulan Sari
                                                Class    : 3C
                         Npm    :10211210369
                      Final Examination Assignment
             The presentation of material has been reorganized into a more useful and teachable form. It is predicated on the observation and experiences of the authors that most students of English, however well they may speak the language, are not able to write it well without systematic training. This training nearly always needs to begin at the sentence level. Just as interference from the speech pattern of the native language has to be overcome systematically while students are acquiring spoken English, so the interference of the writing habit and conventions associated with the native language has to be overcome by methodical practice in the written form English. It’s also retains its two original components: it is still both a writing text book and a reference grammar, though the proportion has been some what modified in favor of the former.   
            In this substance sentence pattern with intransitive there are forms in each sentences pattern are:
1.      Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb
2.      Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb + Adverb
3.      Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb + Prepositional Phrase
The sentence patterns is introduction of grammatical structures  which students practice by writing them according to formula and then by expanding and combining them in closely controlled, carefully demonstrated ways. In most, sentence practice leads to a suggested paragraph assignment.

1.      An arrangement of repeated or corresponding part, decorative motifs, etc. although the notes seemed random, a careful listener could detect a pattern
2.      A decorative design a paisley pattern
3.      A style various pattern of cutlery 
4.      A plan or diagram used as a guide in making something a paper pattern of a dress
5.      A standard way of moving, acting, etc. traffic patterns
6.      A model worthy of imitation a patterns of kindness
7.      A representative sample
8.      (Engineering / Metallurgy) A wooden or metal shape or model used in a foundry to make a mould
9.      (Military / Firearms, Gunnery, Ordnance & Artillery)
a.       The arrangement of marks made in a target by bullets
b.      A diagram display such an arrangement    
1.1. Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb
Clouds gathered. The sun dimmed. The sky darkened. The wind blew. Dogs ran and growled. Birds cried. Lightning flashed. Thunder sounded. The earth shook and trembled. Trees fell. A hurricane had begun.
The paragraph above is composed of sentences using the simplest sentence pattern in English, noun + verb. Observe the elements of this sentence pattern in the following examples.
Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb
The sun
The sky
The wind
The Earth
A hurricane
Ran and growled
Shook and trembled
Had begun
The noun (subject), verb, or predicate in this and other sentence patterns can be compounded. Study these examples.
Noun + Noun
Verb +Verb
The professor and his colleagues
He and his colleagues
Neither Helene nor her friends
Neither they nor she
Read and study
Lecture and teach
Read or study
Reads or studies

These are example of sentences with compound subjects and compound predicates. The subject part of the sentence is called the noun phrase: the part of the sentence that expresses what is said of the subject is called the verb phrase, or predicate. The noun phrase is made up of one or more nouns, plus modifiers and connectors. The verb phrase is made up of one or more verb, plus modifiers and connectors. In some sentence patterns, it also contains complements and objects.
1.2. Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb + Adverbial (1)
Prof. Ober worked hard today. He has been working at his office all day. Soon he will stop and go home. He will work until about 4:00. Then, he will get in his car and drive home. He may drive fast. He wants to work in his garden for a while before dinner. Then he will dine quietly with his family. After dinner the family may read or listen to music. They may go bowling or go shopping at the nearby supermarket. They rarely go out socially during the week.  
Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb + Adverb
Prof. Ober
Has been working
Will stop
Will drive
Will drive
Will dine
All day

These examples from the preceding paragraph illustration the sentence pattern Noun + Verb + Adverb.
Adverbs normally follow the verb and are of three basic types: Adverbs of manner, adverbs of time, and adverbs of place. A prepositional phrase can be substituted for any of them, as will be seen the next lesson.
Adverb of manner
Alice studies hard.
Mr. Avery drives slowly.
The orchestra played loudly.
Adverbs of manner, like most other adverbs, normally follow the verb. These adverbs explain how the action of the verb is done. Other examples are well, quietly, calmly, happily, quickly, gladly, suddenly, strongly, and angrily. 
Many of these adverbs are formed by adding –ly to adjectives. Examples: correct – correctly, calm – calmly, rapid – rapidly, slow – slowly. If the adjective ends in –y is changed to –I before –ly is added. Examples: noisy – noisily, happy – happily.
Adverbs of place
Prof. Ober went home.
The boat sailed away.
The elevator is going up.
Mr. and Mrs. Ober live here.
Adverbs of place usually answer the question where about the action of the verb, and come after the verb. Common adverbs of place are up, down, here, there, far, near, over there, away, and far away.
Adverbs of Time
He is working now.
He will finish soon.
He can leave then.
Tomorrow Prof. Ober will lecture.
Adverbs of time usually follow the verb; however they may also introduce the sentence for reasons of style or for emphasis. Actually it is possible for almost any adverb to be placed at the beginning of the sentence, but adverbs of time are found in that position more frequently than the other. Some useful adverbs of time are then, next, now, soon, late, and early. Nouns are also used as adverbs of time: Saturday (they will come Saturday); today (they left today); last night (he arrived last night); every day (I study every day). Other examples are next week, the week before last, the day after tomorrow, this afternoon, and tomorrow morning.   
Order of adverbs
Adverbs of these different types can occur together in the same sentence. When this happens, they follow a more or less definite order.

