Sunday, January 22, 2012
Name : Tika Sartika NPM : 10211210347 Class : 3b Subject : Writing in professional context 2 USING A SIMPLE SENTENCE IN COMMUNICATION ….. Use simple sentences to communicate clearly. Use simple sentences make important points. You can used compound sentences to add detail, for example adding justification and further detail to what you are presenting, thus helping people to see the real value. And then summarize in a simple sentence. Example The service is expensive. I love you. We are firing on all cylinders and all of our businesses are working well, with good results all round. This is as good as it gets. (compound sentence with simple summary) Discussion A simple sentence is made up of a single clause. The cat sat on the mat. Simple sentences in communications are generally easy to understand, as they are short and to the point. Too many simple sentences, however, are likely to appear rather simplistic and may end up requiring more words to say what could be said in fewer compound statements. Generally, clean communications makes good use of simple sentences, although compound sentences may also be kept clean by reducing clause size. A final simple sentence after the detail of a compound sentence can summarize the key point and add impact. We need to be careful to distinguish between the kinds of "units" that we produce in writing, especially formal academic writing, and the kinds of "units" that we produce in conversational speech. Sentences in academic writing are usually syntactically "complete" units with full subjects and predicates. On the other hand, conversational speech proceeds with little bits and pieces of language--few people speak in full sentences. Some grammarians and linguists use the term utterance to refer to the units of spoken conversation.They've invented this term as a way to clarify the unit being studied and as a recognition that while both speech and writing use the same basic grammar they are not completely alike in how they use that grammar. For us as ESL/EFL teachers, the distinction between sentence and utterance is important as a reminder that we don't want to teach our students to speak in "sentences." We need to allow for the appropriate units in the appropriate kind of communication. That's why saying "answer in a complete sentence" is such a strange requirement in a spoken grammar activity. You might notice in reading grammar reference materials that grammarians and linguists prefer the term clause to sentence. Of course specialists in any field of study do have an urge to create our own inner-circle vocabulary, using jargon to mark insiders from outsiders. On the other hand, widely used words like sentence can be so vague that they are difficult to use for precise study. Grammarians use clause to refer to both simple sentences and to subordinate clauses. A simple sentence is called an independent clause. The term simple sentence can be confusing because of definitions that many of us have learned that focused on the meaning or content of a sentence. Those misleading definitions said something like "a simple sentence has only 1 main idea." But that definition is just impossible to apply because it's impossible to be sure what "1 idea" is. A simple sentence can be short and with uncomplicated ideas--but a simple sentence can be long and with complicated ideas. Simple Sentences: Subject and Predicate Think of baby sentences: Johnny hungry. Cat run. English sentences are composed of a topic and something said about that topic, commonly referred to as the subject and predicate. SENTENCE = SUBJECT + PREDICATE The subject and predicate are often described as a topic and a comment, what is being talked about (the subject) and what is being said about it (the predicate). Each of these elements is characterized by a combination of three elements or perspectives: Example: • a position or slot within a sentence • a certain form or type of grammatical construction • a certain meaning Thus the subject of a sentence typically • occurs at the beginning of the sentence (position), • consists of a noun phrase (form), and • indicates the topic of the discussion (meaning). The predicate • follows the subject, • starts with a verb indicating an action or state of being, and • conveys a thought about the subject. The surest test of the complete subject in a sentence is to turn a statement into a yes/no question. All men are created equal. Make a yes/no question Are all men created equal. The subject ( all men ) is the part around which the initial question word ( are ) moves. Are All men are created equal. ________ With some sentences you have to make the verb emphatic to form a question—for example, change ran into did run —to pick up the part of the verb that moves forward to make the question. He ran to the store. He doesn’t run to the store. Did he run to the store?. Here the verb did moves around the subject He. A subject and predicate, together, form a simple sentence. As used here, the term "simple" refers to the basic structure of a sentence. Simple sentences can be short or long, and can express simple or complex thoughts and may contain complex constructions, but the basic structure of the sentence is simple. Here are two simple sentences: John ate spaghetti. The boy from Conosha with the funny earring in his left ear devoured a dish of delicious Italian pasta a la Milanese. These two sentences have the same structure: John ate spaghetti. The boy from Conosha with the funny earring in his left ear devoured a dish of delicious Italian pasta a la Milanese. Both are simple sentences from a structural point of view. They both consist of a subject and a predicate indicating what the subject did. They are both composed of two noun phrases and a verb. They both can be reduced with pronouns to He eat it. Note that length alone does not determine structure, although it is often a factor. We are concerned with the complexity of structure, not length. Finally, besides the pronoun test, another test of a simple sentence is that we generally cannot leave any portion of the original sentence out without significantly changing the meaning. Any discussion composed only of simple sentences would seem childish in expression. While simple sentences are useful for emphasis or clarity, as when summing up an argument, simple sentences alone do not allow for expressing complex thoughts. They are not conducive to asserting relationships or qualifying thoughts. To develop a sentence further we have to add stuff. This can be done in one of two ways: • we can simply multiply the elements that are there, or • we can add additional elements. The first instance produces what is known as compound sentences, the second complexsentences. Complex is the more general term. It suggests a degree of additional structure beyond a simple sentence. Compound refers to a specific and limited type of complexity.