She went
She went
She went
She went
She went
She went







When different adverb types occur together, the order is usually place, manner, Time. The order is not strict, however; both she went gladly there today and she went there today gladly are acceptable combinations. When there are two or there adverbs, the adverb of time is often used at the beginning of the sentence.
She went there gladly today.
Today she went there gladly.
Adverbs of Frequency
There is also a small category of adverbs that normally occur before the main verb, except when the main verb is be. Then these adverbs follow be.
Leilani frequently arrives at the library early and usually stays there most of the day.
She never leaves before noon.
One can often find her among the rare books.
Her friends sometimes worry about her eyes, but they seldom say so to her.
She rarely, if ever, gives them a chance. She’s always at the library.
She sometimes goes to athletic events and dances, but she’s usually too tired to go.
Most of the adverbs in this category mat be moved readily to other positions in the sentence for reasons of style or variety.
He goes to the library often.
But not:
He goes usually.
Frequently, he walks instead of taking the bus.
Seldom does he leave before 4:00.
Occasionally, I go with him.
Notice that these adverbs at the beginning of sentences are followed by a comma except in the case of seldom, rarely, never, which, coming at the beginning of the sentence, cause change in the word order to adverb + auxiliary (or do, does, in the simple present) + subject + main verb.
Rarely can Leilani be found outside the library.
There is a larger category of adverbs that express frequency but which go in the same position as time adverbs in the sentence. If they occur with a regular adverb of time, they come before it. Some examples are constantly, regularly, continually, and repeatedly. Note that daily, weekly, and monthly, are usually used as adjectives. The corresponding adverbs forms are every day, every week, every month.  

The doctor came
She worked

Regularly this year.

Every day this week

1.3. Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb + Adverbial (2)
Fight 891 is on the runway ready for takeoff. The passengers had waited in the airline terminal for one hour. The plane’s departure was announced over the loudspeaker ten minutes ago. They walked to the gate and climbed aboard the plane. Some passengers are travelling for pleasure, while others are going on business. Still others are travelling for family reasons. A few students are returning to their universities. The passengers will fly about three hours. They will arrive at the airport in Phoenix at 6:30. p.m.

Sentence Pattern: Noun + Verb + Prepositional Phrase
Prepositional Phrase
The passengers
The departure

Some passengers


Had waited
Was announced

Are traveling
Are going
Are returning

Will fly
Will arrive
Will land
In the terminal. (place)
Over the loudspeaker.
To the gate. (Place)
A board the plane. (Place)
For pleasure. (reason)
On business. (reason)
To their universities. (Place)
For three hours. (time)
At the airport. (place)
At 6:30 p.m.

There are example from the preceding paragraph on the sentence pattern Noun + Verb + Prepositional Phrase. The prepositional phrases here Function adverbs. They show place (where), manner (how), time (when, how long), and reason or purpose (why).  
Order of Prepositional Phrases Used as Adverbs
Place, Manner, Time
The order for prepositional phrases used as adverb is the same as for simple adverbs: place, manner, time. Prepositional Phrases telling why about the verb (expressing reason) usually follow adverb of place and time. As with adverbs, this order should be regarded as a dependable guide, not as an absolute rule.
Study the prepositional phrase in these sentences.
Prepositional Phrase
Is going
Is going
Is going
Is going
Is going
To Chicago on business
On Saturday on business
To Chicago by train
By train on Saturday
To Chicago by train on Saturday.

Order from the General to the Specific
            When two or more prepositional phrases of the same type (place, manner, time, reason) are used together, the order is usually from the general to the specific.
He lectures on Tuesday at 3:00 (general time, specific time).
At the Beginning of a Sentence
            For variety or emphasis, some prepositional phrases may be used at the beginning of sentences.
On Saturday she is going to Chicago.
In New York I met a famous writer.

As it is part of the central aim of sentence pattern with intransitive verbs to acquaint students with the techniques of written English, considerable attention has been paid, inappropriate places, to emphasizing the differences between the written and the spoken language. Students are occasionally asked to prepare the same assignment for both oral and written presentation. The instructor may wish to put even more emphasis on oral practice of exercises before assigning them as written work. Sentence patterns which students practice by writing them according to formula and then by expanding and combining them in closely controlled, carefully demonstrated ways.

M. Burks George E. Wishon Julia, 1980. Let’s Write English. New York 10020 U.S.A.:  Litton Educational Publishing International.   

            This is designed first of all to give students of English the guided practice necessary to develop a working acquaintance with the sentence patterns of written English in their simple and expanded forms and in the major transformations of those forms. It is hoped that students will develop sensitivity to correct structure and word order through the controlled material presented. This ability to examine their own writing critically will not only greatly assist them in polishing and perfecting writing skill, but should also greatly enhance the students’ reading comprehension. Secondly, it’s designed to help students’ develop the ability to combine sentences into paragraphs, then paragraph into short composition.

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